Results for 'Marc Wilenzik'

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  1. MRCT Center Post-Trial Responsibilities Framework Continued Access to Investigational Medicines. Guidance Document. Version 1.0, December 2016.Carmen Aldinger, Barbara Bierer, Rebecca Li, Luann Van Campen, Mark Barnes, Eileen Bedell, Amanda Brown-Inz, Robin Gibbs, Deborah Henderson, Christopher Kabacinski, Laurie Letvak, Susan Manoff, Ignacio Mastroleo, Ellie Okada, Usharani Pingali, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Hans Spiegel, Daniel Wang, Susan Briggs Watson & Marc Wilenzik - 2016 - The Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard (MRCT Center).
    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The MRCT Center Post-trial Responsibilities: Continued Access to an Investigational Medicine Framework outlines a case-based, principled, stakeholder approach to evaluate and guide ethical responsibilities to provide continued access to an investigational medicine at the conclusion of a patient’s participation in a clinical trial. The Post-trial Responsibilities (PTR) Framework includes this Guidance Document as well as the accompanying Toolkit. A 41-member international multi-stakeholder Workgroup convened by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard University (...)
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  2.  45
    Equal Opportunity or Equal Social Outcome?Marc Fleurbaey - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):25-55.
    John Rawls's work (1971) has greatly contributed to rehabilitating equality as a basic social value, after decades of utilitarian hegemony,particularly in normative economics, but Rawls also emphasized that full equality of welfare is not an adequate goal either. This thesis was echoed in Dworkin's famous twin papers on equality (Dworkin 1981a,b), and it is now widely accepted that egalitarianism must be selective. The bulk of the debate on ‘Equality of What?’ thus deals with what variables ought to be submitted for (...)
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  3. The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species.Marc Ereshefsky - 1992 - Journal of the History of Biology 25 (3):500-501.
     
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  4.  40
    Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals.Marc Bekoff & Jessica Pierce - 2009 - University of Chicago Press.
    Scientists have long counseled against interpreting animal behavior in terms of human emotions, warning that such anthropomorphizing limits our ability to understand animals as they really are. Yet what are we to make of a female gorilla in a German zoo who spent days mourning the death of her baby? Or a wild female elephant who cared for a younger one after she was injured by a rambunctious teenage male? Or a rat who refused to push a lever for food (...)
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  5.  83
    Equality versus priority: How relevant is the distinction?Marc Fleurbaey - 2015 - Economics and Philosophy 31 (2):203-217.
    :This paper questions the distinction between egalitarianism and prioritarianism, arguing that it is important to separate the reasons for particular social preferences from the contents of these preferences, that it is possible to like equality and separability simultaneously, and that some egalitarians and prioritarians may therefore share the same social preferences. The case of risky prospects, for which Broome has proposed an interesting example meant to show that egalitarians and prioritarians cannot share the same preferences, is scrutinized. The levelling down (...)
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  6.  42
    Institutional Logics in the Study of Organizations: The Social Construction of the Relationship between Corporate Social and Financial Performance.Marc Orlitzky - 2011 - Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (3):409-444.
    ABSTRACT:This study examines whether the empirical evidence on the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) differs depending on the publication outlet in which that evidence appears. This moderator meta-analysis, based on a total sample size of 33,878 observations, suggests that published CSP-CFP findings have been shaped by differences in institutional logics in different subdisciplines of organization studies. In economics, finance, and accounting journals, the average correlations were only about half the magnitude of the findings published (...)
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  7.  56
    Merging the senses into a robust percept.Marc O. Ernst & Heinrich H. Bülthoff - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):162-169.
  8.  50
    Corruption of Pharmaceutical Markets: Addressing the Misalignment of Financial Incentives and Public Health.Marc-André Gagnon - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):571-580.
    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives.
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  9.  45
    Unpacking the Drivers of Corporate Social Performance: A Multilevel, Multistakeholder, and Multimethod Analysis.Marc Orlitzky, Céline Louche, Jean-Pascal Gond & Wendy Chapple - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (1):21-40.
    The question of what drives corporate social performance has become a vital concern for many managers and researchers of large corporations. This study addresses this question by adopting a multilevel, multistakeholder, and multimethod approach to theorize and estimate the relative influence of macro, meso, and micro factors on CSP. Applying three different methods of variance decomposition analysis to an international sample of 2060 large public companies over a time span of 5 years, our results show that firm-level factors explain the (...)
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  10.  17
    Logical Constraints on Judgement Aggregation.Marc Pauly & Martin Hees - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (6):569-585.
    Logical puzzles like the doctrinal paradox raise the problem of how to aggregate individual judgements into a collective judgement, or alternatively, how to merge collectively inconsistent knowledge bases. In this paper, we view judgement aggregation as a function on propositional logic valuations, and we investigate how logic constrains judgement aggregation. In particular, we show that there is no non-dictatorial decision method for aggregating sets of judgements in a logically consistent way if the decision method is local, i.e., only depends on (...)
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  11.  71
    The Case for an International Hard Law on Corporate Killing.Marc Johnson - 2024 - Keele Law Review 5 (1):1-28.
    On 4 December 2006, during discussions on the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Bill, Andrew Dismore, Member of Parliament and then Chair of the Joint Committee on Human Rights, said, ‘Organisations can kill people … but it is the actions and omissions of people in organisations that cumulatively cause death’. However, the corporate entity is a vehicle for the communal actions of those who guide the business activities. Attempting to seek out persons or people that are solely responsible for deaths (...)
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  12.  78
    Natural Kinds, Mind Independence, and Defeasibility.Marc Ereshefsky - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):845-856.
    A standard requirement on natural kinds is that they be mind independent. However, many kinds in the human and social sciences, even the natural sciences, depend on human thought. This article suggests that the mind independence requirement on natural kinds be replaced with the requirement that natural kind classifications be defeasible. The defeasibility requirement does not require that natural kinds be mind independent, so it does not exclude mind dependent scientific kinds from being natural kinds. Furthermore, the defeasibility requirement captures (...)
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  13.  32
    Spontaneous number discrimination of multi-format auditory stimuli in cotton-top tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Stanislas Dehaene, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz & Andrea L. Patalano - 2002 - Cognition 86 (2):B23-B32.
  14.  72
    A new circularity in explanations by Humean laws of nature.Marc Lange - 2023 - Philosophical Studies 180 (3):1001-1016.
    Humean accounts of natural law have long been charged with being unable to account for the laws’ explanatory power in science. One form of this objection is to charge Humean accounts with explanatory circularity: a fact in the Humean mosaic helps to explain why some regularity is a law (first premise), but that law, in turn, helps to explain why that mosaic fact holds (second premise). To this objection, Humeans have replied that the explanation in the first premise is metaphysical (...)
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  15. Reasonable Disagreement and Rational Group Inquiry.Marc Moffett - 2007 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4 (3):352-367.
    According to one widely held view, a belief is fully justified only if it holds up against the strongest available counterarguments, and we can be appropriately confident that it does hold up only if there is free and open critical discussion of those beliefs between us and our epistemic peers. In this paper I argue that this common picture of ideal rational group inquiry interacts with epistemic problems concerning reasonable disagreement in a way that makes those problems particularly difficult to (...)
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  16.  46
    Addressing implicit bias: A theoretical model for promoting integrative reflective practice in live-client law clinics.Marc Johnson & Omar Madhloom - 2024 - European Journal of Legal Education 5 (1):55-87.
    Clinical Legal Education programmes now take place in most law schools in England and Wales. However, legal education continues to be predominantly focused on the analysis and application of rules, doctrines, and theories to hypothetical scenarios or essay questions. This form of pedagogy either minimises or ignores the role of the client in terms of supplying lawyers with knowledge pertinent to their case. In other words, it overlooks the fact that the lawyer’s acquisition of knowledge is not confined to technical (...)
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  17. Some problems with the linnaean hierarchy.Marc Ereshefsky - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (2):186-205.
    Most biologists use the Linnaean system for constructing classifications of the organic world. The Linnaean system, however, has lost its theoretical basis due to the shift in biology from creationist and essentialist tenets to evolutionary theory. As a result, the Linnaean system is both cumbersome and ontologically vacuous. This paper illustrates the problems facing the Linnaean system, and ends with a brief introduction to an alternative approach to biological classification.
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  18. Homology thinking.Marc Ereshefsky - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):381-400.
    This paper explores an important type of biological explanation called ‘homology thinking.’ Homology thinking explains the properties of a homologue by citing the history of a homologue. Homology thinking is significant in several ways. First, it offers more detailed explanations of biological phenomena than corresponding analogy explanations. Second, it provides an important explanation of character similarity and difference. Third, homology thinking offers a promising account of multiple realizability in biology.
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  19.  54
    Explanation, Existence and Natural Properties in Mathematics – A Case Study: Desargues’ Theorem.Marc Lange - 2015 - Dialectica 69 (4):435-472.
  20.  39
    Unifying psychophysics: And what if things are not so simple?Marc Brysbaert & Géry D'Ydewalle - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (2):271-273.
  21. On the social and personal value of existence.Marc Fleurbaey & Alex Voorhoeve - 2015 - In Iwao Hirose & Andrew Evan Reisner (eds.), Weighing and Reasoning: Themes From the Philosophy of John Broome. New York, NY: Oxford University Press UK. pp. 95-109.
    If a potential person would have a good life if he were to come into existence, can we regard his coming into existence as better for him than his never coming into existence? And can we regard the situation in which he never comes into existence as worse for him? In this paper, we argue that both questions should be answered affirmatively.
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  22.  20
    Image Feature Types and Their Predictions of Aesthetic Preference and Naturalness.Marc G. Berman, Frank F. Ibarra, Omid Kardan, MaryCarol R. Hunter, Hiroki P. Kotabe & Francisco A. C. Meyer - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  23.  62
    Did Einstein Really Believe that Principle Theories are Explanatorily Powerless?Marc Lange - 2014 - Perspectives on Science 22 (4):449-463.
    In a notable article entitled “What is the Theory of Relativity?” written at the request of The Times and published in its November 28, 1919 edition, Albert Einstein famously distinguished “theories of principle” from “constructive theories.” Einstein placed relativity theory among the principle theories. His distinction has recently received increased attention, especially as it relates to scientific explanation. In particular, there has been considerable discussion of how to explain why there obtain the Lorentz transformations as well as of how to (...)
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  24.  31
    Conciliatory Views on Peer Disagreement and the Order of Evidence Acquisition.Marc Andree Weber - 2022 - Kriterion – Journal of Philosophy 36 (1):33-50.
    The evidence that we get from peer disagreement is especially problematic from a Bayesian point of view since the belief revision caused by a piece of such evidence cannot be modelled along the lines of Bayesian conditionalisation. This paper explains how exactly this problem arises, what features of peer disagreements are responsible for it, and what lessons should be drawn for both the analysis of peer disagreements and Bayesian conditionalisation as a model of evidence acquisition. In particular, it is pointed (...)
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  25.  20
    On balance.Marc Lauritsen - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (1):23-42.
    In the course of legal reasoning—whether for purposes of deciding an issue, justifying a decision, predicting how an issue will be decided, or arguing for how it should be decided—one often is required to reach conclusions based on a balance of reasons that is not straightforwardly reducible to the application of rules. Recent AI and Law work has modeled reason-balancing, both within and across cases, with set-theoretic and rule- or value-ordering approaches. This article explores a way to model balancing in (...)
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  26.  17
    From the ground up: developing a practical ethical methodology for integrating AI into industry.Marc M. Anderson & Karën Fort - 2023 - AI and Society 38 (2):631-645.
    In this article we present a new approach to practical artificial intelligence (AI) ethics in heavy industry, which was developed in the context of an EU Horizons 2020 multi partner project. We begin with a review of the concept of Industry 4.0, discussing the limitations of the concept, and of iterative categorization of heavy industry generally, for a practical human centered ethical approach. We then proceed to an overview of actual and potential AI ethics approaches to heavy industry, suggesting that (...)
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  27.  36
    Five Un‐Easy Pieces of Pharmaceutical Policy Reform.Marc A. Rodwin - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):581-589.
    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe (...)
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  28.  72
    Economics and economic justice.Marc Fleurbaey - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  29.  51
    Precis of Because Without Cause: Non‐Causal Explanations in Science and Mathematics.Marc Lange - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (3):714-719.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Volume 99, Issue 3, Page 714-719, November 2019.
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  30.  46
    Knowing Facts and Believing Propositions: A Solution to the Problem of Doxastic Shift.A. Moffett Marc - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 115 (1):81-97.
    The Problem of Doxastic Shift may be stated as a dilemma: on the one hand, the distribution of nominal complements of the form `the ψ that p’ strongly suggests that `that’-clauses cannot be univocally assigned propositionaldenotations; on the other hand, facts about quantification strongly suggest that `that’-clauses must be assigned univocal denotations. I argue that the Problem may be solved by defining the extension of a proposition to be a set of facts or, more generally, conditions. Given this, the logical (...)
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  31.  95
    Okasha on inductive scepticism.Marc Lange - 2002 - Philosophical Quarterly 52 (207):226-232.
    In a recent paper replying to the inductive sceptic, Samir Okasha says that the Humean argument for inductive scepticism depends on mistakenly construing inductive reasoning as based on a principle of the uniformity of nature. I dispute Okasha's argument that we are entitled to the background beliefs on which (he says) inductive reasoning depends. Furthermore, I argue that the sorts of theoretically impoverished contexts to which a uniformity-of-nature principle has traditionally been restricted are exactly the contexts relevant to the inductive (...)
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  32.  25
    The use of digital twins in healthcare: socio-ethical benefits and socio-ethical risks.Marc-Jeroen Bogaardt, Elsje Oosterkamp, Mireille van Hilten & Eugen Octav Popa - 2021 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 17 (1):1-25.
    Anticipating the ethical impact of emerging technologies is an essential part of responsible innovation. One such emergent technology is the digital twin which we define here as a living replica of a physical system (human or non-human). A digital twin combines various emerging technologies such as AI, Internet of Things, big data and robotics, each component bringing its own socio-ethical issues to the resulting artefacts. The question thus arises which of these socio-ethical themes surface in the process and how they (...)
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  33.  32
    Rooting Out Institutional Corruption to Manage Inappropriate Off‐Label Drug Use.Marc A. Rodwin - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):654-664.
    Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved — off-label drug use — can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the (...)
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  34.  58
    Normative Myopia, Executives' Personality, and Preference for Pay Dispersion.Marc Orlitzky, Diane L. Swanson & Laura-Kate Quartermaine - 2006 - Business and Society 45 (2):149-177.
    In this preliminary study, the authors extend Swanson's concept of normative myopia (the propensity of executives to downplay or ignore the values at stake in their decision making) by using it as a point of reference for studying executives' preference for high pay dispersion. Specifically, the authors designed a survey to examine hypothesized relationships among myopia, personality, and executives' preference for highly stratified organizational pay structures. Data from 133 executive respondents suggest that myopic executives tend to prefer top-heavy compensation systems. (...)
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  35.  21
    AI as Philosophical Ideology: A Critical look back at John McCarthy’s Program.Marc M. Anderson - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-24.
    AI has become the poster child for a certain kind of thinking which holds that some technologies can become objective, independent and emergent entities which can evolve beyond the control of their creators. This thinking is not new however. It is a product of certain philosophical ideas such as materialism, a common-sense world of objective and independent objects, a correspondence theory of truth, and so forth, which are centered around the pre-eminence of science, epistemology, and logical reasoning, among others, as (...)
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  36.  42
    In defense of really statistical explanations.Marc Lange - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-15.
    According to Lange,?Really Statistical explanations? constitute an important kind of non-causalscientific explanation. However, Roski has argued that all alleged RS explanations are either causalexplanations or not explanations at all. In so arguing, Roski has invoked Kahneman?s interpretation of onealleged RS explanation. I employ Roski?s arguments as an opportunity to elaborate and defend RS explanations. Iargue that?RS explanations? genuinely explain rather than deny the presuppositions of why-questions. I argue thatthe RS model is not excessively permissive in allowing some explanations to work (...)
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  37.  28
    Conflicts of Interest and the Future of Medicine: The United States, France, and Japan.Marc A. Rodwin - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The heart of the matter -- The evolution of the French medicine -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in France -- The rise of a protected medical market : the United States before 1950 -- The commercial transformation : the United States, 1950-1980 -- The logic of medical markets : the United States, 1980 to the present -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of interest in the United States -- The evolution of Japanese medicine -- Coping with physicians' conflicts of (...)
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  38.  41
    The Whorfian hypothesis and numerical cognition: is `twenty-four' processed in the same way as `four-and-twenty'?Marc Brysbaert, Wim Fias & Marie-Pascale Noël - 1998 - Cognition 66 (1):51-77.
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  39.  37
    Emotional speech processing: Disentangling the effects of prosody and semantic cues.Marc D. Pell, Abhishek Jaywant, Laura Monetta & Sonja A. Kotz - 2011 - Cognition and Emotion 25 (5):834-853.
  40. The autonomy of functional biology: A reply to Rosenberg.Marc Lange - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):93-109.
    Rosenberg has recently argued that explanations supplied by (what he calls) functional biology are mere promissory notes for macromolecular adaptive explanations. Rosenberg's arguments currently constitute one of the most substantial challenges to the autonomy, irreducibility, and indispensability of the explanations supplied by functional biology. My responses to Rosenberg's arguments will generate a novel account of the autonomy of functional biology. This account will turn on the relations between counterfactuals, scientific explanations, and natural laws. Crucially, in their treatment of the laws' (...)
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  41.  62
    Drug Advertising, Continuing Medical Education, and Physician Prescribing: A Historical Review and Reform Proposal.Marc A. Rodwin - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (4):807-815.
    Through the 1960s, many people claimed that drug advertising was educational and physicians often relied on it. Continuing Medical Education (CME) was developed to provide an alternative. However, because CME relied on grants, industry funders chose the subjects offered. Now policymakers worry that drug firms support CME to promote sales and that commercial support biases prescribing and fosters inappropriate drug use. A historical review reveals parallel problems between advertising and industry-funded CME. To preclude industry influence and improve CME, we should (...)
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  42.  25
    Broad or Narrow Stakeholder Management? A Signaling Theory Perspective.Marc O. Orlitzky, Dirk M. Boehe & Limin Fu - 2022 - Business and Society 61 (7):1838-1880.
    To mitigate risk, should companies signal a broad range of environmental, social, and governance initiatives or instead focus on only a few ESG issues? Drawing on signaling theory, we propose that a broad array of ESG initiatives generates not only signal consistency but also accelerating signal costs. Our empirical results support the resultant hypothesis of a curvilinear relationship between ESG scope and equity risk. In addition, this U-shaped curve seems to become steeper when firms face multiple media-reported ESG controversies. Overall, (...)
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  43. Homology: Integrating Phylogeny and Development.Marc Ereshefsky - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):225-229.
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  44.  27
    Hume and the problem of induction.Marc Lange - 2011 - In Dov M. Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Volume 10: Inductive Logic. Elsevier. pp. 43-91.
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  45. Conspiracy Theories.Marc Pauly - 2020 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Conspiracy Theories The term “conspiracy theory” refers to a theory or explanation that features a conspiracy among a group of agents as a central ingredient. Popular examples are the theory that the first moon landing was a hoax staged by NASA, or the theory that the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center were not … Continue reading Conspiracy Theories →.
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  46. Salience, supervenience, and layer cakes in Sellars's scientific realism, McDowell's moral realism, and the philosophy of mind.Marc Lange - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 101 (2-3):213-251.
  47.  91
    The semantic approach to evolutionary theory.Marc Ereshefsky - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):59-80.
    Paul Thompson, John Beatty, and Elisabeth Lloyd argue that attempts to resolve certain conceptual issues within evolutionary biology have failed because of a general adherence to the received view of scientific theories. They maintain that such issues can be clarified and resolved when one adopts a semantic approach to theories. In this paper, I argue that such conceptual issues are just as problematic on a semantic approach. Such issues arise from the complexity involved in providing formal accounts of theoretical laws (...)
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  48.  5
    Confined with a coyote: The question of the face BORD®.Marc Veyrat - 2022 - Technoetic Arts 20 (3):273-290.
    This text discusses the impact of immersive technologies on our identity and relationship to digital and analogue modalities in a non-normative way. It references the work of Joseph Beuys, specifically his iconic performance of being confined with a coyote in a gallery space for three days, to construct connections between borders, edges, limits and identity, face presentation, representation and projection towards ourselves and our audiences. We reference the works of Marcel Duchamp and George Orwell and compare the immersive devices of (...)
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  49.  30
    The Politics of Technology: On Bringing Social Theory into Technological Design.Marc Berg - 1998 - Science, Technology and Human Values 23 (4):456-490.
    New approaches in the design of information technologies for work practices are drawing upon theories from sociology, anthropology, and social philosophy. Under the labels of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design, work is done to "neturn" to design insights gained in the social study of the use of technological artifacts. Aftera brief introduction of these developments, the article zooms in on those authors for whom "better" technologies refer to hopes for more democratic and more worker-oriented workplaces. How do these approaches (...)
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  50. Linnaean ranks: Vestiges of a bygone era.Marc Ereshefsky - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S305-S315.
    We tend to think that there are different types of biological taxa: some taxa are species, others are genera, while others are families. Linnaeus gave us his ranks in 1731. Biological theory has changed since Linnaeus’s time. Nevertheless, the vast majority of biologists still assign Linnaean ranks to taxa, even though that practice is at odds with evolutionary theory and even though it causes a number of practical problems. The Linnaean ranks should be abandoned and alternative methods for displaying the (...)
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