36 found
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  1.  70
    Representing with imaginary models: Formats matter.Marion Vorms - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):287-295.
    Models such as the simple pendulum, isolated populations, and perfectly rational agents, play a central role in theorising. It is now widely acknowledged that a study of scientific representation should focus on the role of such imaginary entities in scientists’ reasoning. However, the question is most of the time cast as follows: How can fictional or abstract entities represent the phenomena? In this paper, I show that this question is not well posed. First, I clarify the notion of representation, and (...)
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  2.  86
    About the warrants of computer-based empirical knowledge.Anouk Barberousse & Marion Vorms - 2014 - Synthese 191 (15):3595-3620.
    Computer simulations are widely used in current scientific practice, as a tool to obtain information about various phenomena. Scientists accordingly rely on the outputs of computer simulations to make statements about the empirical world. In that sense, simulations seem to enable scientists to acquire empirical knowledge. The aim of this paper is to assess whether computer simulations actually allow for the production of empirical knowledge, and how. It provides an epistemological analysis of present-day empirical science, to which the traditional epistemological (...)
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  3.  51
    In the Space of Reasonable Doubt.Marion Vorms & Ulrike Hahn - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 15):3609-3633.
    This paper explores ‘reasonable doubt’ as an enlightening notion to think of reasoning and decision-making generally, beyond the judicial domain. The paper starts from a decision-theoretic understanding of the notion, whereby it can be defined in terms of degrees of belief and a probabilistic confirmation threshold for action. It then highlights some of the limits of this notion, and proposes a richer analysis of epistemic states and reasoning through the lens of ‘reasonable doubt’, which in turn is likely to supplement (...)
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  4.  35
    Plausibility matters: A challenge to Gilbert's “Spinozan” account of belief formation.Marion Vorms, Adam J. L. Harris, Sabine Topf & Ulrike Hahn - 2022 - Cognition 220 (C):104990.
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  5. Models of data and theoretical hypotheses: a case-study in classical genetics.Marion Vorms - 2010 - Synthese 190 (2):293-319.
    Linkage (or genetic) maps are graphs, which are intended to represent the linear ordering of genes on the chromosomes. They are constructed on the basis of statistical data concerning the transmission of genes. The invention of this technique in 1913 was driven by Morgan's group's adoption of a set of hypotheses concerning the physical mechanism of heredity. These hypotheses were themselves grounded in Morgan's defense of the chromosome theory of heredity, according to which chromosomes are the physical basis of genes. (...)
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  6.  65
    Theorizing and Representational Practices in Classical Genetics.Marion Vorms - 2011 - Biological Theory 7 (4):311-324.
    In this paper, I wish to challenge theory-biased approaches to scientific knowledge, by arguing for a study of theorizing, as a cognitive activity, rather than of theories, as abstract structures independent from the agents’ understanding of them. Such a study implies taking into account scientists’ reasoning processes, and their representational practices. Here, I analyze the representational practices of geneticists in the 1910s, as a means of shedding light on the content of classical genetics. Most philosophical accounts of classical genetics fail (...)
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  7.  44
    The birth of classical genetics as the junction of two disciplines: Conceptual change as representational change.Marion Vorms - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:105-116.
  8. A-not-B Errors: Testing the Limits of Natural Pedagogy Theory.Marion Vorms - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (4):525-545.
    Gergely and Csibra's theory, known as "natural pedagogy theory", is meant to explain how infants fast-learn generic knowledge from adults. In this paper, my goal is to assess the explanatory import of this theory in a particular case, namely the phenomena known as "A-not-B errors". I first propose a clarification of natural pedagogy theory's fundamental hypotheses. Then, I describe Topál et al.'s (Science, 321, 1831-1834, 2008) experiments, which consist in applying natural pedagogy theory's framework to the A-not-B errors. Finally, I (...)
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  9.  31
    The theoretician's gambits: scientific representations, their formats and content.Marion Vorms - 2010 - In Lorenzo Magnani, Walter Carnielli & Claudio Pizzi (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer. pp. 533--558.
    It is quite widely acknowledged, in the field of cognitive science, that the format in which a set of data is displayed (lists, graphs, arrays, etc.) matters to the agents' performances in achieving various cognitive tasks, such as problem-solving or decision-making. This paper intends to show that formats also matter in the case of theoretical representations, namely general representations expressing hypotheses, and not only in the case of data displays. Indeed, scientists have limited cognitive abilities, and representations in different formats (...)
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  10. Models and formats of representation.Marion Vorms - unknown
    Models are generally used by scientists to obtain predictions and to provide explanations about phenomena. Their predictive and explanatory power is generally thought of as depending on their representative power. It is still not clear, though, in virtue of which features models allow scientists to draw inferences about the system they stand for. In this paper, I focus on a special kind of models, namely imaginary models (I-models) such as the simple pendulum. The main question I address is: how do (...)
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  11.  8
    La valeur probante du témoignage : perspectives épistémologique et juridique.Marion Vorms - 2015 - Cahiers Philosophiques 142 (3):21-52.
    La notion de témoignage est au cœur d’une branche de la théorie de la connaissance, appelée « épistémologie du témoignage », qui s’interroge sur le bien-fondé des croyances acquises par le biais d’autrui – par opposition aux seules capacités sensorielles et intellectuelles de l’individu. Le témoignage est aussi un des modes de preuve les plus importants dans le cadre judiciaire, aussi bien au cours de l’enquête et de l’instruction que du procès, et a fait l’objet de nombreuses réflexions de la (...)
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  12.  44
    Preface.Marion Vorms & Christopher Pincock - 2013 - Synthese 190 (2):187-188.
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  13.  23
    Bayes et les biais. Le « biais de confirmation » en question.Marion Vorms - 2021 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 112 (4):567-590.
    On appelle « biais de confirmation » la tendance supposée des humains à sélectionner les informations qui vont dans le sens de ce qu’ils croient (ou veulent croire) et à interpréter celles dont ils disposent en faveur de leurs hypothèses favorites. Cet article vise à porter un regard critique sur certains usages de cette notion, et plus généralement sur le recours aux « biais cognitifs » pour expliquer tout un ensemble de phénomènes sociaux interprétés comme les marques d’une forme d’irrationalité. (...)
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  14.  37
    Collaborative computer simulations in climate science.Anouk Barberousse, Henri Galinon & Marion Vorms - unknown
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  15. Coherence and Credibility in the Story-Model of Jurors’ Decision-Making: Does Mental Simulation Really Drive the Evaluation of the Evidence?David Lagnado & Marion Vorms - 2019 - In Matthieu Fontaine, Cristina Barés-Gómez, Francisco Salguero-Lamillar, Lorenzo Magnani & Ángel Nepomuceno-Fernández (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Inferential Models for Logic, Language, Cognition and Computation. Springer Verlag.
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  16.  23
    Conceptual Role Semantics and Theory Understanding: the case of Classical Mechanics.Marion Vorms - unknown
  17.  41
    Ernest Nagel's conception of models: When agents get into the picture of theories.Marion Vorms - unknown
    In this paper, I analyze the significance of Ernest Nagel's introduction of the notion of model in his reconstruction of scientific theories. Nagel's account is generally considered as a version of the "received view" of theories, whose main advocate is Carnap. However, I will show that Nagel's considerations on models imply a renunciation to the logical empiricists' project of the formalization of scientific theories. I will argue that Nagel implicitly acknowledges that, in order to study the content of theories, one (...)
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  18.  19
    Frigg and Hunter, eds. 2010. Beyond Mimesis and Convention.Marion Vorms - 2012 - Theoria 27 (3):391-394.
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  19.  13
    Genetic Mapping as the Merging of Two Disciplines' Representational Practices.Marion Vorms - unknown
    In this paper, I propose a study of the invention and development of the technique of genetic mapping in the 1920's. I show that what is usually taken as one and the same theory (Classical Genetics) is in fact the result of the articulation of various levels of explanations corresponding to two different disciplines, with different methods and representational practices -- namely Mendelian theory and cytology. The merging of these two disciplinary frameworks is embodied in the very rules underlying the (...)
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  20.  23
    How are Scientific Theories to Be Analyzed? Representational and Computational Aspects.Marion Vorms & Anouk Barberousse - unknown
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  21.  19
    À l'épreuve du monde : l'éducation au sens large.Marion Vorms - 2007 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 82 (3):155.
    Résumé — La question de l’éducation, telle qu’elle se pose dès les premiers écrits de Simone Weil, où elle est pensée comme un apprentissage de la nécessité par l’action, puis dans ses réflexions politiques sur l’éducation syndicale d’une part et celle d’un peuple tout entier de l’autre, pour enfin se retrouver dans la pensée mystique des dernières années, offre un angle intéressant pour aborder l’œuvre de la philosophe. Jamais thématisée comme telle par Simone Weil, la notion d’éducation est pourtant transversale (...)
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  22.  2
    Models and Formats: Representational and Computational Aspects.Marion Vorms - unknown
    I analyse the double function of models (representing the phenomena, and being a tool for calculating and predicting them) from a cognitive point of view. Taking the same approach as Ronald Giere, I nevertheless argue that he is to much committed to an abstract conception of theories and that one should give more attention to the particular formats in which models are expressed and grasped. By taking the example of Classical Mechanics, I show that a model, as an abstract entity, (...)
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  23. Models and simulations.Marion Vorms & Christopher Pincock - unknown
     
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  24.  4
    Natural Pedagogy and A-not-B tasks.Marion Vorms - unknown
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  25.  6
    Scientific Theorizing Through Genetic Mapping.Marion Vorms - unknown
  26.  10
    Templates, Exemplars, and Formats.Marion Vorms - unknown
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  27.  54
    The role of models in mind and science.Marion Vorms & David Lagnado - unknown
    During the last few decades, models have become the centre of attention in both cognitive science and philosophy of science. In cognitive science, the claim that humans reason with mental models, rather than mentally manipulate linguistic symbols, is the majority view. Similarly, philosophers of science almost unanimously acknowledge that models have to be taken as a central unit of analysis. Moreover, some philosophers of science and cognitive scientists have suggested that the cognitive hypothesis of mental models is a promising way (...)
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  28.  15
    The Versions of Classical Mechanics: An Agent-Centered View on the Content of Theories.Marion Vorms - unknown
  29.  3
    Understanding Theories.Marion Vorms - unknown
    Methodology and the Philosophy Division of Logic.
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  30.  7
    Understanding Theories: Formats Matter.Marion Vorms - unknown
    In this paper, I construe scientific understanding not only as understanding the phenomena by means of some theoretical material (theory, law or model), but more fundamentally as understanding the theoretical material itself that is supposed to explain the phenomena. De Regt and Dieks (2005) emphasise the contextual aspects of the intelligibility of theories, showing that it depends on their "virtues", on the historical standards of intelligibility, and on the particular "skills" of their users. My paper aims at continuing this proposal, (...)
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  31.  4
    Understanding Theories in Practice: Representational and Computational Aspects.Marion Vorms - unknown
    In this paper, I construe scientific understanding not only as understanding the phenomena by means of some theoretical material (theory, law or model), but more fundamentally as understanding the theoretical material itself that is supposed to explain the phenomena. De Regt and Dieks (2005) emphasise the contextual aspects of the intelligibility of theories, showing that it depends on their ―virtues‖, on the historical standards of intelligibility, and on the particular ―skills‖of their users. My paper aims at continuing this proposal, first (...)
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  32.  5
    What are Genetic Maps Visualizations of?Marion Vorms - unknown
    Symposium " Visual Cognition in the History of Science ", (bourse du CNFHPS, Académie des sciences).
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  33.  7
    What do Genetic Maps Represent (and How)?Marion Vorms - unknown
  34. R. Frigg & M.C. Hunter, eds. 2010. Beyond Mimesis and Convention (Marion Vorms). [REVIEW]Marion Vorms - 2012 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 27 (3):391-394.
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  35. Book review: R. Frigg & M. C. Hunter, eds. 2010. Beyond Mimesis and Convention: Representation in art and science. Dordrecht: Springer. [REVIEW]Marion Vorms - unknown
    The book edited by Roman Frigg and Matthew C. Hunter is a great example of interdisciplinary collaborative work, bringing together contributions by scholars of science and of art, around the topic of representation. The collection consists of eleven essays, seven of which were presented in early form at a conference organized by the two editors at the London School of Economics and the Courtauld Institute of Art in June 2006; the other four have been added subsequently. The result is a (...)
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  36.  13
    R. Frigg & M.C. Hunter, eds. 2010. Beyond Mimesis and Convention (Marion Vorms). [REVIEW]Marion Vorms - 2012 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 27 (3):391-394.
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