The Italian code of medical deontology recently approved stipulates that physicians have the duty to inform the patient of each unwanted event and its causes, and to identify, report and evaluate adverse events and errors. Thus the obligation to supply information continues to widen, in some way extending beyond the doctor-patient relationship to become an essential tool for improving the quality of professional services.
In Italy in recent years, an exponential increase in the frequency of medical malpractice claims relating to the issue of informed consent has substantially altered not only medical ethics, but medical practice as well. Total or partial lack of consent has become the cornerstone of many malpractice lawsuits, and continues to be one of the primary cudgels against defendant physicians in Italian courtrooms. Physicians have responded to the rising number of claims with an increase in ‘defensive medicine’ and a prevailing (...) preoccupation with the purely formal aspects of consent. The result is a plethora of consent forms, believed to be a guarantee of ‘informed consent’, as well as a growing reliance on informed consent as a shield against judicial action brought by the patient. Physicians ‘inform’ patients without really sharing information, often delegating the task of communication to other professionals who are not doctors. Italian judges always condemn the physician when information to the patient has been inadequate, thus leading insurance companies to consider the lack of valid informed consent as the total responsibility of the physician and/or the hospital. It is necessary to change tack, to remove this idea of consent which permeates the defensive culture of medical practice. Italian physicians need to be trained, first of all, to become aware that information and consent are two distinct processes, albeit closely connected. Valid communication demands a higher level of professionalism from physicians. (shrink)
The Sārasaṅgaha is a Pāli text of XIIth–XIIIth century by the Sinhalese monk Siddhattha Thera. Its themes include the aspiration to become a Buddha, shrines, meditation, theories on rain, wind, gender and more. The main body consists of citations from the Nikāyas, the Jātakas, the Visuddhimagga and above all, from commentarial literature. By analysing the way the Sārasaṅgaha refers to and establishes a dialogue with the quoted works, this paper promotes a new assessment of the cultural and textual tendencies that (...) influenced the development of Buddhist literature especially in the Middle Ages. In particular, the analysis of this text and the quotations of which it is composed reveals the importance of commentarial literature, a literary genre that only recently has attracted the attention of Pāli scholars. (shrink)
Norman in 1969 emphasised a linguistic difference between the Vedic compound yogakṣema- interpreted as a dvandva and the widely distributed Early Buddhist compound yogakkhema-, analysed as a tatpuruṣa “rest from exertion”. On the basis of our analysis of the relevant Pali sources and of the more ancient Vedic occurrences—some of which are quite far from the earliest denotation of the two cyclic phases of the assumed semi-nomadic Indo-Āryan life—we have undertaken a classification of the several meanings of this compound, in (...) order to distinguish their different facets and to enable us to easily bring about the comparison proposed by Norman in 1969 and in 1993 . Unlike Norman, we eventually postulated a common reading of this compound as a tatpuruṣa originally denoting an almost material target of welfare, from which both the Brāhmaṇic and the Buddhist usages, whose meaning is predominantly immaterial, might have developed. (shrink)
The authors analyze deficiencies and perils of the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine , in particular the concept of human rights as given by natural law and the Conventions stand on germline therapy and its refutation of therapeutic enhancement.
The new par a digm of knowl edge is as so - ci ated with inter-sub jec tiv ity, transdisciplinarity and com plex ity. Un der stand ing and in ter pre ta tion of the pro cesses and phe nom - ena of re al ity are pos si ble if one pays at ten tion to the dis cur sive frame work in which the cont..
O Brasil é o país com a maior população católica. A evolução de variáveis socioeconômicas na década de 1990, aí incluindo casamentos, fertilidade, renda, moradia entre outras, revelam que nenhuma mudou tanto quanto a composição religiosa da população brasileira. O Censo é a base de dados mais usada nos estudos no tema, porém, as estatísticas estão hoje paradas no Censo 2000. A Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2009 – POF/IBGE permite medir a religiosidade brasileira recente detalhando subgrupos religiosos com classificação comparável (...) a do Censo e possibilidade de cruzamentos com uma gama maior de variáveis. Este estudo processa microdados da POF de 2003 e 2009, quando o contexto econômico difere das décadas anteriores, permitindo estudar as relações entre economia e religiosidade num contexto de expansão. Mostramos que: i) há velocidade de queda do catolicismo dez vezes mais rápida do que a observada entre 1872 e 1980, mas similar à dos anos 1990, embora as novas filiações sejam não apenas nos grupos evangélicos pentecostais, mas mais nos protestantes tradicionais; ii) ao contrário dos países europeus mais católicos que vivem contração econômica (PIIGS), as localidades brasileiras mais católicas vivem expansão mais forte que as demais; iii) os brasileiros se mostram na mediana de frequência a cultos religiosos em 150 países; iv) as mulheres, embora mais religiosas que os homens, tornaram-se menos católicas; v) os jovens mostram uma fuga mais acelerada do catolicismo. Palavras-chave: Religião. Economia. Max Weber. Mapa das Religiões no Brasil.Brazil is the country with the biggest Catholic population in the world. The evolution of socio-economic variables during the 1990s such as marriage, fertility, incomes, housing among others, revealed that no other variable changed as much as the religious composition of Brazilian population. Demographic Census is the mostly widely used survey in religious studies. However, these statistics are today only available until 2000. Microdata from national Family Expenditure Surveys (POF/IBGE) allow us to measure the recent Brazilian religious evolution by detailing religious subgroups and also by exploring a richer array of correlated variables. This study processes microdata from POF in 2003 and 2009 when the economic context differs from the previous decades. It allows us to study the relation between economy and religion during a boom. This article aims to show that: i) The speed of the fall in Catholicism in Brazil is two times faster than the one observed in 1990, although similar to the one observed in the 1990s; the destinies of the Catholics however are less the Pentecostal Evangelicals and more the Traditional Protestants. ii) In contrast to major European Catholic countries that are facing a recession, the Brazilian localities with a catholic population have experienced an economic expansion. iii) Brazilians are on the World median in terms of attendance to religious activities. iv) Although females are more religious than males, they are less catholic. v) There is a faster reduction of Catholics among the youth in Brazil. Key words: Religion. Economy. Max Weber. Maps of Religions in Brazil. (shrink)
Over the past few years, several proposals aimed at procuring human pluripotent (embryonic-like) stem cells without involving the destruction of a human embryo have been proposed and widely discussed. This article focuses on a basic aspect of the debate, namely the plausibility of one or more of these new proposals being able to meet the ethical requirements that those who regard the human embryo as sacred have tried to impose on stem cells research in the last ten years. The thesis (...) of the article is that focusing the discussion only on the sources of stem cells has prevented a full understanding of the foundation, meaning and scope of these ethical requirements. To substantiate this thesis, the article takes into consideration two issues: the first has to do with the potential of the cells obtained through some of the new approaches (iPS included), the second (and decisive) with the argument of the ‘indirect complicity’, applied to the use of ‘contaminated’ knowledge. (shrink)
Europe and the European Union are now on the agenda, and there are heated discussions concerning both monetary and social unification. Ralf Dahrendorf, a Euroskeptic, has recently pointed out that “The worst part of the European Union is the deadly boredom surrounding most of the issues with which it deals.” The endless technical questions tackled by experts and interest groups are important and unavoidable, but they concern only those occasionally affected by them. Rarely is the fundamental question ever posed: “What (...) is the real reason why we are seeking European Union?”1For their part, philosophers have rediscovered an old theme:…. (shrink)
H´ector-Neri Casta˜neda-Calder´on (December 13, 1924–September 7, 1991) was born in San Vicente Zacapa, Guatemala. He attended the Normal School for Boys in Guatemala City, later called the Military Normal School for Boys, from which he was expelled for refusing to ﬁght a bully; the dramatic story, worthy of being ﬁlmed, is told in the “De Re” section of his autobiography, “Self-Proﬁle” (1986). He then attended a normal school in Costa Rica, followed by studies in philosophy at the University of (...) San Carlos, Guatemala. He won a scholarship to the University of Minnesota, where he received his B.A. (1950), M.A. (1952), and Ph.D. (1954), all in philosophy. His dissertation, “The Logical Structure of Moral Reasoning”, was written under the direction of Wilfrid Sellars. He returned to teach in Guatemala, and then received a scholarship to study at Oxford University (1955–1956), after which he took a sabbatical-replacement position in philosophy at Duke University (1956). His ﬁrst full-time academic appointment was at Wayne State University (1957– 1969), where he founded the philosophy journal Noˆus (1967, a counter-offer made to him by Wayne State to encourage him to stay there rather than to take the chairmanship of philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania). In 1969, he moved (along with several of his Wayne colleagues) to Indiana University, where he eventually became the Mahlon Powell Professor of Philosophy and, later, its ﬁrst Dean of Latino Affairs (1978–1981). He remained at Indiana until his death. He was also a visiting professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin (1962–1963) and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1981–1982). He received grants and fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation (1967–1968), the T. Andrew Mellon Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the National Science Foundation. He was elected President of the American Philosophical Association Central Division (1979– 1980), named to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1990), and received the Presidential Medal of Honor from the Government of Guatemala (1991). Casta˜neda’s philosophical interests spanned virtually the entire spectrum of philosophy, and his theories form a highly interconnected whole.. (shrink)