Results for 'Mariam Attar'

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Mariam Al-Attar
American University of Sharjah
  1.  15
    Food Ethics: A Critique of Some Islamic Perspectives on Genetically Modified Food.Mariam al-Attar - 2017 - Zygon 52 (1):53-75.
    This article critiques some Islamic approaches to food ethics and the debate over genetically modified food. Food ethics is a branch of bioethics, and is an emerging field in Islamic bioethics. The article critically analyzes the arguments of the authors who wrote in favor of genetically modified organisms from an Islamic perspective, and those who wrote against GMOs, also from an Islamic perspective. It reveals the theological and the epistemological foundations of the two main approaches. Moreover, it provides an attempt (...)
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  2. Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought.Mariam Attar - 2010 - Routledge.
  3.  20
    Dossier : Des recherches participatives dans la production des savoirs liés à l’environnement – Mariam Sow et Patrick d’Aquino : agir pour changer.Mariam Sow, Patrick D’Aquino & François Bousquet - 2017 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 25 (4):403-411.
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  4. CSS-Tutor: An Intelligent Tutoring System for CSS and HTML.Mariam W. Alawar & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Academic Research and Development 2 (1):94-99.
    In this paper we show how a student can learn the basics of the system databases using (W3school CSS) which was built as intelligent tutoring educational system by using the authoring tool called (ITSB). The learning material contains CSS and HTML. We divided the material in a group of lessons for novice learner which combines relational system and lessons in the process of learning. The student can learn using example of CSS, and types of CSS color. Furthermore, the intelligent tutoring (...)
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  5.  40
    Inventive Life: Approaches to the New Vitalism.Mariam Fraser, Sarah Kember & Celia Lury (eds.) - 2006 - Sage Publications.
    This book demonstrates how and why vitalism—the idea that life cannot be explained by the principles of mechanism—matters now. Vitalism resists closure and reductionism in the life sciences while simultaneously addressing the object of life itself. The aim of this collection is to consider the questions that vitalism makes it possible to ask: questions about the role and status of life across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities and questions about contingency, indeterminacy, relationality and change. All have special importance now, (...)
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  6.  39
    Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe.Mariam Thalos - 2013 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    A venerable tradition in the metaphysics of science commends ontological reduction: the practice of analysis of theoretical entities into further and further proper parts, with the understanding that the original entity is nothing but the sum of these. This tradition implicitly subscribes to the principle that all the real action of the universe (also referred to as its "causation") happens at the smallest scales-at the scale of microphysics. A vast majority of metaphysicians and philosophers of science, covering a wide swath (...)
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  7. Capitalization in the St. Petersburg Game: Why Statistical Distributions Matter.Mariam Thalos & Oliver Richardson - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (3):292-313.
    In spite of its infinite expectation value, the St. Petersburg game is not only a gamble without supply in the real world, but also one without demand at apparently very reasonable asking prices. We offer a rationalizing explanation of why the St. Petersburg bargain is unattractive on both sides (to both house and player) in the mid-range of prices (finite but upwards of about $4). Our analysis – featuring (1) the already-established fact that the average of finite ensembles of the (...)
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  8.  17
    In Favor of Being Only Humean.Mariam Thalos - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 93 (3):265-298.
    The twin conceptions of (1) natural law as causal structure and (2) explanation as passage from phenomenon to cause, are two sides of a certain philosophical coin, to which I shall offer an alternative – Humean – currency. The Humean alternative yokes together a version of the regularity conception of law and a conception of explanation as passage from one regularity, to another which has it as an instance but of which it is not itself an instance. I will show (...)
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  9.  29
    Transformational Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior Among Nursing Staff.Mariam Masood & Bilal Afsar - 2017 - Nursing Inquiry 24 (4):e12188.
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  10.  8
    Adherence to Hypertension Treatment Guidelines in State Facilities in KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa.Mariam Cassimjee & Fatima Suleman - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1077-1081.
  11.  5
    The Lens of Chemistry.Mariam Thalos - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (7):1707-1721.
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  12.  80
    The Ethics of Reality and Virtual Reality: Latour, Facts and Values.Mariam Fraser - 2006 - History of the Human Sciences 19 (2):45-72.
    In the context of the question of the extent to which science studies is able to mount an adequate critique of contemporary developments in science and technology, and in view of the proliferating interest in ethics across the social sciences, this article has two aims. Firstly to address some of the implications for ethics of Bruno Latour's, and to a lesser extent Alfred North Whitehead’s, conceptions of reality, both of which have a bearing on the long-standing dichotomy between facts and (...)
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  13. Against Conditionalization.F. Bacchus, Mariam Thalos & H. E. Kyburg - 1990 - Synthese 85 (3):475 - 506.
  14.  18
    The Nature of Prozac.Mariam Fraser - 2001 - History of the Human Sciences 14 (3):56-84.
    This article addresses the relations between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ (and those characteristics associated with ‘the natural’ and ‘the cultural’) in the context of the debates about Prozac. Following Marilyn Strathern, I focus specifically on the contested issue of enablement - that is, on what Prozac does or does not enable, and on the relation between enablement and enhancement, normality and pathology. I argue that the implications of the model of the brain that accompanies explanations of Prozac are such that commentators (...)
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  15. Two Conceptions of Fundamentality.Mariam Thalos - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):151-177.
    This article aims to show that fundamentality is construed differently in the two most prominent strategies of analysis we find in physical science and engineering today: (1) atomistic, reductive analysis and (2) Systems analysis. Correspondingly, atomism is the conception according to which the simplest (smallest) indivisible entity of a certain kind is most fundamental; while systemism , as will be articulated here, is the conception according to which the bonds that structure wholes are most fundamental, and scale and/or constituting entities (...)
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  16.  30
    Who Are These People? Personality Traits and Judgments About Trade Secret Misappropriation in Post‐Employment Activities.Hélène Delerue & Mariam Hamid - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (3):315-331.
    Trade secret theft is a problem that almost all organizations face. The greatest threat is employee mobility and potential unethical post-employment behavior. This study investigates the role of individual personality traits in judgments about trade secret misappropriation. Our hypotheses were tested in three studies addressing three different situational contexts: current employees, employees about to be laid off, and students who had quit their job. Relationships were estimated with robust regression. The results show that some personality traits predict judgment about another (...)
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  17.  9
    Event.Mariam Fraser - 2006 - Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3):129-132.
  18.  3
    Inventive Life.Mariam Fraser, Sarah Kember & Celia Lury - 2005 - Theory, Culture and Society 22 (1):1-14.
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  19.  23
    The Spectre of Race in American Medicine.Mariam O. Fofana - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (2):137-141.
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  20.  9
    Adverse Childhood Experiences Run Deep: Toxic Early Life Stress, Telomeres, and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number, the Biological Markers of Cumulative Stress.Kathryn K. Ridout, Mariam Khan & Samuel J. Ridout - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800077.
  21.  78
    Explanation is a Genus: An Essay on the Varieties of Scientific Explanation.Mariam Thalos - 2002 - Synthese 130 (3):317-354.
    I shall endeavor to show that every physical theory since Newton explainswithout drawing attention to causes–that, in other words, physical theories as physical theories aspire to explain under an ideal quite distinctfrom that of causal explanation. If I am right, then even if sometimes theexplanations achieved by a physical theory are not in violation ofthe standard of causal explanation, this is purely an accident. For physicaltheories, as I will show, do not, as such, aim at accommodating the goals oraspirations of (...)
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  22.  37
    Protecting the Navajo People Through Tribal Regulation of Research.Doug Brugge & Mariam Missaghian - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):491-507.
    This essay explores the process and issues related to community collaborative research that involves Native Americans generally, and specifically examines the Navajo Nation’s efforts to regulate research within its jurisdiction. Researchers need to account for both the experience of Native Americans and their own preconceptions about Native Americans when conducting research about Native Americans. The Navajo Nation institutionalized an approach to protecting members of the nation when it took over Institutional Review Board (IRB) responsibilities from the US Indian Health Service (...)
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  23. A Modest Proposal for Interpreting Structural Explanations.Mariam Thalos - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (2):279-295.
    Social sciences face a well-known problem, which is an instance of a general problem faced as well by psychological and biological sciences: the problem of establishing their legitimate existence alongside physics. This, as will become clear, is a problem in metaphysics. I will show how a new account of structural explanations, put forward by Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit, which is designed to solve this metaphysical problem with social sciences in mind, fails to treat the problem in any importantly new (...)
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  24.  15
    Classing Queer.Mariam Fraser - 1999 - Theory, Culture and Society 16 (2):107-131.
    This article considers the grounds on which distinctions are drawn between the identities of gender, sexuality, `race' and class and explores the implications of these distinctions in relation to different kinds of identity politics and, in particular, to the politics implied by Judith Butler's theory of performativity. I argue that what is often taken to be the key site of much queer theory and activism - that is, the reappropriation of signifiers of difference - is problematic in the light of (...)
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  25.  24
    Dirty Hands: The Phenomenology of Acting As an Authorized Agent.Mariam Thalos - 2018 - The Monist 101 (2):170-186.
    Traditional articulations of the conception of dirty hands, as the doing of wrong in order to do right, invite construals of the issues raised thereby as mired in conceptual confusions and inconsistencies, and moreover as generating unproductive discussions of the scope of the proposed notion itself. The status of the concept of dirty hands is thus precarious, in spite of its provenance in the work of political thinkers such as Machiavelli. This essay articulates one nonparadoxical conception of dirty hands, as (...)
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  26.  49
    Solidarity: A Motivational Conception.Mariam Thalos - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (1):57-95.
    Abstract This essay offers a motivational conception of solidarity that can be employed across the entire range of sciences and humanities, while also filling a gap in the motivational spectrum conceived by decision theorists and economists?and expanding the two-part division between altruistic and selfish motivations into a tripartite analysis that suggests a spectrum instead. According to the present proposal, solidarity is a condition of action-readiness on behalf of a group or its interests. The proposal will admit of measuring the extent (...)
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  27.  4
    Migration Status and Family Size.M. A. El Attar & K. E. Vaidyanathan - 1975 - Journal of Biosocial Science 7 (1):67-75.
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  28.  16
    Prospects of Civilian Rule in Pakistan.Attar Rabbani - unknown - Dialogue 8 (1):2.
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  29.  22
    Systematicity: The Nature of Science, by Paul Hoyningen-Huene. [REVIEW]Mariam Thalos - 2015 - Mind 124 (493):351-357.
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  30.  11
    Material Theory.Mariam Fraser - 2003 - Theory, Culture and Society 20 (5):1-26.
    This article addresses the serotonin hypothesis of depression, as it was formulated in clinical and laboratory experiments during the 1950s. In the first instance I argue that the `challenge' posed by patients' subjectivities in clinical investigations into the potentially anti-depressant drug iproniazid was not solely due to the tensions generated by the subject/object dichotomy, but to an excess that exceeds the properties of the objects of the experiment, as well as its requirements and conditions. I then suggest that the serotonin (...)
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  31.  8
    Peruvian Female Sex Workers’ Ethical Perspectives on Their Participation in an HPV Vaccine Clinical Trial.Brandon Brown, Mariam Davtyan & Celia B. Fisher - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (2):115-128.
    This study examined female sex workers’ evaluation of ethically relevant experiences of participating in an HPV4 vaccine clinical trial conducted in Lima, Peru. The Sunflower Study provided all participants with HPV testing, treatment for those testing positive, and access to the vaccine for all testing negative. Themes that emerged from content analysis of interviews with 16 former participants included the importance of respectful treatment and access to healthcare not otherwise available and concerns about privacy protections, the potential for HIV stigma, (...)
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  32.  67
    Degrees of Freedom: An Essay on Competitions Between Micro and Macro in Mechanics.Mariam Thalos - 1999 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 59 (1):1-39.
    This paper argues that the doctrines of determinism and supervenience, while logically independent, are importantly linked in physical mechanics-and quite interestingly so. For it is possible to formulate classical mechanics in such a way as to take advantage of the existence of mathematical devices that represent the advance of time-and which are such as to inspire confidence in the truth of determinism-in order to prevent violation of supervenience. It is also possible to formulate classical mechanics-and to do so in an (...)
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  33.  76
    Nonreductive Physics.Mariam Thalos - 2006 - Synthese 149 (1):133-178.
    This paper documents a wide range of nonreductive scientific treatments of phenomena in the domain of physics. These treatments strongly resist characterization as explanations of macrobehavior exclusively in terms of behavior of microconstituents. For they are treatments in which macroquantities are cast in the role of genuine and irreducible degrees of freedom. One is driven into reductionism when one is not cultivated to possess an array of distinctions rich enough to let things be what they are. In contrast, making the (...)
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  34.  22
    Introduction: Intimacy in Research.Mariam Fraser & Nirmal Puwar - 2008 - History of the Human Sciences 21 (4):1-16.
    The introduction to this special issue addresses the production of intimacy in the labour of research. It explores the sensory, emotional and affective relations which form an integral, if often invisible, part of the process through which researchers engage with, produce, understand and translate `research'. The article argues that these processes inform the making of knowledge, shape power relations and enable or constrain the practical negotiation of ethical problems. These issues are not, however, often foregrounded in debates on methods or (...)
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  35.  36
    Degrees of Freedom in the Social World: Towards a Systems Analysis of Decision.Mariam Thalos - 1999 - Journal of Political Philosophy 7 (4):453–477.
    THOMAS SCHELLING taught us that in ordinary human affairs, con¯ict and common interest are ubiquitously intertwined.1 For when it comes to variety, the occasion of pure con¯ict (known to some of its friends as the zerosum game) is as under-represented in human affairs as the occasion of undiluted common interest (known as the pure coordination game). The undiluted extremes are the exceptions, when it comes to counting kinds, while the mixed-motive kind of occasion is the rule. Things look a bit (...)
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  36.  40
    Two Conceptions of Collectivity.Mariam Thalos - 2008 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 2 (1):83-104.
    This paper distinguishes two conceptions of collectivity, each of which tracks the targets of classification according to their aetiology. Collectivities falling under the first conception are founded on (more-or-less) explicit negotiations amongst the members who are known to one another personally. Collectivities falling under the second (philosophically neglected) conception are founded - at least initially - purely upon a shared conception of "we", very often in the absence of prior acquaintance and personal interaction. The paper argues that neglect of collectivities (...)
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  37.  86
    Systems.Mariam Thalos - 2009 - The Monist 92 (3):452-478.
    Dynamical-systems analysis is nowadays ubiquitous. From engineering (its point of origin and natural home) to physiology, and from psychology to ecology, it enjoys surprisingly wide application. Sometimes the analysis rings decisively false—as, for example, when adopted in certain treatments of historical narrative;1 other times it is provocativeandcontroversial,aswhenappliedtothephenomenaofmind and cognition.2 Dynamical systems analysis (or “Systems” with a capital “S,” as I shall sometimes refer to it) is simply a tool of analysis. It mobilizes the language and mathematical technology of differential equations,andbringsintoplaythedistinctiveconceptsofequilibriumand (...)
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  38.  18
    Making Music Matter.Mariam Fraser - 2005 - Theory, Culture and Society 22 (1):173-189.
    This article is based on a performance piece, Thought Conductor # 2, by the artist Bruce Gilchrist. In a live-art context, the signals generated by an individual hooked up to an EEG are converted into passages of musical notation and played by a string quartet. What is happening here, or rather what kind of happening is taking place, is the focus of this article. The article explores the relations between the author, the score, and the sound in Thought Conductor # (...)
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  39.  23
    On Planning: Toward a Natural History of Goal Attainment.Mariam Thalos - 2008 - Philosophical Papers 37 (2):289-317.
    The goal of the essay is to articulate some beginnings for an empirical approach to the study of agency, in the firm conviction that agency is subject to scientific scrutiny, and is not to be abandoned to high-brow aprioristic philosophy. Drawing on insights from decision analysis, game theory, general dynamics, physics and engineering, this essay will examine the diversity of planning phenomena, and in that way take some steps towards assembling rudiments for the budding science, in the process innovating (parts (...)
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  40.  9
    Resolution and Ambivalence.Mariam Cotler, L. Ganzini & M. Cohen - 2000 - Hastings Center Report 30 (6):24.
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  41.  3
    Attar Als Allegoriker.Wolfgang Lentz - 1960 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 35 (1):52-96.
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  42.  22
    Why We Believe.Thalos Mariam - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):317-339.
    The radical probabilist counsels the prudent never to put away uncertainty, and hence always to balance judgment with probabilities of various sizes. Against this counsel I shall advise in favor of the practice of full belief — at least for some occasions. This advice rests on the fact that it is sometimes in a person's interests to accept certain propositions as a means of bringing it about that others recognize oneself as having accepted those propositions. With the pragmatists, therefore, I (...)
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  43. Negotiating Meaning: The Case of ‘The Uncanny’ and ‘Ajīb-o Gharīb.Mariam Zia - 2020 - Oxford Literary Review 42 (2):319-323.
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  44.  51
    Of Human Bonding: An Essay on the Natural History of Agency.Mariam Thalos & Chrisoula Andreou - 2009 - Public Reason 1 (2).
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  45.  6
    Precaution has its Reasons.Mariam Thalos - 2012 - In W. Kabasenche, M. O'Rourke & M. Slater (eds.), Topics in Contemporary Philosophy 9: The Environment. MIT Press.
    This chapter focuses on finding better ways to conceptualize precaution. Precaution has now become an established principle of environmental governance, although it has not been distinguished from conventional risk assessment. It has been considered by some as the antithesis of risk assessment in the sense that it is done to avoid serious potential harm, without scientific certainty as to the likelihood, magnitude, or causation of that harm. The first and foremost task of this chapter is to show that these concepts (...)
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  46.  10
    8 The Sources of Behavior: Toward a Naturalistic, Control Account of Agency.Mariam Thalos - 2007 - In Don Ross, David Spurrett, Harold Kincaid & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.), Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. MIT Press. pp. 123--67.
  47. The Reduction of Causal Processes.Mariam Thalos - 2002 - Synthese 131 (1):99-128.
    The principle that causes always render their effects more likely is fundamental to the enterprise of reducing facts of causation to facts about (objective) chances. This reductionist enterprise faces famous difficulties in accommodating common-sense intuitions about causal processes, if it insists on cashing out causal processes in terms of streams of events in which every event that belongs to the stream is a cause of the adjoining event downstream of it. I shall propose modifications to this way of cashing out (...)
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  48.  28
    The Trouble with Superselection Accounts of Measurement.Mariam Thalos - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (3):518-544.
    A supcrsclcction rule advanced in thc course of a quantum-mechanical treatment of some phenomenon is an assertion tc thc effect that thc superposition principle of quam tum mechanics is to bc restricted in thc application at hand. Supcrsclcction accounts of measurement all have in common a decision to represent thc indicator states of detectors by eigcnspaccs of supcrsclcction operators named in a supcrsclcction rule, on the grounds that thc states in question arc states of a s0—calicd classical quantity and therefore (...)
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  49.  5
    Der Schrecken Gottes: Attar, Hiob Und Die Metaphysische Revolte.Navid Kermani - 2005 - Beck.
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  50. Human Beings // Human Freedom.Mariam Thalos - 2019 - In G. Oppy, J. Koterski & Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. pp. 429-448.
    The traditional philosophical questions around human freedom are to do with how to square freedom for human organisms with increasingly scientific understandings of the universe itself. At the beginning of Western philosophical consciousness, Plato, unlike later philosophers eligible of the label rationalist, maintained that there are obstacles to free and rational agency, owing in no small measure to pressures exerted by the human psyche from what later were referred to as biological drives and drives for social status. In subsequent eras, (...)
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