El presente artículo pretende indagar desde el marco teórico-epistemológico de "imaginario social" de Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997), la subjetivación de la mujer trabajadora en el sistema de educación técnico-profesional en Chile. Se desarrolla una investigación filosófica y cualitativa que incluye análisis documental y entrevistas a sujetos del ámbito técnico-profesional secundario. A través de este marco teórico, desarrollamos las herramientas analíticas necesarias para poder leer e interpretar cómo a pesar de los aires de renovación del sistema técnico-profesional, la oferta política (...) hacia la mujer chilena trabajadora no cambia en realidad el "destino" que pesa sobre ella: ser, dicho peyorativamente "¡Buenas Trabajadoras, Buenas Madres!". This article seeks to investigate since the theoretical-epistemological frame of "social imaginary" of Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997), the subjectivity of the hard-working woman in the system of technical-professional education in Chile. It is carried out a philosophical and qualitative investigation including documentary analysis and interviews to subjects of the technical-professional secondary area. Through this theoretical frame, we develop the analytical tools needed to read and interpret how, despite the air of renewal of the technical-professional system, the political supply towards the Chilean woman worker in fact does not actually change the "destiny" hanging over her: to be, pejoratively said "Good Workers, Good Mothers"! (shrink)
Hannah Arendt's rich and varied political thought is more influential today than ever before, due in part to the collapse of communism and the need for ideas that move beyond the old ideologies of the Cold War. As Dana Villa shows, however, Arendt's thought is often poorly understood, both because of its complexity and because her fame has made it easy for critics to write about what she is reputed to have said rather than what she actually wrote. (...) class='Hi'>Villa sets out to change that here, explaining clearly, carefully, and forcefully Arendt's major contributions to our understanding of politics, modernity, and the nature of political evil in our century.Villa begins by focusing on some of the most controversial aspects of Arendt's political thought. He shows that Arendt's famous idea of the banality of evil--inspired by the trial of Adolf Eichmann--does not, as some have maintained, lessen the guilt of war criminals by suggesting that they are mere cogs in a bureaucratic machine. He examines what she meant when she wrote that terror was the essence of totalitarianism, explaining that she believed Nazi and Soviet terror served above all to reinforce the totalitarian idea that humans are expendable units, subordinate to the all-determining laws of Nature or History. Villa clarifies the personal and philosophical relationship between Arendt and Heidegger, showing how her work drew on his thought while providing a firm repudiation of Heidegger's political idiocy under the Nazis. Less controversially, but as importantly, Villa also engages with Arendt's ideas about the relationship between political thought and political action. He explores her views about the roles of theatricality, philosophical reflection, and public-spiritedness in political life. And he explores what relationship, if any, Arendt saw between totalitarianism and the "great tradition" of Western political thought. Throughout, Villa shows how Arendt's ideas illuminate contemporary debates about the nature of modernity and democracy and how they deepen our understanding of philosophers ranging from Socrates and Plato to Habermas and Leo Strauss.Direct, lucid, and powerfully argued, this is a much-needed analysis of the central ideas of one of the most influential political theorists of the twentieth century. (shrink)
Theodor Adorno once wrote an essay to "defend Bach against his devotees." In this book Dana Villa does the same for Hannah Arendt, whose sweeping reconceptualization of the nature and value of political action, he argues, has been covered over and domesticated by admirers who had hoped to enlist her in their less radical philosophical or political projects. Against the prevailing "Aristotelian" interpretation of her work, Villa explores Arendt's modernity, and indeed her postmodernity, through the Heideggerian and Nietzschean (...) theme of a break with tradition at the closure of metaphysics.Villa's book, however, is much more than a mere correction of misinterpretations of a major thinker's work. Rather, he makes a persuasive case for Arendt as the postmodern or postmetaphysical political theorist, the first political theorist to think through the nature of political action after Nietzsche's exposition of the death of God. After giving an account of Arendt's theory of action and Heidegger's influence on it, Villa shows how Arendt did justice to the Heideggerian and Nietzschean criticism of the metaphysical tradition while avoiding the political conclusions they drew from their critiques. The result is a wide-ranging discussion not only of Arendt and Heidegger, but of Aristotle, Kant, Nietzsche, Habermas, and the entire question of politics after metaphysics. (shrink)
The book is full of subtle, important, and in some cases controversial readings of major thinkers and represents a significant move forward in Villa's own thinking, placing him into conversation with some unexpected intellectual traditions, ...
Many critics bemoan the lack of civic engagement in America. Tocqueville's ''nation of joiners'' seems to have become a nation of alienated individuals, disinclined to fulfill the obligations of citizenship or the responsibilities of self-government. In response, the critics urge community involvement and renewed education in the civic virtues. But what kind of civic engagement do we want, and what sort of citizenship should we encourage? In Socratic Citizenship, Dana Villa takes issue with those who would reduce citizenship to (...) community involvement or to political participation for its own sake. He argues that we need to place more value on a form of conscientious, moderately alienated citizenship invented by Socrates, one that is critical in orientation and dissident in practice. Taking Plato's Apology of Socrates as his starting point, Villa argues that Socrates was the first to show, in his words and deeds, how moral and intellectual integrity can go hand in hand, and how they can constitute importantly civic--and not just philosophical or moral--virtues. More specifically, Socrates urged that good citizens should value this sort of integrity more highly than such apparent virtues as patriotism, political participation, piety, and unwavering obedience to the law. Yet Socrates' radical redefinition of citizenship has had relatively little influence on Western political thought. Villa considers how the Socratic idea of the thinking citizen is treated by five of the most influential political thinkers of the past two centuries--John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Weber, Hannah Arendt, and Leo Strauss. In doing so, he not only deepens our understanding of these thinkers' work and of modern ideas of citizenship, he also shows how the fragile Socratic idea of citizenship has been lost through a persistent devaluation of independent thought and action in public life.Engaging current debates among political and social theorists, this insightful book shows how we must reconceive the idea of good citizenship if we are to begin to address the shaky fundamentals of civic culture in America today. (shrink)
Antonello da Messina’s Annunciation with the Blessèd Virgin sola breaks with iconic convention, so inviting new interpretations of the theme. The Rome exhibition of 2006 allowed one to compare Antonello with van Eyck: Antonello seemed pre-modern. This review discusses three important essays on the Annunciation. All three perceptive essays raise theological and phenomenological issues directly related to the almost unique iconic representation which Antonello gives us.
In this paper I put forward some arguments in defence of inclusive legal positivism . The general thesis that I defend is that inclusive positivism represents a more fruitful and interesting research program than that proposed by exclusive positivism . I introduce two arguments connected with legal interpretation in favour of my thesis. However, my opinion is that inclusive positivism does not sufficiently succeed in estranging itself from the more traditional legal positivist conceptions. This is the case, for instance, with (...) regard to the value-freedom principle, which is commonly accepted by inclusive positivist scholars. In contrast with this approach, I try to show, in the concluding section, how a constructivistic version of inclusive positivism could legitimately acknowledge the presence of value-judgments in the cognitive activities of jurists and legal theorists. (shrink)
Hannah Arendt was one of the foremost political thinkers of the twentieth century, and her particular interests have made her one of the most frequently cited thinkers of our time. This Companion examines the primary themes of her multi-faceted work, from her theory of totalitarianism and her controversial idea of the 'banality of evil' to her classic studies of political action and her final reflections on judgment and the life of the mind. Each essay examines the political, philosophical, and historical (...) concerns which shaped Arendt's thought, and which prompted her to become one of the most unapologetic champions of the political life in the history of Western thought. (shrink)
This essay takes a critical look at the rubric “age of terror,” a rubric which has enjoyed a certain amount of theoretical and philosophical cachet in recent years. My argument begins by noting the continuity between this hypostatization and contemporary “war on terror” rhetoric, a continuity that is, in certain respects, ironic given the politics of the “age of terror” theorists. It then moves—via Machiavelli, Max Weber, and Hannah Arendt—to a consideration of the topics of state violence (on the one (...) hand) and totalitarian terror (on the other). I use Arendt’s theorization of totalitarian terror for a dual purpose: first, to emphasize the gap between totalitarian terror and the more familiar “terror as means”; second, to question the characterization of recent Islamic terrorism as totalitarian in essence. Arendt’s distinctions between violence, terror and totalitarian terror help us avoid the Schmittian logic installed by advocates of the “war on terror” and by a variety of writers anxious to identify a ill-defined and generic “totalitarianism” as the transhistorical and transcultural “other” of liberalism. Keywords : terror; islamic terrorism; Hannah Arendt; Max Weber; totalitarianism; “Age of Terror”; liberalism; Machiavelli; evil as policy (Published online: 25 August, 2008) Citation: Ethics & Global Politics 2008. DOI: 10.3402/egp.v1i3.1861. (shrink)
The aim of the paper is that of putting into question the dichotomy between fact-judgments and value judgments in the legal domain, with its epistemological presuppositions (descriptivist image of knowledge) and its methodological implications for legal knowledge (value freedom principle and neutrality thesis). The basic question that I will try to answer is whether and on what conditions strong ethical value-judgments belong within legal knowledge. I criticize the traditional positivist positions that have fully accepted the value-freedom principle and value-neutrality thesis, (...) but I also submit to critical scrutiny the new post-positivist views, that, even if they show interesting conceptual developments on the matter, end up, nevertheless, by presupposing the same epistemological image, while I call descriptivism. I stress that only by giving up descriptivism and accepting constructivism as a general image of knowledge is it possible to see the problem of value-ladenness of legal knowledge in a new light. On the basis of the constructivist image, I present two theses: firstly, at a much broader epistemological level, I advance the minimalist thesis on value-judgments, which simply removes the general ban on treating values as present within knowledge; secondly, I advance the strong thesis on legal value-judgments, which consists in arguing for the necessary presence of ethical value-judgments in legal knowledge. I draw, in the end, some important implications from acceptance of the strong thesis. One of these implications is a new distinction that replaces the traditional distinction between fact-judgments and value judgments, namely, the distinction between value-judgments exhibiting a cognitive function and value-judgments exhibiting a creative function. (shrink)
Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy raises two questions about the teaching of philosophy and its place in a liberal arts curriculum. First, Wittgenstein denies that philosophy is a body of doctrine, affirms that it is an activity, and assumes that the two alternatives are incompatible. This implies that teaching a body of content is not teaching philosophy and leaves open the question whether there is any relevant sense of "teaching" appropriate to the activity. On the other hand, Wittgenstein understands ethics to (...) be an autonomous inquiry, separate from philosophy, into what is most valuable and important. This view suggests that concerns about our human condition and future are beyond the reach of philosophy, and leaves open the question whether insight into them through philosophy is possible at all.I discuss central features of Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy to explore answers to these questions and to reject the suggestion that philosophy could turn out to be utterly irrelevant in the education and life of students. I propose that the value of philosophy resides in what we do and take Wittgenstein's eloquent metaphor from Philosophical Investigations as a point of reference: "what we do is to bring words back from their metaphysical to their everyday uses". Philosophy, therefore, is not something we can teach, even though it is an activity we should encourage. (shrink)
Ethical dilemmas often arise when conflict exists. Examples of conflict creating an ethical dilemma may include conflict between two or more principles of bioethics, conflict arising from insufficient information available to discern the appropriate course of action, or conflict between two or more goals of medical interventions. The basic principles of bioethics provide a framework for studying and applying bioethics. Difficulty arises when these principles are not easily addressed or when a clinical situation presents conflict between principles.
The study of the history of ideas is usually devoted to big problems and to concluded debates. We have attempted to analyze a current theory whose fate and explanatory power is still not determined. The term microparadigm is used to define a currently and widely accepted theory limited in time and in the field of application, compared to the greater problems usually investigated by historians of science. Among the characteristics defining a microparadigm we found: 1) the status of an accepted (...) theory with creative scientific power; 2) the presence of anomalies and unproven inferences; 3) a limited field of application; 4) the peculiarity of interaction with non-scientific ideas. In this context, we discuss the rise of the current microparadigm concerning the pathogenesis and biology of lymphoid neoplasms. We show that the current view of the neoplastic lymphoid cells as populations frozen at a particular differentiative stage has been creative for the last 10 years, thus allowing the generation of a large body of data that would not have been collected within the previous view of the leukemic cell as completely “anarchic”. This paradigm, although containing some anomalies, has survived the impact of molecular biology in hematology and is still creative. We think that microparadigms are widely distributed in everyday science and that an analysis of them is as useful for active scientist as is the study of macroparadigms, which by themselves cannot be representative of everyday science. Finally, the study of microparadigms while they are still operative can be useful to evidence the weakness of the theory and to suggest where new data should be sought. (shrink)
Este artículo aborda la relación entre memoria, identidad y territorio, utilizando como anclaje del argumento las diversas prácticas conmemorativas post-dictadura que se desarrollan en Villa Francia, población emblemática de la ciudad de Santiago. Esta relación se traduce en la ocupación de la calle, en tanto territorio donde la memoria se emplaza, a la vez que es parte misma de los objetos de memorialización. La ocupación de la calle es el resultado de encuentros y desencuentros en el tiempo, que involucran (...) tanto los contenidos de la memoria, como las características materiales y simbólicas de las prácticas conmemorativas que se sostienen en el espacio público. Marginales en forma y contenido de aquellas promovidas por el Estado, estas prácticas interpelan y obligan a girar la mirada hacia la comprensión de la calle como el resultado de lo múltiple, de lo deseado y no deseado, fruto de la acción práctica de la identidad en el territorio. (shrink)
The author starts from the notion that science is a human construction coming from a human way of knowing. One feature of this way of knowing is found in defining a research process. Therefore, he presents the importance of the theoretical framework in such process. The author also frames the concep..
In The Logic of Scientific Discovery Karl Popper rejected psicologism, i. e., the doctrine that statements can be justified not only by statements but also by perceptual experience. According to him, this doctrine founders on the problem of induction and of universals. For we can utter no scie..
In “The Zygote Argument Is Invalid—Now What?” (Mickelson 2015), I argue that Alfred Mele’s original Zygote Argument is invalid: its explanatory conclusion does not follow from its two non-explanatory premises. In a recent essay, Gabriel De Marco (2016) describes two purportedly new ways to rescue the Zygote Argument from the invalidity objection. Unfortunately, both of De Marco’s proposed solutions are non-starters. His initial solution simply restates (in his preferred and problematic technical jargon) a “premise-preserving” solution which was already (...) proposed in Mickelson 2015 and adopted by Mele. De Marco's second “conclusion-preserving” solution consists in a new variant of the Zygote Argument. However, this argument is patently invalid: it asserts that the conjunction of possibilism and incompossibilism entail incompatibilism. In other words, De Marco's Zygote Argument is invalid on the same grounds as the original: its non-explanatory premises do not entail its explanatory conclusion. (shrink)
La Neuroética necesita un marco de ética filosófica desde el que interpretar, integrar y criticar el progreso neurocientífico en el ámbito moral. Este artículo intenta: 1) Mostrar en qué medida este marco es necesario. 2) Abordar la cuestión del método adecuado para construirlo. 3) Compilar los principales tópoi de las neurociencias que el marco debería interpretar e integrar. 4) Mostrar cómo la ética del discurso puede ser un marco adecuado para la neuroética. 5) Señalar algunas insuficiencias (...) de ese marco y sugerir para superarlas una ética de la razón cordial. (shrink)
Resumen Ésta es la primera traducción al español de las guías “Atención después de la investigación: un marco para los comités de ética de investigación del National Health Service (NHS) (borrador versión 8.0)”. El documento afirma que existe una fuerte obligación moral de garantizar que los participantes enfermos de un estudio clínico hagan una transición después del estudio hacia una atención de la salud apropiada. Con “atención de la salud apropiada” se hace referencia al acceso para los participantes a (...) la atención de la salud, proporcionada principalmente por el National Health Service (en adelante NHS), el sistema de salud del Reino Unido, y/o a la intervención en estudio, también llamada producto o tratamiento en investigación. Las guías “Atención después de la investigación” están dirigidas principalmente a los miembros de los 79 comités de ética de investigación del NHS y a quienes presentan sus estudios de investigación ante estos comités. Se trata de un documento borrador muy avanzado, trabajado en numerosas reuniones, durante más de 3 años, que ha sido discutido por participantes de estudios y miembros de la comunidad, miembros y presidentes de comités de ética de investigación del Reino Unido, especialistas internacionales en ética de la investigación, representantes de la industria y otras partes interesadas. La redacción de las guías es producto de la colaboración de Neema Sofaer y Penney Lewis, ambas investigadoras del King’s College London, en el Centre of Medical Law and Ethics del Dickson Poon School of Law, y Hugh Davies, Asesor en Ética de la Investigación de la Health Research Authority (HRA) del NHS. El traductor del presente documento, Ignacio Mastroleo, participó del workshop en la Fundación Brocher (Ginebra, Suiza, diciembre de 2011) donde se revisó el borrador versión 7.0 y contribuyó en la revisión del borrador de la versión 8.0 durante el 2012. -/- Abstract This is the first Spanish translation of the guidelines “Care after research: a framework for NHS RECs (8th draft)”. The document states that there is a strong moral obligation to ensure that participants in a clinical study who are ill transition after the study to appropriate healthcare. The terms "appropriate healthcare" refer to participants’ access to health care, mainly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), the health system in the UK, and/or to the intervention study also named investigational treatment or product. The guides "Care after research" are mainly directed to members of the 79 NHS committees of research ethics (RECs) and to those who submit their research to these committees. This is a very advanced draft document, worked in several meetings, for more than three years, that has been discussed with study participants and community members, members and chairs of RECs in the UK, international specialists in research ethics, industry representatives and other stakeholders. The drafting of the guidelines is the result of the collaboration of Neema Sofaer and Penney Lewis, both researchers at King's College London, at the Centre of Medical Law and Ethics of Dickson Poon School of Law, and Hugh Davies, Research Ethics Advisor of the Health Research Authority (HRA) of the NHS. The translator of this document, Ignacio Mastroleo, attended the workshop at the Brocher Foundation (Geneva, Switzerland, December 2011) where draft version 7.0 was revised and contributed in the revision of draft version 8.0 during 2012. (shrink)
Este estudo visa expor suas noções básicas do pensamento do estóico Marco Aurélio que nos falam ainda de perto na modernidade: o pertencimento a si mesmo e o cuidado de si. Elas estão intimamente relacionadas com a physis e a Ética estóicas. Pretende-se mostrar o aparente paradoxo da afirmação estóica sobre nossas ações éticas fundarem-se na determinação cósmica, ao mesmo tempo em que há uma abertura possível para deliberar particularmente a partir desta determinação universal.
Gould and Lewontin use San Marco, Venice, to criticise the adaptationist program in biology. Following their lead, the architectural term “spandrel” is now widely used in biology to denote a feature that is a necessary byproduct of other aspects of the organism. I review the debate over San Marco and argue that the spandrels are not necessary in the sense originally used by Gould and Lewontin. I conclude that almost all the claims that Gould makes about San (...) class='Hi'>Marco are wrong and that it is reasonable to view the architectural spandrel as an adaptation. The spandrels example has not provided a good illustration of why adaptive explanations should be avoided. In fact, it can be used as an example of how adaptive explanations can be dismissed even when there is evidence in their favour. I also discuss the use of the concept of a spandrel in biology. (shrink)
Hourya Benis-Sinaceur, Marco Panza, and Gabriel Sandu. Functions and Generality of Logic: Reflections on Dedekind’s and Frege’s Logicisms. Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science; 37. Springer, 2015. ISBN: 978-3-319-17108-1 ; 978-3-319-36782-8, 978-3-319-17109-8.. Pp. xxi + 125.
ABSTRACT Ontic Structural Realism states that a realistic reading of scientific theories requires to take structures as ontologically fundamental. Regardless of how this commitment is articulated, OSR proponents agree that the appropriate framework for developing such a position is the semantic approach to theories. I argue that, at least in aspects relevant to the formulation of OSR, the semantic approach is not superior to the syntactic one. I also show that the Received View has the necessary conceptual resources to adequately (...) express the metaphysical commitments of OSR. RESUMEN El Realismo Estructural Óntico afirma que una lectura realista de las teorias científicas requiere aceptar que las estructuras son ontológicamente fundamentales. Más allá de cómo se articule ese compromiso, los defensores del REO acuerdan en que el marco adecuado para desarrollo de dicha posición es la concepción semántica de las teorías. Sostengo que, al menos en los aspectos relevantes para la formulación del REO, la concepción semántica no es superior a la sintáctica. Muestro además que la Concepción Heredada, por su parte, cuenta con los recursos conceptuales necesarios para expresar adecuadamente los compromisos metafísicos del REO. (shrink)
As Dana Villa shows, however, Arendt's thought is often poorly understood, both because of its complexity and because her frame has made it easy for critics to write about what she is reputed to have said rather than what she actually wrote. Villa sets out to change that here, explaining clearly, carefully, and forcefully Arendt's major contributions to our understanding of politics, modernity, and the nature of political evil in our century.(publisher, edited).
Presenta este trabajo un análisis del proceso de creación y de aplicación de la Ley de Libertad Religiosa de 1967 y de la limitación de sus resultados. Se destaca su importancia por ser el primer marco legal para las Confesiones no Católicas, promovido por el Gobierno español después del Concilio Vaticano II.
Se ha propuesto el uso de heurísticas como una herramienta para solucionar el problema de marco. Los objetivos de este trabajo son proveer una clarificación de la literatura filosófica sobre el tema e intentar resolver los debates pendientes considerando la evidencia empírica disponible. Luego de distinguir varios aspectos del problema de marco, analizaremos las disputas filosóficas sobre el tema. A continuación comentaremos la literatura sobre la evidencia empírica relevante proveniente de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentaremos que las heurísticas pueden (...) ser útiles para solucionar sólo un aspecto del problema de marco, aun con varias restricciones. (shrink)
La historicidad, la adaptación continua de la vida humana a problemas puntuales es el marco –antropológico– en el que la Ilustración escocesa inscribe su reflexión moral. Un trabajo continuo de adecuación al medio generalmente expuesto a través de una concepción por etapas de la historia, cuyo fruto, objetivado como leyes, normas o morales, no es nunca buscado y sí producto de las consecuencias inesperadas de decisiones que se toman sin referentes seguros en su diseño inicial. Esa contextualización, cuyo motor (...) es la perfectibilidad humana, en último término supone la atención a los distintos intereses y esferas de la vida, lo cual hace que la reflexión moral quede parcelada en las pequeñas esferas donde aparecen esos intereses; este será el motivo que llevará a la Ilustración escocesa a buscar algún tipo de universalidad que se complaciera de forma natural en el resultado de aquel artificial proceso de adaptación histórica al medio. (shrink)