Purpose: Commenting on the transcript of a lecture. Findings: The document reconstructs the development of the original 1973 lecture by Heinz von Foerster into his best-known paper, On Constructing a Reality. Many aspects of that paper can be identified as being shaped through interaction with the audience. Implications: The lecture documented here was a forerunner of a central paper in constructivism.
« Ma Chérie, ceci n'est pas censé être un journal, et il se peut même que ça ne te parvienne jamais, mais j'aime penser à toi en train de le lire, page après page, un jour dans les années à venir, après que je serai partie. J'aimerais t'entendre rire en regardant ces photos de moi. Je suis seule dans ma cabane ce soir et fatiguée ». Avertissement ou défi, ceci est la première lettre écrite par Calamity Jane à sa fille (...) le 25 septembre 1877. Une vingtaine d'autres lettres suivront, de fa.. (shrink)
Contents 1 Introduction – Points of Contact between Biology and History Marie I. Kaiser and Daniel Plenge Part I General Issues on Explanation 2 The Ontic Account of Scientific Explanation, Carl F. Craver Part II Explanation in the Biological Sciences 3 Causal Graphs and Biological Mechanisms, Alexander Gebharter and Marie I. Kaiser 4 Semiotic Explanation in the Biological Sciences, Ulrich Krohs 5 Mechanisms, Pathomechanisms, and Disease in Scientific Clinical Medicine, Gerhard Müller-Strahl 6 The Generalizations of Biology: Historical and Contingent? Alexander (...) Reutlinger 7 Evolutionary Explanations and the Role of Mechanisms, Gerhard Schurz Part III Explanation in the Historical Sciences 8 Explaining Roman History – A Case Study, Stephan Berry 9 Causal Explanation and Historical Meaning: How to Solve the Problem of the Specific Historical Relation be-tween Events, Doris Gerber 10 Do Historians Study the Mechanisms of History? A Sketch, Daniel Plenge 11 Philosophy of History – Metaphysics and Epistemology, Oliver R. Scholz 12 Causal Explanations of Historical Trends, Derek D. Turner Part IV Bridging the Two Disciplines 13 Aspects of Human Historiographic Explanation: A View from the Philosophy of Science, Stuart Glennan 14 History and the Sciences, Philip Kitcher and Daniel Immerwahr 15 Explanation and Intervention in Coupled Human and Natural Systems, Daniel Steel 16 Biology and Natural History: What Makes the Difference, Aviezer Tucker. (shrink)
The game theoretical approach to R&D cooperation does not investigate the role of trust in the initiation and success of R&D cooperation: it either assumes that firms are non-opportunists or that the R&D cooperation is supported by an incentive mechanism that eliminates opportunism. In contrast, the present paper focuses on these issues by introducing incomplete information and two types of firms: opportunist and non-opportunist. Defining trust as the belief of each firm that its potential collaborator will respect the contract, it (...) identifies the trust conditions under which firms initiate R&D alliances and contribute to their success. The higher the spillovers, the higher the level of trust required to initiate R&D cooperation for non-opportunists, while the inverse holds for opportunists. (shrink)
The objective of this article is to investigate the impact of agent heterogeneity (as regards their attitude towards cooperation) and payoff structure on cooperative behaviour, using an experimental setting with incomplete information. A game of chicken is played considering two types of agents: ‘unconditional cooperators’, who always cooperate, and ‘strategic cooperators’, who do not cooperate unless it is in their interest to do so. Overall, our data show a much higher propensity to cooperate than predicted by theory. They also suggest (...) that agent heterogeneity matters: the higher the proportion of ‘strategic cooperators’ in the population, the higher their probability to cooperate. Finally, our data confirm that higher rewards to cooperation (embedded in the payoff structure) tend to lower defection. Taken together, our results suggest that the subjects might be non-expected utility maximizers, dealing with both outcomes and probabilities in a non-linear manner. (shrink)
In this article, we present research in the making of a collective work environment within the framework of a distance education course. We base our theoretical and methodological standpoints on examples of dialogical discourses recorded within the framework of this CSCL system called Symba. In fact, the results of previous research lead us to rethink our vision of the study of collaborative moments between participants in a computer-supported human learning environment that proposes several communication tools. Redefining the methodological process aiming (...) at finding and understanding these rich learning moments is also necessary. We intend to describe “socio-technical” instances during which these collaboration phases appear. More generally speaking, our aim is to draw up both new theoretical and methodological perspectives that would be reusable in CSCL environments; in view of the nature of these two perspectives, and the diversity of the domain knowledge (sociology, cognitivism, linguistics, philosophy, statistics, etc.) brought to bear in the study of the environment in question, our approach constitutes a trans-disciplinary reassessment of the uses of the communication tools—and the study thereof—proposed. (shrink)