Rhetoric and philosophy both constituted the main elements of literary education in the Greco-Roman world of the second century A.D. The present study deals with the relationship between both disciplines in Second Sophistic literature: Did ...
Je pensais, sans doute naïvement, que tous les physiciens contemporains croyaient en l’existence du temps. Après avoir lu cet ouvrage, je commence à en douter. Non seulement parce qu’à plusieurs reprises l’auteur affirme, d’une façon ou d’une autre, que « le message de l’impossibilité relativiste du temps n’est pas encore passé, même chez certains physiciens », , mais aussi parce que la manière très rigoureuse, tout en étant compréhensible pour u..
Dans une perspective néo-thomiste, Jacques Maritain considère qu’un artiste est religieux non par les thèmes qu’il choisit ou la foi qu’il professe, mais lorsqu’il saisit les formes dans les choses et les reconstruit selon la nécessité de sa « subjectivité créatrice ». C’est ainsi que Maritain a pu reconnaître en Chagall le type même de l’artiste religieux. S’il n’a jamais essayé de « christianiser » le peintre, il n’en a peut-être pas été de même avec Raïssa Maritain, surtout lorsque Chagall, (...) à partir de 1938, peint ses grandes crucifixions. Tous deux cependant s’accordent à reléguer l’art « sacré » contemporain, c’est-à-dire, selon eux, l’art présent dans les lieux de culte, au bas d’une assez stricte hiérarchie esthétique. En cela, ils s’accordent avec le dominicain M.-A. Couturier et l’équipe de la revue L’Art Sacré. (shrink)
Dans cet entretien de conclusion, Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond, physicien et épistémologue, professeur émérite de l'Université de Nice, directeur des collections scientifiques aux éditions du Seuil et de la revue Alliage, montre qu'il est faux de penser que les sciences exactes n'ont besoin qu'accessoirement de la langue en raison du degré de leur formalisation, contrairement aux sciences humaines. La conceptualisation en sciences ne saurait se passer de la langue, ni même des langues . Le recours à l'anglais n'est qu'un moyen, nullement (...) une fin en soi - ce que la mondialisation rend de plus en plus évident, au fur et à mesure que la science se décline de plus en plus en hindi, en chinois, ou dans d'autres langues. En refusant d'être plurilingue comme elle l'a été par le passé, la science risque l'aphasie, non seulement linguistique, mais aussi conceptuelle, ce qui n'est pas sans gravité pour la diffusion des connaissances scientifiques à l'échelle aussi bien locale que mondiale.In this interview, conclusion, Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond, physicist and epistemologist, professor emeritus at the University of Nice, director of scientific collections by Seuil and review alloy, shows that it is wrong to think that sciences do not need the language incidentally because of the degree of formalization, unlike the humanities. Conceptualization science can not do without the language or even language . The use of English is a means, not an end in itself - that globalization makes it increasingly obvious, as and as science comes increasingly Hindi, Chinese or in other languages. Refusing to be multilingual as it was in the past, science risk aphasia, not only linguistic, but also conceptual, which is not trivial for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to scale as both local and global. (shrink)
Niedenthal et al's classification of smiles erroneously conflates psychological mechanisms and adaptive functions. This confusion weakens the rationale behind the types of smiles they chose to individuate, and it obfuscates the distinction between the communicative versus denotative nature of smiles and the role of perceived-gaze direction in emotion recognition.
Redish et al. present a compelling, interdisciplinary, unified framework of addiction. The effort to integrate pathological gambling is especially important, but only the vulnerability of misclassifying situations is described in detail as being linked directly to this disorder. This commentary focuses on further developing the comprehensiveness of this framework for pathological gambling using over-fast discounting as an illustrative example.
Nevin & Grace's approach is an interesting and useful attempt to find ways to measure “core” effects of a history of exposure to reinforcement. The momentum analogy makes intuitive sense, and the evidence for its utility is increasing. Several questions remain, however, about how the analogy will fare in the case of concurrent rather than sequential activities, about the use of extinction as a method to test resistance to change, and about the generality of some of the effects.
To what extent do moral judgments depend on conscious reasoning from explicitly understood principles? We address this question by investigating one particular moral principle, the principle of the double effect. Using web-based technology, we collected a large data set on individuals' responses to a series of moral dilemmas, asking when harm to innocent others is permissible. Each moral dilemma presented a choice between action and inaction, both resulting in lives saved and lives lost. Results showed that: (1) patterns of moral (...) judgments were consistent with the principle of double effect and showed little variation across differences in gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, religion or national affiliation (within the limited range of our sample population) and (2) a majority of subjects failed to provide justifications that could account for their judgments. These results indicate that the principle of the double effect may be operative in our moral judgments but not open to conscious introspection. We discuss these results in light of current psychological theories of moral cognition, emphasizing the need to consider the unconscious appraisal system that mentally represents the causal and intentional properties of human action. (shrink)
The abilities to attribute an action to its proper agent and to understand its meaning when it is produced by someone else are basic aspects of human social communication. Several psychiatric syndromes, such as schizophrenia, seem to lead to a dysfunction of the awareness of one’s own action as well as of recognition of actions performed by other. Such syndromes offer a framework for studying the determinants of agency, the ability to correctly attribute actions to their veridical source. Thirty normal (...) subjects and 30 schizophrenic patients with and without hallucinations and/or delusional experiences were required to execute simple finger and wrist movements, without direct visual control of their hand. The image of either their own hand or an alien hand executing the same or a different movement was presented on a TV-screen in real time. The task for the subjects was to discriminate whether the hand presented on the screen was their own or not. Hallucinating and deluded schizophrenic patients were more impaired in discriminating their own hand from the alien one than the non-hallucinating ones, and tended to misattribute the alien hand to themselves. Results are discussed according to a model of action control. A tentative description of the mechanisms leading to action consciousness is proposed. (shrink)
Bilimin ne olduğunun tespit edilmesi ve bilimi sözde bilimlerden ya da bilimsel olmayan alanlardan ayırt edecek ölçütün ne olması gerektiğine yönelik tartışma, bilim felsefesinde sınır çizme sorunu olarak ele alınmaktadır. Bu makalede, öncelikle söz konusu soruna yönelik geleneksel yaklaşımlar incelenmiş ve ardından bu yaklaşımların bilimsel toplulukların doğasına ilişkin özellikleri göz ardı ettiği ortaya konmuştur. Daha önce yapılan çalışmalar bilimi daha çok önermeler, ifadeler ya da salt epistemik bir sistem olarak ele almakta ve bilimsel akıl yürütmenin biçimi ile bilimsel kuramların özelliklerine (...) odaklanmaktadır. Bu tespit çerçevesinde, sunulan çalışmada, bilimsel bir disiplinin asgari olarak iki özellik (yapısal ve kanıta dayalı olması) üzerine kurulması gerektiği vurgulanarak, sınır çizme sorununun çözümüne yönelik önerilen alternatif ölçüt bilimin sosyal yönüne dikkat çekmektedir. Bu bakımdan, makalenin asıl ilgisi, sınır çizme sorununu alternatif bir yolla ele alabilmek amacıyla bilimin ve onun uygulayıcılarının sosyal özelliklerine yönelik tespitleri, sözde bilimin uygulayıcıları ile kıyaslayarak aktarmaktır. Makale, bir disiplinin sözde bilim olarak nitelendirilebilmesi için öncelikle o disiplinin bilimsellik iddiasında bulunması, daha sonra bilimsel topluluk tarafından sürdürülen bir araştırma geleneğine kabul edilmemiş ya da bu araştırma geleneği tarafından terk edilmiş olması gerektiği düşüncesi ile sonuçlandırılmıştır. (shrink)