The paper focuses on the kind of expertise required by doctors in health communication and argues that such an expertise is twofold: both epistemological and communicative competences are necessary to achieve compliance with the patient. Firstly, we introduce the specific epistemic competences that deal with diagnosis and its problems. Secondly, we focus on the communicative competences and argue that an inappropriate strategy in communicating the reasons of diagnosis and therapy can make patient compliance unworkable. Finally, we focus on the case (...) of diabetes metaphor and propose the deliberate use of metaphors in health communication as an educational tool. On the one hand, metaphors might help doctors in explaining the disease in simpler terms and framing the experience of illness according to patient’s specific needs. On the other hand, metaphors might encourage a change in patient’s beliefs on their own experience of illness, and enable them to reach a shared decision making with doctors. (shrink)
This innovative aid to the study of Italian was published in 1867 by MariaFrancesca Rossetti, the older sister of Dante Gabriel, William Michael and Christina. A scholar and teacher of Italian, she was later to publish A Shadow of Dante, a guide to the Divine Comedy, also reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection. Her purpose here, as she explains in her preface, is to demonstrate idiomatic Italian usage by providing short passages translated very literally into English, so (...) that the 'unnatural' English phraseology demonstrates the correct Italian construction. The passages are to be translated back into Italian, with the help of some supplied vocabulary and an opening chapter which elucidates some of the more difficult aspects of Italian grammar, often by comparing Italian with French usage. The technique had long been used for Latin and Greek prose composition, but was innovatory for modern languages. (shrink)
L’utilisation des réseaux socionumériques est sans doute l’activité en ligne qui enregistre actuellement la croissance la plus rapide parmi les jeunes. Cet article présente de nouvelles conclusions pan-européennes du projet EU Kids Online sur la façon dont les enfants et les jeunes exploitent les possibilités des réseaux peer-to-peer offertes par les réseaux socionumériques, en se basant sur une enquête menée auprès d’environ 25 000 jeunes . Globalement, 59 % des jeunes internautes européens âgés de 9 à 16 ans disposent de (...) leur propre profil sur un site de réseau social. Malgré des craintes, couramment exprimées, de voir la vie des jeunes entièrement exposée en public, la moitié ont moins de cinquante contacts, la plupart des contacts sont des personnes que l’enfant connaît déjà personnellement, et plus de deux tiers ont des profils privés ou partiellement privés. L’objectif de l’analyse est donc de comprendre quand et pourquoi certains enfants cherchent à élargir leurs cercles de contacts en ligne, et pourquoi certains préfèrent dévoiler leur intimité plutôt que protéger leur vie privée. L’étude montre que les différences démographiques entre les enfants, les facteurs culturels dans les différents pays, et les affordances spécifiques des réseaux socionumériques ont tous une influence sur l’élaboration des pratiques en ligne des enfants en matière de vie privée, d’identité et de connexions sociales.Social networking is arguably the fastest growing online activity among youth people. This article presents new pan-European findings from the EU Kids Online project on how children and young people navigate the peer-to-peer networking possibilities afforded by social networking sites, based on a survey of around 25,000 children . In all, 59 % of European 9-16 year olds who use the internet have their own social networking profile. Despite popular anxieties of lives lived indiscriminately in public, half have fewer than fifty contacts, most contacts are people already known to the child in person, and over two thirds have their profiles either private or partially private. The focus of the analysis, then, is to understand when and why some children seek wider circles of online contacts, and why some favour self-disclosure rather than privacy. Demographic differences among children, cultural factors across countries, and the specific affordances of social networking sites are all shown to make a difference in shaping the particularities of children’s online practices of privacy, identity and connection. (shrink)
Cet article constitue l'un des éléments d'un dossier comparatif international sur le traitement médiatique de l'attentat survenu à la gare d'Atocha à Madrid en mars 2004. Centré sur l'Italie et basé sur l'étude d'un corpus des quatre principaux quotidiens, il analyse les orientations du discours développé par cette presse dans les jours qui ont suivi cet événement. Il montre, qu'après un moment de compassion devant les conséquences dramatiques de l'attentat, ces titres se sont déterminés sur la base d'une analogie entre (...) la situation politique espagnole et la situation italienne et ceci en raison des positions identiques de leurs gouvernements quant au conflit en Irak. Des divergences de tons et d'attitude sont observables entre ces différents journaux, mais on assiste globalement à une forme de banalisation et de «nationalisation» de l'événement progressivement replié sur la scène nationale.This article is one of a comparative study on the international media coverage of the attack in Atocha train station in Madrid in March 2004. Centered on Italy and based on the study of a corpus of four major dailies, it analyzes the stand taken by the press in the days following the event. It shows, after a moment of compassion for the tragic consequences of the attack, these securities are determined on the basis of an analogy between the Spanish political situation and the situation in Italy and this because of the identical positions of their governments about the conflict in Iraq. Differences of tone and attitude are observable between these newspapers, but there is generally a form of trivialization and "nationalization" of the event gradually declined on the national scene. (shrink)
Escribir hoy en día un libro sobre hermenéutica, que tal hermenéutica se refiera a la desarrollada por G. Gadamer en su conocido Verdad y método y que se pretenda añadir algo nuevo a lo mucho escrito sobre el tema parecería, a primera vista, empresa irrealizable. Que ambas pretensiones inspiren la sólida monografía de María G. Navarro —titulada Interpretar y argumentar— constituye empresa audaz y arriesgada, plena de coraje innovador, que provoca admiración, curiosidad e interés. Contra lo que pudiera parecer a (...) primera vista, el libro contiene un alto componente de originalidad y creatividad, debido a la estratagema metodoló-gica de que se sirve la autora. A saber, una hermenéutica in obliquo, estrategia consistente en interpretar a la hermenéutica gadameriana a través del prisma de la lógica de la argumentación. (shrink)
_María Zambrano. __A Life of Poetic Reason and Political Commitment _de Beatriz Caballero Rodríguez y _The Cultural Legacy of María Zambrano_, editado por Xon de Ros y Daniela Omlor, son dos recientes aportaciones críticas al pensamiento de María Zambrano, pioneras en su contexto al constituir los dos primeros libros monográficos en lengua inglesa sobre esta filósofa y escritora. Por ello se abordarán en una reseña conjunta con el fin de mostrar la vigencia del pensamiento de Zambrano en el siglo XXI.
This article argues for a distinction between reticence and lying, on the basis of what Kant says about reticence in his correspondence with Maria von Herbert, as well as in his other ethical writings, and defends this distinction against the objections of Rae Langton ("Duty and Desolation", 1992). I argue that lying is necessarily deceptive, whereas reticence is not necessarily deceptive. Allowing another person to remain ignorant of some matter is a form of reticence that is not deceptive. This (...) form of reticence may be ethically permissible. (shrink)
Schizophrenia spectrum has been associated with a disruption of the basic sense of self, which pertains, among others, the representation of one’s own body. We investigated the impact of either implicit or explicit access to the representation of one’s own body-effectors on bodily self-awareness, in first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls . We contrasted their performance in an implicit self-recognition task and in an explicit self/other discrimination task. Both tasks employed participant’s own and others’ body-effectors. Concerning the implicit task, HCs (...) were more accurate with their own than with others’ body-effectors, whereas patients did not show such self-advantage. Regarding the explicit task, both groups did not exhibit a self-advantage, and patients showed a higher percentage of self-misattribution errors. Neither self/other nor implicit/explicit effects were found in both groups when processing inanimate-objects. We propose that FES patients suffer of a disturbed implicit sense of bodily self. (shrink)
Cognitive reflection is recognized as an important skill, which is necessary for making advantageous decisions. Even though gender differences in the Cognitive Reflection test appear to be robust across multiple studies, little research has examined the source of the gender gap in performance. In Study 1, we tested the invariance of the scale across genders. In Study 2, we investigated the role of math anxiety, mathematical reasoning, and gender in CRT performance. The results attested the measurement equivalence of the Cognitive (...) Reflection Test – Long, when administered to male and female students. Additionally, the results of the mediation analysis showed an indirect effect of gender on CRT-L performance through mathematical reasoning and math anxiety. The direct effect of gender was no longer statistically significant after accounting for the other variables. The current findings suggest that cognitive reflection is affected by numerical skills and related feelings. (shrink)
This work proposes research on a still unexplored psychical world: thoughts, emotions, and real events experienced by racket victims of the three largest criminal organizations of the South of Italy: Mafia, Camorra, and ‘Ndrangheta. The purpose is to understand the multifaceted psycho-anthropological and social issues criminal organizations have settled on, and particularly which psycho-relational dynamics and sociocultural codes come into play in the complex and controversial relationship between victim and criminal system, between victim and support systems. With entrepreneurs and tradesmen (...) victims of organized crime, we have analyzed lived experiences—in particular fear—and psychological problems they had to cope with; events and motivations that allowed them “breaking” the silence and asking for help; the representation of a support network before and after their possible pressing charges; the kind of help offered by support systems. Dignity and self-respect, the fight for one's own freedom and honor,.. (shrink)
Este texto trata de apresentar a posição intelectual de Fernando Do Ó, militar, advogado e espírita que atuou em Santa Maria nas décadas de 1930 a 1960, sobre espiritismo. Essas discussões foram sustentadas na análise do Pierre Bourdieu sobre as disputas percebidas do campo religioso. Destacamos suas posições a partir do que foi publicado no jornal Diário do Interior de 1930 a 1937, assim, propomos uma reflexão, da escrita na imprensa local no sentido de demarcar identidade espírita diante da (...) pluralidade de práticas mediúnicas. (shrink)
This article attempts to recover the arguments of Spanish philosopher María Zambrano, particularly from works expounding her thoughts regarding the notion of person, and to demonstrate how such a reflection engenders the constitution of the idea of history for westernman, characterized by anethi..
The following paper aims to show that the reception of José María Arguedas’most ambitious work, Todas las Sangres [Every Blood], and his suicide were the consequences of a generation that valued authenticity over sincerity. By making acritical analysis of the life and works of Argueda in the light of Lionel Trilling’s conceptsof “sincerity” and “authenticity”, the following paper concludes that Argueda’s natural sincerity might actually have been more complex and productive than the authenticity of his literary and academic peers.
VIEIRA, José Álvaro Campos. Aurora de uma espiritualidade sem religião: análise dos sem religião a partir da concepção de espiritualidade não religiosa de Marià Corbi. 2014. Dissertação , Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
: How do people make decisions? Previous psychological research consistently shed light on the fact that decisions are not the result of a pure rational reasoning, and that emotions can assume a crucial role. This is particularly true in the case of moral decision-making, which requires a complex integration of affective and cognitive processes. One question that is still open to debate concern the individual factors that can affect moral decisions. Gender has been consistently identified as a possible variable of (...) interest for the adoption of different strategic behaviors, with men using more rational processes and women more deontological principles. In the present study we aimed at exploring the presence of gender differences in different decision-making scenarios. Results showed that the moral scenario led to a similar acceptance rate in both genders, while economic and shopping offers were more likely to be accepted by men. Also, women were more inclined to refuse unfair offers, which included a higher personal benefit at the expense of the opponent, even if this meant a total loss for both parties. Finally, correlational analyses revealed a different relation between risk propensity and decision-making in men and women in different scenarios. Keywords: Decision-making; Utilitarianism; Altruism; Moral Decision-making; Economic Decision-making Decisioni morali, economiche e d’acquisto a confronto. Effetti di genere e utilitarismo Riassunto: Come prendiamo le decisioni? La letteratura psicologica disponibile ha chiarito in ampia misura come le decisioni non siano il risultato di un ragionamento puramente razionale e che le emozioni possono assumere un ruolo cruciale. Questo è particolarmente vero nel caso delle decisioni morali, che richiedono una complessa integrazione tra processi affettivi e cognitivi. Una questione ancora aperta riguarda i fattori individuali che possono incidere sulle decisioni morali. Il genere è stato identificato come una possibile variabile da considerare rispetto all’adozione di comportamenti strategici differenti, in cui gli uomini sembrano più inclini a far uso di processi razionali e le donne a considerare principi deontologici. In questo lavoro abbiamo provato a esplorare la presenza di differenze di genere in diversi contesti decisionali. I risultati hanno mostrano come in ambito morale entrambi i generi siano portati ad accettare opzioni simili, mentre offerte economiche e commerciali sono accettate in misura maggiore dagli uomini. Le donne sarebbero più inclini a rifiutare offerte inique che comprendono benefici personali maggiori a discapito di una controparte, anche se questo implica una perdita totale da ambo le parti. Infine, le analisi correlazionali hanno mostrato una diversa relazione tra propensione al rischio e processi decisionali tra uomini e donne in contesti diversi. Parole chiave: Processi decisionali; Utilitarismo; Altruismo; Processi decisionali morali; Processi decisionali economici. (shrink)
Since the first offender rehabilitation treatments, all theoretical approaches have been focusing on reducing risk factors that may influence recidivism, without satisfactory results. Recent resilience research has instead shown the important mediating or moderating role of protective factors and provided the theoretical principles for the Good Lives Model Comprehensive. This holistic model suggests the importance of integrating the reduction of risk factors with the reinforcement of protective factors in offenders' treatment programs. This combined action is considered the main condition through (...) which offenders are motivated to change their life and develop a sense of agency on their current life conditions. This article presents a pilot study, aimed at analyzing the feasibility of a psychosocial intervention, based on graphic workshops. The purpose of the intervention is helping prisoners strive toward adaptation in jail, and facilitating the redesign of their life beyond bars. Drawing activities allowe... (shrink)