Sin ningún afán polémico, el presente artículo aspira a presentar algunos rasgos de Menéndez Pelayo, que puedan legitimar su caracterización como filósofo ; faceta esta, quizá, la menos vistosa de este gran historiador y crítico, incansable lector y escritor fecundo. Rastreando sus obras más específicas sobre el particular, se expone su pensamiento al respecto, no solo para saber como entiende los conceptos filosóficos más básicos, sino también para ver la posibilidad de enmarcarlo en alguna corriente filosófica que admita su clasificación.
We discuss the axiomatization of generalized consequence relations determined by non-deterministic matrices. We show that, under reasonable expressiveness requirements, simple axiomatizations can always be obtained, using inference rules which can have more than one conclusion. Further, when the non-deterministic matrices are finite we obtain finite axiomatizations with a suitable generalized subformula property.
Should CSR be approached only on a voluntary basis or should it be complemented with a compulsory regulatory framework? What type of government intervention is more effective in fostering CSR among companies? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions, reviewing the debate between proponents of the voluntary case and the obligatory case for CSR, and critically analysing current international government-led initiatives to foster CSR among companies, and national government-led initiatives in the EU area. Finally, the paper focuses on (...) the Spanish case, as an example of the failure of an exclusively voluntary approach. Despite the rapid uprise of CSR, Spain is still far behind late in CSR promotion strategies. Most action has been undertaken by companies themselves with no common guidelines, governmental support, or independent verification. The lack of a regulatory framework for CSR or ethical investment issues and the virtual absence of other indirect incentives, explains the misbalance between private, public and Third Sector initiatives. Based on the Spanish context which is quite similar to other non-OECD countries, the authors call for a more proactive government position in CSR related issues. The conclusions of the paper detail the features of this regulatory framework and other policies to promote CSR in Spain as well as in other OECD countries. (shrink)
Ethical concerns of Internet users continue to rise. Accordingly, several scholars have called for systematic empirical research to address these issues. This study examines the conceptualization and measurement of consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers. Also, this research represents a first step into the analysis of the relationship between CPEOR, consumers' general Internet expertise and reported positive word of mouth. Results, from a convenience sample of 357 online shoppers, suggest that CPEOR can be operationalized as a second-order construct (...) composed of four dimensions: security, privacy, fulfillment, and non-deception. Our findings also indicate that consumers' general Internet expertise significantly improves CPEOR and CPEOR are strongly predictive of consumers' WOM. Managerial and research implications are offered. (shrink)
Ethical concerns of Internet users continue to rise. Accordingly, several scholars have called for systematic empirical research to address these issues. This study examines the conceptualization and measurement of consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers (CPEOR). Also, this research represents a first step into the analysis of the relationship between CPEOR, consumers' general Internet expertise and reported positive word of mouth (WOM). Results, from a convenience sample of 357 online shoppers, suggest that CPEOR can be operationalized as a (...) second-order construct composed of four dimensions: security, privacy, fulfillment, and non-deception. Our findings also indicate that consumers' general Internet expertise significantly improves CPEOR and CPEOR are strongly predictive of consumers' WOM. Managerial and research implications are offered. (shrink)
We show that for an arbitrary logic being locally tabular is a strictly weaker property than being locally finite. We describe our hunt for a logic that allows us to separate the two properties, revealing weaker and weaker conditions under which they must coincide, and showing how they are intertwined. We single out several classes of logics where the two notions coincide, including logics that are determined by a finite set of finite matrices, selfextensional logics, algebraizable and equivalential logics. Furthermore, (...) we identify a closure property on models of a logic that, in the presence of local tabularity, is equivalent to local finiteness. (shrink)
We show the first examples of recursively enumerable (even decidable) two-dimensional products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable. In particular, we show that any axiomatisation of some bimodal logics that are determined by classes of product frames with linearly ordered first components must be infinite in two senses: It should contain infinitely many propositional variables, and formulas of arbitrarily large modal nesting-depth.
A reactive graph generalizes the concept of a graph by making it dynamic, in the sense that the arrows coming out from a point depend on how we got there. This idea was first applied to Kripke semantics of modal logic in . In this paper we strengthen that unimodal language by adding a second operator. One operator corresponds to the dynamics relation and the other one relates paths with the same endpoint. We explore the expressivity of this interpretation by (...) axiomatizing some natural subclasses of reactive frames. The main objective of this paper is to present a methodology to study reactive logics using the existent classic techniques. (shrink)
Banking firms are becoming increasingly aware that their clients’ management of environmental and social risks may in term threaten their own business as lenders and investors. In addition, stakeholders are requiring banks to improve their social performance. As a result, some banks are developing corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and management systems to reduce potential risks and improve their performance. In the Spanish financial system, half of the banking firms are savings banks, most of which have always used some Corporate (...) Social Responsibility (CSR) criteria in their management. Private Banks have only recently started to integrate social aspects in their performance. However, no formal analysis has been carried out on the impact of CSR strategies. Various initiatives have been launched nationally and internationally to include the social dimension in management systems. The purpose of this research is to analyse the social performance of the main Spanish financial companies through public data such as social or sustainability reports and media sources. In order to do this, we need to determine which CSR criteria most greatly affect banking firms and to choose the most accurate quantitative and qualitative indicators to measure social performance. (shrink)
We consider a 2-valued non-deterministic connective \ defined by the table resulting from the entry-wise union of the tables of conjunction and disjunction. Being half conjunction and half disjunction we named it platypus. The value of \ is not completely determined by the input, contrasting with usual notion of Boolean connective. We call non-deterministic Boolean connective any connective based on multi-functions over the Boolean set. In this way, non-determinism allows for an extended notion of truth-functional connective. Unexpectedly, this very simple (...) connective and the logic it defines, illustrate various key advantages in working with generalized notions of semantics, calculi and even of logic. We show that the associated logic cannot be characterized by any finite set of finite matrices, whereas with non-determinism two values suffice. Furthermore, this logic is not finitely axiomatizable using single-conclusion rules, however we provide a very simple analytic multiple-conclusion axiomatization using only two rules. Finally, deciding the associated multiple-conclusion logic is \-complete, but deciding its single-conclusion fragment is in \. (shrink)
Prior research has found attributions to mediate the relationship between the elements of corporate social responsibility activities and consumer responses to firms; however, the question of what variables determine consumer attributions of CSR remains partially unaddressed. This article analyzes why consumers make attributions of CSR that are either positive, or negative. The results obtained from two empirical studies indicate that company–cause fit, corporate ability, and interpersonal trust have a positive influence on the motives that consumers attribute to CSR, whereas corporate (...) hypocrisy has a negative effect. This research contributes to our understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying impactful consumer judgments and provides guidance for organizations in responding to such evaluations. (shrink)
Our concern is the axiomatisation problem for modal and algebraic logics that correspond to various fragments of two-variable first-order logic with counting quantifiers. In particular, we consider modal products with Diff, the propositional unimodal logic of the difference operator. We show that the two-dimensional product logic $Diff \times Diff$ is non-finitely axiomatisable, but can be axiomatised by infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. We also show that its ‘square’ version (the modal counterpart of the substitution and equality free fragment of two-variable first-order (...) logic with counting to two) is non-finitely axiomatisable over $Diff \times Diff$ , but can be axiomatised by adding infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. These are the first examples of products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable, but axiomatisable by explicit infinite sets of canonical axioms. (shrink)
La teoría moderna de la literatura surgió del encuentro, no siempre pacífico, entre la filosofía, la estética y la literatura bajo la influencia dominante de los programas idealistas y románticos. En el período que va desde la publicación del tratado de Schiller Sobre poesía ingenua y sentimental (1795) hasta la aparición de El nacimiento de la tragedia (1872) de Nietzsche, los conceptos poetológicos tradicionales fueron reelaborados en términos especulativos, sustancialistas y trascendentales. A través de una lectura comparada de textos filosóficos (...) y literarios, este libros propone una interpretación de conjunto en la que la teoría moderna de la literatura se caracteriza por una conciencia crítica cuyo ideal de transparencia reflexiva no cesa de conducir a diversas “formas de lo informe”. (shrink)
Francisco de Vitoria, no por su catalogación como teólogo, deja de ser auténtico filósofo; no por haber vivido en el siglo xvi, se encuentra desvinculado de la temática más candente de nuestra actualidad; no por vestir unos hábitos religiosos y vivirenmarcado en un régimen imperialista e inquisitorial, se encontró maniatado o coaccionado en sus ideas y pensamiento. En algunos puntos se encontró, incluso, más avanzado que nosotros mismos. Y. en todo caso, como asegura James Brown Scott, "la escuela moderna del (...) Derecho Internacional surgió a la vida" gracias a que hubo un "primero que expuso los principios que deberían regir"; y ése no es otro que Francisco de Vitoria. (shrink)
As fronteiras são um tema conceitualmente polissêmico e um objeto multidisciplinar. Estudos que tratam desse tema são de grande valia para os campos da Geografia, Relações Internacionais, Direito, História, entre outros. Visando contribuir com esse debate, essa resenha apresenta uma visão do livro Formação das Fronteiras Latino-Americanas, que caracteriza-se como uma importante contribuição, com diversas questões diferenciadas na discussão realizada.
A pesar de que el nombre de Francisco de Vitoria no aparece en los tratados y autores del siglo xvm, no por eso su doctrina fue ignorada. Muy por el contrario, sus tesis, no obstante ser atribuidas a Hugo Grocio, son mantenidas y aceptadaspor autores tan importantes y destacados como Locke o Kant.The fact that the name of Francisco de Vitoria does not appear in the treatises and among the authors of the 18th century does not mean that his doctrine (...) was unknown. On the contrary, his thesis although credited to Grotius were known. On the contrary, his thesis although credited to Grotius were known and accepted by many important authors such as Locke or Kant. (shrink)
La doctrina de Vitoria con respecto a que los derechos humanos —naturales o «de gentes», no importa si al margen de la fe y el cristianismo—, están muy por encima del poder y la jurisdicción del Papa o el Emperador, se infiltré de tal forma en el modo de pensar posterior, que, a pesar de haber olvidado al propio Vitoria como su fundador o, al menos, su principal impulsor, prevaleció en la mente de los grandes pensadores posteriores y se va (...) viendo calcada tanto en la realidad histórica o las relaciones sociales de nuestro tiempo, como en la propia Constitución de las diferentes democracias actuales. (shrink)
In this paper we aim to defend a version of the thesis of “extended mind” against the criticism of some authors that consider that the “extracraneal” devices cannott acomplish the requirements that the components of mental processes must meet. We propose a quality of integration as a criterion to be a mental process, and we consider that, in some situations, external devices can be considered as meeting this criterion.