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  1.  36
    Cerebral Organoids: Ethical Issues and Consciousness Assessment.Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):606-610.
    Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies (...)
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  2.  4
    Sizing Up Consciousness: Towards an Objective Measure of the Capacity for Experience.Marcello Massimini & Giulio Tononi - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This book explores how we can measure consciousness. It clarifies what consciousness is, how it can be generated from a physical system, and how it can be measured. It also shows how conscious states can be expressed mathematically and how precise predictions can be made using data from neurophysiological studies.
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  3.  27
    Cerebral Organoids and Consciousness: How Far Are We Willing to Go?Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):613-614.
    In his interesting commentary, Joshua Shepherd raises two points—one related to epistemology, the other to ethics—about our article on human cerebral organoids.1 2 From the epistemological standpoint, he calls into question the need for a theory of consciousness. A theory of consciousness, for him, is not necessary because of the lack of consensus about the very nature of consciousness. Shepherd suggests that ‘given widespread disagreement, applying a theory of consciousness may not be helpful when attempting to diagnose the presence of (...)
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  4.  17
    The Distribution of Consciousness: A Difficult Cartesian Chart.Marcello Massimini - 2016 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 7 (1):3-15.
    : If we were asked to draw a graph to represent the distribution of consciousness in the world around us based on objective criteria, we would definitely be in trouble. The two objective parameters that have been traditionally considered as a guide – the complexity of behavior and brain size – lead to paradoxical conclusions and turn out to be unsatisfactory, to say the least. We need to find novel, reliable metrics. However, these can be identified, validated and calibrated only (...)
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