Sin ningún afán polémico, el presente artículo aspira a presentar algunos rasgos de Menéndez Pelayo, que puedan legitimar su caracterización como filósofo ; faceta esta, quizá, la menos vistosa de este gran historiador y crítico, incansable lector y escritor fecundo. Rastreando sus obras más específicas sobre el particular, se expone su pensamiento al respecto, no solo para saber como entiende los conceptos filosóficos más básicos, sino también para ver la posibilidad de enmarcarlo en alguna corriente filosófica que admita su clasificación.
We discuss the axiomatization of generalized consequence relations determined by non-deterministic matrices. We show that, under reasonable expressiveness requirements, simple axiomatizations can always be obtained, using inference rules which can have more than one conclusion. Further, when the non-deterministic matrices are finite we obtain finite axiomatizations with a suitable generalized subformula property.
College cheating is prevalent, with rates ranging widely from 9 to 95% (Whitley, 1998). Research has been exclusively conducted with enrolled college students. This study examined the prevalence of cheating in a sample of college alumni, who risk less in disclosing academic dishonesty than current students. A total of 273 alumni reported on their prevalence and perceived severity of 19 cheating behaviors. The vast majority of participants (81.7%) report having engaged in some form of cheating during their undergraduate career. The (...) most common forms of cheating were “copying from another student's assignment” and “allowing others to copy from your assignment.” More students reported cheating in classes for their major than other classes. Males and females cheated at the same rates in classes for their major, and males reported higher rates of cheating than females in nonmajor classes. Respondents reported that their top reasons for cheating were “lack of time” and “to help a friend.”. (shrink)
We show that for an arbitrary logic being locally tabular is a strictly weaker property than being locally finite. We describe our hunt for a logic that allows us to separate the two properties, revealing weaker and weaker conditions under which they must coincide, and showing how they are intertwined. We single out several classes of logics where the two notions coincide, including logics that are determined by a finite set of finite matrices, selfextensional logics, algebraizable and equivalential logics. Furthermore, (...) we identify a closure property on models of a logic that, in the presence of local tabularity, is equivalent to local finiteness. (shrink)
A reactive graph generalizes the concept of a graph by making it dynamic, in the sense that the arrows coming out from a point depend on how we got there. This idea was first applied to Kripke semantics of modal logic in . In this paper we strengthen that unimodal language by adding a second operator. One operator corresponds to the dynamics relation and the other one relates paths with the same endpoint. We explore the expressivity of this interpretation by (...) axiomatizing some natural subclasses of reactive frames. The main objective of this paper is to present a methodology to study reactive logics using the existent classic techniques. (shrink)
We show the first examples of recursively enumerable (even decidable) two-dimensional products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable. In particular, we show that any axiomatisation of some bimodal logics that are determined by classes of product frames with linearly ordered first components must be infinite in two senses: It should contain infinitely many propositional variables, and formulas of arbitrarily large modal nesting-depth.
We consider a 2-valued non-deterministic connective \ defined by the table resulting from the entry-wise union of the tables of conjunction and disjunction. Being half conjunction and half disjunction we named it platypus. The value of \ is not completely determined by the input, contrasting with usual notion of Boolean connective. We call non-deterministic Boolean connective any connective based on multi-functions over the Boolean set. In this way, non-determinism allows for an extended notion of truth-functional connective. Unexpectedly, this very simple (...) connective and the logic it defines, illustrate various key advantages in working with generalized notions of semantics, calculi and even of logic. We show that the associated logic cannot be characterized by any finite set of finite matrices, whereas with non-determinism two values suffice. Furthermore, this logic is not finitely axiomatizable using single-conclusion rules, however we provide a very simple analytic multiple-conclusion axiomatization using only two rules. Finally, deciding the associated multiple-conclusion logic is \-complete, but deciding its single-conclusion fragment is in \. (shrink)
Our concern is the axiomatisation problem for modal and algebraic logics that correspond to various fragments of two-variable first-order logic with counting quantifiers. In particular, we consider modal products with Diff, the propositional unimodal logic of the difference operator. We show that the two-dimensional product logic $Diff \times Diff$ is non-finitely axiomatisable, but can be axiomatised by infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. We also show that its ‘square’ version (the modal counterpart of the substitution and equality free fragment of two-variable first-order (...) logic with counting to two) is non-finitely axiomatisable over $Diff \times Diff$ , but can be axiomatised by adding infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. These are the first examples of products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable, but axiomatisable by explicit infinite sets of canonical axioms. (shrink)
As fronteiras são um tema conceitualmente polissêmico e um objeto multidisciplinar. Estudos que tratam desse tema são de grande valia para os campos da Geografia, Relações Internacionais, Direito, História, entre outros. Visando contribuir com esse debate, essa resenha apresenta uma visão do livro Formação das Fronteiras Latino-Americanas, que caracteriza-se como uma importante contribuição, com diversas questões diferenciadas na discussão realizada.
Francisco de Vitoria, no por su catalogación como teólogo, deja de ser auténtico filósofo; no por haber vivido en el siglo xvi, se encuentra desvinculado de la temática más candente de nuestra actualidad; no por vestir unos hábitos religiosos y vivirenmarcado en un régimen imperialista e inquisitorial, se encontró maniatado o coaccionado en sus ideas y pensamiento. En algunos puntos se encontró, incluso, más avanzado que nosotros mismos. Y. en todo caso, como asegura James Brown Scott, "la escuela moderna del (...) Derecho Internacional surgió a la vida" gracias a que hubo un "primero que expuso los principios que deberían regir"; y ése no es otro que Francisco de Vitoria. (shrink)
A pesar de que el nombre de Francisco de Vitoria no aparece en los tratados y autores del siglo xvm, no por eso su doctrina fue ignorada. Muy por el contrario, sus tesis, no obstante ser atribuidas a Hugo Grocio, son mantenidas y aceptadaspor autores tan importantes y destacados como Locke o Kant.The fact that the name of Francisco de Vitoria does not appear in the treatises and among the authors of the 18th century does not mean that his doctrine (...) was unknown. On the contrary, his thesis although credited to Grotius were known. On the contrary, his thesis although credited to Grotius were known and accepted by many important authors such as Locke or Kant. (shrink)
La doctrina de Vitoria con respecto a que los derechos humanos —naturales o «de gentes», no importa si al margen de la fe y el cristianismo—, están muy por encima del poder y la jurisdicción del Papa o el Emperador, se infiltré de tal forma en el modo de pensar posterior, que, a pesar de haber olvidado al propio Vitoria como su fundador o, al menos, su principal impulsor, prevaleció en la mente de los grandes pensadores posteriores y se va (...) viendo calcada tanto en la realidad histórica o las relaciones sociales de nuestro tiempo, como en la propia Constitución de las diferentes democracias actuales. (shrink)
In this paper we aim to defend a version of the thesis of “extended mind” against the criticism of some authors that consider that the “extracraneal” devices cannott acomplish the requirements that the components of mental processes must meet. We propose a quality of integration as a criterion to be a mental process, and we consider that, in some situations, external devices can be considered as meeting this criterion.
A non-monotonic logic, the Logic of Plausible Reasoning (LPR), capable of coping with the demands of what we call complex reasoning, is introduced. It is argued that creative complex reasoning is the way of reasoning required in many instances of scientific thought, professional practice and common life decision taking. For managing the simultaneous consideration of multiple scenarios inherent in these activities, two new modalities, weak and strong plausibility, are introduced as part of the Logic of Plausible Deduction (LPD), a deductive (...) logic specially designed to serve as the monotonic support for LPR. Axiomatics and semantics for LPD, together with a completeness proof, are provided. Once LPD has been given, LPR may be defined via a concept of extension over LPD. Although the construction of LPR extensions is first presented in standard style, for the sake of comparison with existing non-monotonic formalisms, alternative more elegant and intuitive ways for constructing non-monotonic LPR extensions are also given and proofs of their equivalence are presented. (shrink)
This paper aims to analyze the idea of randomness in Greek philo-sophy since Empedocle to Plato to show determinism as unavoidable companion of most deterministic doctrines. Despite their adherence to determinism, even Plato and Aristotle introduce randomness to account for the various forms of reality, following so Empedocle and the atomists. There are as many contentions for randomness as for necessity in Greek and Latin thought.
Ontology languages for the Semantic Web have their strengths and weaknesses, in particular in the light of deploying them for biological and medical information systems. We survey and compare the Description Logics-based OWL languages, and the DL-Lite and DLR families of languages. Language choices that an ontology developer has to make are, among others, expressivity with n-ary relations (where n > 2) and more role properties versus ontology usage for data-intensive tasks. Guidelines are suggested to facilitate choosing the language best (...) ﬁtted for a task. (shrink)