Escribir hoy en día un libro sobre hermenéutica, que tal hermenéutica se refiera a la desarrollada por G. Gadamer en su conocido Verdad y método y que se pretenda añadir algo nuevo a lo mucho escrito sobre el tema parecería, a primera vista, empresa irrealizable. Que ambas pretensiones inspiren la sólida monografía de María G. Navarro —titulada Interpretar y argumentar— constituye empresa audaz y arriesgada, plena de coraje innovador, que provoca admiración, curiosidad e interés. Contra lo que pudiera parecer a (...) primera vista, el libro contiene un alto componente de originalidad y creatividad, debido a la estratagema metodoló-gica de que se sirve la autora. A saber, una hermenéutica in obliquo, estrategia consistente en interpretar a la hermenéutica gadameriana a través del prisma de la lógica de la argumentación. (shrink)
María Zambrano. A Life of Poetic Reason and Political Commitment de Beatriz Caballero Rodríguez y The Cultural Legacy of María Zambrano, editado por Xon de Ros y Daniela Omlor, son dos recientes aportaciones críticas al pensamiento de María Zambrano, pioneras en su contexto al constituir los dos primeros libros monográficos en lengua inglesa sobre esta filósofa y escritora. Por ello se abordarán en una reseña conjunta con el fin de mostrar la vigencia del pensamiento de Zambrano en el siglo XXI.
This article argues for a distinction between reticence and lying, on the basis of what Kant says about reticence in his correspondence with Maria von Herbert, as well as in his other ethical writings, and defends this distinction against the objections of Rae Langton ("Duty and Desolation", 1992). I argue that lying is necessarily deceptive, whereas reticence is not necessarily deceptive. Allowing another person to remain ignorant of some matter is a form of reticence that is not deceptive. This (...) form of reticence may be ethically permissible. (shrink)
The following paper aims to show that the reception of José María Arguedas’most ambitious work, Todas las Sangres [Every Blood], and his suicide were the consequences of a generation that valued authenticity over sincerity. By making acritical analysis of the life and works of Argueda in the light of Lionel Trilling’s conceptsof “sincerity” and “authenticity”, the following paper concludes that Argueda’s natural sincerity might actually have been more complex and productive than the authenticity of his literary and academic peers.
VIEIRA, José Álvaro Campos. Aurora de uma espiritualidade sem religião: análise dos sem religião a partir da concepção de espiritualidade não religiosa de Marià Corbi. 2014. Dissertação , Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
This article attempts to recover the arguments of Spanish philosopher María Zambrano, particularly from works expounding her thoughts regarding the notion of person, and to demonstrate how such a reflection engenders the constitution of the idea of history for westernman, characterized by anethi..
Contents: Preface. SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF MARIA STEFFEN-BATÓG AND TADEUSZ BATÓG. List of Publications of Maria Steffen-Batóg. List of Publications of Tadeusz Batóg. Jerzy POGONOWSKI: On the Scientific Works of Maria Steffen-Batóg. Jerzy POGONOWSKI: On the Scientific Works of Tadeusz Batóg. W??l??odzimierz LAPIS: How Should Sounds Be Phonemicized? Pawe??l?? NOWAKOWSKI: On Applications of Algorithms for Phonetic Transcription in Linguistic Research. Jerzy POGONOWSKI: Tadeusz Batóg's Phonological Systems. MATHEMATICAL LOGIC. Wojciech BUSZKOWSKI: Incomplete Information Systems and Kleene 3-valued Logic. Maciej KANDULSKI: (...) Categorial Grammars with Structural Rules. Miros??l??awa KO??L??OWSKA-GAWIEJNOWICZ: Labelled Deductive Systems for the Lambek Calculus. Roman MURAWSKI: Satisfaction Classes - a Survey. Kazimierz _WIRYDOWICZ: A New Approach to Dyadic Deontic Logic and the Normative Consequence Relation. Wojciech ZIELONKA: More about the Axiomatics of the Lambek Calculus. THEORETICAL LINGUISTICS. Jacek Juliusz JADACKI: Troubles with Categorial Interpretation of Natural Language. Maciej KARPI??N??SKI: Conversational Devices in Human-Computer Communication Using WIMP UI. Witold MACIEJEWSKI: Qualitative Orientation and Grammatical Categories. Zygmunt VETULANI: A System of Computer Understanding of Texts. Andrzej WÓJCIK: The Formal Development of van Sandt's Presupposition Theory. W??l??adys??l??aw ZABROCKI: Psychologism in Noam Chomsky's Theory . Ryszard ZUBER: Defining Presupposition without Negation. PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE AND METHODOLOGY OF SCIENCES. Jerzy KMITA: Philosophical Antifundamentalism. Anna LUCHOWSKA: Peirce and Quine: Two Views on Meaning. Stefan WIERTLEWSKI: Method According to Feyerabend. Jan WOLE??N??SKI: Wittgenstein and Ordinary Language. Krystyna ZAMIARA: Context of Discovery - Context of Justification and the Problem of Psychologism. (shrink)
¿Qué es razonar?, ¿qué es interpretar?, ¿cómo podemos estar seguros de que determinadas interpretaciones, en ciertos contextos políticos, sociales, culturales, etc., son más razonables que otras? Estas preguntas se encuentran en el origen de dos tradiciones de pensamiento: la hermenéutica y la analítica.
The relationship between Mary and the Holy Spirit can be appointed in Scriptures passages that supply us enough security to affirm it a different relationship of that others creatures can have with God. This relationship is a model of the integration desired by God with his Church. May be perceived that many of the mentions done at Holy Spirit in the New Testament have Mary like person of the respective context. Being herself a masterpiece of the Holy Spirit she is (...) quoted in intention to serve like prototype of that spreaks a text. Is based on this affirmation that Mary is a start point to the ecclesiology and to pneumatology since long tradition in the Church. A study about Mary and the Holy Spirit have in view, therefore, afford elements of theological elaboration to both treaties of fundamental relevance. (shrink)
María Jesús Vitón es Doctora en Ciencias de la Educación y Profesora Titular de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Desarrolla su docencia y sus investigaciones en el terreno de lo socio-educativo, en grupos, en territorios, en países y en paisajes donde su quehacer profesional cobra el sentido de contribuir a transformar; a transformar con otros.Diálogos con Raquel es una propuesta metodológica práctica para planificar, desarrollar y evaluar acciones educativas en la diversidad cultural, con ..
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo invitar a reflexionar sobre la obra de una filósofa que representa uno de los pensamientos más originales del quehacer filosófico español: María Zambrano. Sus planteamientos en torno a la crítica cultural y género, la crítica al pensamiento moderno, son en sí, una clara crítica a la razón patriarcal. Repensar el quehacer político-práctico de María Zambrano como una figura de la emancipación nos permitirá entender nuestro propio presente.
Desde las filosofías de la imaginación y vitalista, María Zambrano habla del exilio político. Lo protagonizan los bienaventurados, a saber, los fieles a sus ideales, unos seres libres que no mienten porque no necesitan los disfraces de la maldad. Las fases del exilio son: 1) el destierro o pérdida d..
“¿Cómo un ser humano cualquiera, educado en los valores cristianos que son predominantes en los sectores militares de la sociedad chilena pudo, como resultado de sus comportamientos de obediencia, transgredir los umbrales de la ética y realizar actos criminales?”. Esta pregunta de investigación guía el trabajo de María Teresa Pozzoli que reseñamos. El libro de María Teresa Pozzoli aborda la debida obediencia militar arraigada en la ideología de las Fuerzas Armadas chilenas durante el período..
El libro de María Novo está compuesto por un conjunto de artículos en los que diversos autores denuncian el tratamiento invisibilizante que el paradigma vigente -en el contexto de la Modernidad y también de la Globalización- ha comprometido la dignidad y la integridad de dos sujetos o entidades: la mujer y la naturaleza. El primer capítulo escrito por la misma María Novo, examina el papel que en los últimos siglos las sociedades patriarcales le han otorgado a la naturaleza y a (...) las mujeres, am.. (shrink)
El presente trabajo busca identificar y explicar las necesidades metodológicas que llevan a Zambrano a abordar, en su “Carta sobre el exilio”, el tema del exilio desde el género epistolar. Nuestra pregunta se enmarca en las indagaciones que Zambrano hiciera respecto de los géneros literarios, como formas alternativas de acercar pensamiento y vida. Para ello, abordamos el exilio como una de aquellas experiencias que, según Zambrano, se niegan a ser objetivadas por la filosofía sistemática y de las cuales nacen los (...) géneros no sistemáticos. Específicamente, nos detenemos en la particular experiencia que del tiempo se da en el exilio y en las exigencias metodológicas que esta experiencia impone a una escritura que, en la búsqueda de un saber de experiencia, intenta comunicar algo de ella. Desde este análisis mostraremos cómo la “Carta” en tanto género literario, viene a responder a las exigencias que la propia experiencia del exilio le plantea a Zambrano: la necesidad de la construcción de un tiempo común entre exiliados y no-exiliados, que se deriva de la crisis de una comunidad que significó la Guerra Civil; tiempo que permita la comunicación de una memoria histórica como “evidencia” del exilio. (shrink)
No discussion of academic freedom, research integrity, and patient safety could begin with a more disquieting pair of case studies than those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. The cumulative impact of the Olivieri and Healy affairs has caused serious self examination within the biomedical research community. The first part of the essay analyses these recent academic scandals. The two case studies are then placed in their historical context—that context being the transformation of the norms of science through (...) increasingly close ties between research universities and the corporate world. After a literature survey of the ways in which corporate sponsorship has biased the results of clinical drug trials, two different strategies to mitigate this problem are identified and assessed: a regulatory approach, which focuses on managing risks associated with industry funding of university research, and a more radical approach, the sequestration thesis, which counsels the outright elimination of corporate sponsorship. The reformist approach is criticised and the radical approach defended. (shrink)
Maria Kokoszyńska-Lutmanowa was one of the most outstanding female representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School. After achieving her PhD in philosophy under Kazimierz Twardowski’s supervision, she was Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s assistant. She was also influenced by Alfred Tarski whose results in semantics she analyzed and popularized. After World War II, she got the chair of logic in University of Wrocław and she organized studies in logic in this academic center. In the 1930s, Kokoszyńska kept in contact with members of the Vienna (...) Circle and became a kind of connecting factor between Polish logicians and the Viennese group. In Poland, she presented the views of members of the Vienna Circle. In Vienna, she emphasized the results of her Polish colleagues. In the present paper, some of Kokoszyńska’s results connected with the matters discussed in the Vienna Circle are presented, namely with the problem of metaphysics, the status of logic and the idea of unity of science. (shrink)
This paper lays out the epistemology of Maria Montessori . I start with what I call Montessori's ‘interested empiricism’, her empiricist emphasis on the foundational role of the senses combined with her insistence that all cognition is infused with ‘interest’. I then discuss the unconscious. Partly because of her emphasis on early childhood, Montessori puts great emphasis on unconscious cognitive processes and develops a conceptual vocabulary to make sense of the continuity between conscious and unconscious processes. The final sections (...) turn to two brief but important applications of this general epistemic framework, the importance of ‘meditation’ as an epistemic practice and Montessori's accounts of epistemic virtues. (shrink)
This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external capacities to better specify possible locations for children's ‘incapacity’ for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls ‘normalization’, which involves a release of children's capacities for autonomy and self-governance made possible by being provided with the right kind of environment. Using Montessori, I argue that, in contrast to many ordinary and philosophical assumptions, children's incapacities for autonomy are best understood as consequences of an (...) absence of external conditions necessary for children to exercise capacities they already have internally, rather than intrinsic limitations based on their stage of life. In a closing section, I show how Montessori proposes a model wherein both children and adults have autonomy, power, and responsibility, but over different spheres, and suggest implications of these differences for who has responsibility for establishing the conditions under which children can flourish. (shrink)
Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of (...) the teacher-scientist in a specially prepared environment, who can engage in sustained and impassioned observation of “normalized” children. Drawing from a variety of texts and recently published lectures, this article lays out Montessori’s philosophy of experimental psychology and briefly discusses its relevance today. (shrink)
1. As John Hawthorne and Maria Lasonen-Aarnio appreciate, some of the central issues raised in their ‘Knowledge and Objective Chance’ arise for all but the most extreme theories of knowledge. In a wide range of cases, according to very plausible everyday judgments, we know something about the future, even though, according to quantum mechanics, our belief has a small but nonzero chance (objective probability) of being untrue. In easily constructed examples, we are in that position simultaneously with respect to (...) many different propositions about the future that are equiprobable and probabilistically independent of each other, at least to a reasonable approximation. (shrink)
This paper elucidates the core principles of Maria Montessori's metaphysics. Her attention to embryological, evolutionary, and educational development led to her teleological metaphysics of life. Individual organisms are governed by internally driven, perfectionist, discontinuous teleology. And this individual teleology is integrated into a holistic, ecological context whereby individuals' striving towards perfection works for the increased ordered complexity of the systems of which they are parts. Moreover, Montessori extends this metaphysics of life to include nonliving components of nature, such that (...) atoms, planets, and inorganic molecules are governed by the same general teleological structure. (shrink)
Resumen: Diez años después de la muerte de Franco, la escritora catalana Maria Barbal publicó Pedra de tartera, una novela sobre la trayectoria vital de una campesina del Pirineo marcada por la Guerra Civil española. El objetivo de este artículo es demostrar que el éxito local e internacional de la obra reside en la capacidad de la voz narrativa por rememorar el pasado desde el posicionamiento ético en contra de los seculares poderes patriarcales y el compromiso con la denuncia (...) de la condición de la mujer. La obra de Barbal ha merecido una atención académica poco significativa, que además no ha profundizado en su dimensión de relato de guerra. Con el fin de situar Pedra de tartera en el corpus de narrativas de la memoria que abordan la Guerra Civil, proponemos una exégesis que pone el foco en el reconocimiento de la violencia patriarcal, bélica y postbélica que sufre la protagonista.: Ten years after Franco’s death, the Catalan writer Maria Barbal published Stone in a Landslide, a novel about the life story of a peasant woman of the Pyrenees marked by the Spanish Civil War. The aim of this paper is to prove that local and international success of the work lies in the ability of the narrative voice to remember the past from the ethical stance against the secular patriarchal powers and commitment to denouncing the woman’s condition. The work of Barbal still has not had the academic attention that it deserves, especially as a war narrative. In order to place Stone in a Landslide in the corpus of the narrative of memory addressing Civil War, we propose an exegesis that places the focus on the recognition of patriarchal, war and postwar violence suffered by the protagonist. (shrink)
El libro de María González Navarro se presenta a sí mismo como una “nueva hermenéutica” (23). La novedad involucra dos aspectos: uno que llamaremos metateórico y otro hermenéutico en propiedad. Hablando metateóricamente, el libro presenta una hermenéutica gadameriana vigorizada y robustecida por las teorías pragma-dialécticas de la argumentación. Desde el punto de vista hermenéutico propiamente dicho, la novedad reposa en que se considera que la interpretación correcta está indesligablemente vinculada a la argumentación abductiva.
Este trabajo tiene por propósito presentar de manera secuencial dos puntos asociados a la actualidad filosófica de lo religioso en el contexto de un pensamiento como el de María Zambrano. Por qué María Zambrano, pues porque nos da dos cosas:1) nos ubica en un tejido hermenéutico que califica de filosófica la cuestión religiosa y, 2) si bien lo religioso como problema tiene su tiempo, Zambrano recupera el tono de actualidad de la relación Dios-persona, vale decir, su pertinencia para la descripción (...) de la impronta del lugar primario de lo religioso en la comunidad humana. Además, que ante la tarea de validar sus objetivos filosóficos, ve en la razón la capacidad de elaborar discursos explicativos sobre la presencia o no de lo sacro en la existencia. This paper has for intention to present sequentially two points associated with the philosophical current importance of the religious thing in a context of a thought as that of Maria Zambrano. Why Maria Zambrano, because she gives us two things: 1) She locates us in a hermeneutical tissue who qualifies of philosophical the religious question and 2) though the religious thing like problem has his time, Zambrano recovers the tone of current importance of the relationship God-person, that is, its pertinence for the description of the stamp of primary place that the religious thing take place in the human community. In addition, that before the task of validating her philosophical aims, she sees in the reason the aptitude to elaborate explanatory speeches about the presence or not of the sacred thing in the existence. (shrink)
lydia maria child was one of the best-known women intellectuals of the nineteenth century on the American scene, and yet her name is not often heard today.1 Although it might seem gratuitous to attempt to label a thinker—and, in some cases, not only unnecessary, but demeaning—there is ample reason to think that Child can be called a transcendentalist, as well as an early abolitionist and feminist. In any case, the independent and very forward-looking work of this woman thinker of (...) her time, it can be argued, deserves further consideration and is not without philosophical import.Child’s name comes up now because there is renewed interest in a number of circles in the efforts of abolitionists, both black.. (shrink)
Among the elements which have gradually been complicating the countless representations of the Virgin Mary throughout history, this paper seeks to highlight and interpret conceptually one of special doctrinal significance in some Marian images during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: the temple, in whose interior some artists place some actual or symbolic episodes of Mary, from her birth or her Annunciation to the Sacra Conversazione, to give a few examples. Even though at first sight it looks as a mere scenographic (...) or ornamental ingredient, without iconographic value, this precise shape of temple reveals in fact some profound Mariological and Christological meanings. In that order of ideas, this essay is based on a double methodological strategy: first and foremost, to analyze some Marian images which include in the aforementioned period the shape of a temple, in order to see what kind of role such a religious building plays in them; secondly, to discover the relevant keys for interpreting such images, by analyzing some specific texts of the Church Fathers and medieval theologians who identify with Mary the figure of the «temple of God». For this reason, after a brief introduction to the problem, the present study is structured into three main parts inextricably intertwined: in the first we comparatively analyze twelve Marian paintings of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in which the Virgin appears inside a temple; in the second we explain the many exegesis that, in a consistent and strong patristic and theological tradition, identify the analogy of the templum Dei directly with the Virgin Mary, or indirectly with the Christ’s human body conceived in her womb; on the basis of this double analysis of images and exegetical writings, the third part of the paper states as a synthetic conclusion that the artistic representation of a temple or a church building in some Marian images of this period offers a compelling plastic metaphor of Mary and, ultimately, of her virginal divine motherhood. (shrink)
Many who write about the playwright Maria Irene Fornes’s work comment with reverence about the experience of watching those productions she herself directed.1 Managing somehow to combine frank depictions of cruelty and violence with an odd, otherworldly charm, Fornes’s direction conveyed a distinct sui generis quality that has deflected analytic scrutiny—the exterior operates in such an exquisite fashion one hesitates to lift the hood and look beneath. The set is a wooden room which sits on an earth promontory. The (...) promontory is five feet high and covers the same periphery as the room. The wood has the color and texture of bone that has dried in the sun. It is ashen and cold. In Mud’s opening notes.. (shrink)
This paper shows how Maria Montessori's thought can enrich contemporary virtue epistemology. After a short overview of her ‘interested empiricist’ epistemological framework, I discuss four representative intellectual virtues: sensory acuity, physical dexterity, intellectual love, and intellectual humility. Throughout, I show how Montessori bridges the divide between reliabilist and responsibilist approaches to the virtues and how her particular treatments of virtues offer distinctive and compelling alternatives to contemporary accounts. For instance, she emphasizes how sensory acuity is a virtue for which (...) one can be responsible, highlights the embodied nature of cognition through a focus on physical dexterity, interprets intellectual love as a way of loving the world rather than as a love that takes knowledge as its object, and presents an alternative account of intellectual humility to contemporary emphases on the interpersonal dimensions of this virtue. (shrink)
Surprising as it may appear, the philosophical writings of political economist Karl Marx (1818–1883), and those of philosopher, educator Maria Montessori(1870–1952), show thematic resemblances that invite further exploration. These resemblances reflect both keen awareness of the historical period they shared, but also important common threads in their philosophical anthropology, ethical and political values, and goals. In this paper, I examine one central thread which both take as fundamental, namely, the centrality of work in achieving the harmonious development of humankind. (...) I critique Marx’s description of the dynamic process leading to his classless society, because he fails to supply the proximate, efficient cause or middle term that effects this goal. My thesis is that Montessori supplies this missing causal link through her scientific demonstration of the work and function of the child and her holistic understanding of the human person in its full historical dimension, and human and cosmic telos. (shrink)
In recent years, discussion on evil as a philosophical problem has increased. However, there is a tendency to see this problem from an aesthetic point of view, to frame it in theodicy's plot, or even to suggest silence in front of those extreme forms of evil that are linked to specific episodes, such as totalitarianism or ethnic cleansing. This review article focuses on María Pía Lara's development of a postmetaphysical theory of evil in her book Narrating Evil. The main purpose (...) of Lara's theoretical effort is to show that critical recovery of historical episodes that have become paradigms of evil for us, has a narrative texture and intends to generate a discussion in the present time about the ways we can give reality to an idea of democratic justice, in the context of what Jürgen Habermas has called secular and postmetaphysical societies. Thus, learning from catastrophes — the term coined by Habermas and redefined by Lara — becomes a tool for mastering the past, but also constitutes a narrative device that allows us a critical approach to our present political reality. (shrink)
During the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War Erich Maria Remarque’s bestseller “All Quiet on the Western Front” is surpassing successive records of popularity. Commonly considered as an antiwar and pacifist novel, the history of Paul Bäumer, a young soldier on the western front, is rather a novel about a war generation lost in the trenches. Remarque describes this written off generation on the stage of various war-spaces. The first-person narrator who very often switches to the (...) collective ‘we’, is the voice of virtually the whole community of combatants engaged on the side of the German recruits, describes 1) barracks in which it has been attempted to destroy their youth and build their new identity, 2) the latrine at the front that paradoxically secures relative peace for them, 3) earthworks as a prelude to hostilities, 4) trenches/dugouts that are only a waiting-room for death, 5) the home front which is presented in the context of “La Grande Guerre” as an alien and impersonal space, and 6) the military hospital that from the narrator’s Bäumer’s perspective is the war in a minature format. The homodiegetic and autodiegetic method of narration in “All Quiet on the Western Front” is on the one hand based on the visualization of the war-spaces, on the other – on showing, through the making of the narrative semantics of these spaces, the lost generation. Bäumer’s and his companions’s moral-ethical-human fall is related to, and dependent on, the spaces in which they exist and which affect their psychic and physical condition. With the death of the main narrator also dies the space of the narration, however the frame of the narrative spaces remains and documents the cruelty and savagery of the hell of 1914–1918. (shrink)
Reading Putnam consists largely of papers from the fantastic ‘Putnam @80’ conference (organised by Maria Baghramian in 2007) together with replies from Hilary Putnam. Given the diversity of Putnam’s work, the papers in this collection cover many different topics. This makes the collection difficulty to read but, ultimately, extremely rewarding. In this review, I focus on the contributions from Michael Devitt, Charles Parsons, Richard Boyd, Ned Block, Charles Travis and John McDowell, together with Putnam’s responses. My aim is to (...) highlight some connections between Putnam’s (evolving) views on ontology, conceptual relativism, and perception. (shrink)
Philosophers interested in what Buddhist ethics has to offer contemporary debates have largely focused on finding distinctively Buddhist reasons to choose to act ethically. But this may be to miss the point. Maria Heim’s recent study illustrates vividly how a very different conception of intention, agency, and ethics emerges from the canonical Pāli texts and the extensive commentaries on these attributed to the fifth-century author Buddhaghosa. She finds in this textual tradition a sophisticated moral anthropology and moral phenomenology, one (...) that focuses not on providing reasons against acting in ways we should not, but instead on providing tools for constructing ourselves such that the question of whether to act in an unwholesome way simply would not occur to us.In the first chapter, Heim engages with the approach to intention and agency found in the Suttas, by bringing in the complex distinctions and textual connections that Buddhaghosa adds to these discussions. To note just one hi .. (shrink)
María Zambrano art critic presents the special space that painting was for her. Transcribing her contemplations, she reveals an appropriate way to enter in the pictures: the poetic reason, which constitutes a new aesthetic based on fidelity to original reality and on the revelation of a presence. Zambrano defines painting as a creative act that bursts out of the artist odyssey towards his entrails and to the revelation always incomplete of the original reality. We want to understand the expression of (...) the enigmatic presence by the art of painting and by the poetic reason, through the analysis of the coherence between the principles of Zambrano aesthetic and her own art critic. The auroral motives of painting and the auroral metaphors of poetic reason take up the challenge of the ineffable presence receiving it in a form that becomes promise of transcendence and of revelation for the contemplator and the reader. The motif of the fire in Saint Barbara by the Master of Flemalle and its contemplation transcribed by Zambrano accompany us with the same intensity. Poetic reason constitutes an aesthetic because it stands in a radical plane of liberty-obedience, opening the door of the human paradox, centre of revelation and of creation. (shrink)