6 found
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  1.  25
    Linguistics and the Formal Sciences: The Origins of Generative Grammar.Marcus Tomalin - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The formal sciences, particularly mathematics, have had a profound influence on the development of linguistics. This insightful overview looks at techniques that were introduced in the fields of mathematics, logic and philosophy during the twentieth century, and explores their effect on the work of various linguists. In particular, it discusses the 'foundations crisis' that destabilised mathematics at the start of the twentieth century, the numerous related movements which sought to respond to this crisis, and how they influenced the development of (...)
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  2.  66
    Quarantining online hate speech: technical and ethical perspectives.Stefanie Ullmann & Marcus Tomalin - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):69-80.
    In this paper we explore quarantining as a more ethical method for delimiting the spread of Hate Speech via online social media platforms. Currently, companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Google generally respondreactivelyto such material: offensive messages that have already been posted are reviewed by human moderators if complaints from users are received. The offensive posts are onlysubsequentlyremoved if the complaints are upheld; therefore, they still cause the recipients psychological harm. In addition, this approach has frequently been criticised for delimiting freedom (...)
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  3.  26
    The practical ethics of bias reduction in machine translation: why domain adaptation is better than data debiasing.Marcus Tomalin, Bill Byrne, Shauna Concannon, Danielle Saunders & Stefanie Ullmann - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):419-433.
    This article probes the practical ethical implications of AI system design by reconsidering the important topic of bias in the datasets used to train autonomous intelligent systems. The discussion draws on recent work concerning behaviour-guiding technologies, and it adopts a cautious form of technological utopianism by assuming it is potentially beneficial for society at large if AI systems are designed to be comparatively free from the biases that characterise human behaviour. However, the argument presented here critiques the common well-intentioned requirement (...)
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  4.  23
    Measuring perceived empathy in dialogue systems.Shauna Concannon & Marcus Tomalin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    Dialogue systems, from Virtual Personal Assistants such as Siri, Cortana, and Alexa to state-of-the-art systems such as BlenderBot3 and ChatGPT, are already widely available, used in a variety of applications, and are increasingly part of many people’s lives. However, the task of enabling them to use empathetic language more convincingly is still an emerging research topic. Such systems generally make use of complex neural networks to learn the patterns of typical human language use, and the interactions in which the systems (...)
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  5.  22
    Counterspeech: multidisciplinary perspectives on countering dangerous speech.Stefanie Ullmann & Marcus Tomalin (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This volume looks at the forms and functions of counterspeech as well as what determines its effectiveness and success from multidisciplinary perspectives. Counterspeech is in line with international human rights and freedom of speech and it can be a much more powerful tool against dangerous and toxic speech than blocking and censorship. In the face of online hate speech and disinformation, counterspeech is a tremendously important and timely topic. The book uniquely brings together expertise from a variety of disciplines. It (...)
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  6.  82
    Syntactic Structures and Recursive Devices: A Legacy of Imprecision. [REVIEW]Marcus Tomalin - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):297-315.
    Taking Chomsky’s Syntactic Structures as a starting point, this paper explores the use of recursive techniques in contemporary linguistic theory. Specifically, it is shown that there were profound ambiguities surrounding the notion of recursion in the 1950s, and that this was partly due to the fact that influential texts such as Syntactic Structures neglected to define what exactly constituted a recursive device. As a result, uncertainties concerning the role of recursion in linguistic theory have prevailed until the present day, and (...)
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