Clinical trials of stem cell transplantation raise ethical issues that are intertwined with scientific and design issues, including choice of control group and intervention, background interventions, endpoints, and selection of subjects. We recommend that the review and IRB oversight of stem cell clinical trials should be strengthened. Scientific and ethics review should be integrated in order to better assess risks and potential benefits. Informed consent should be enhanced by assuring that participants comprehend key aspects of the trial. For the trial (...) to yield generalizable knowledge, negative findings and serious adverse events must be reported. (shrink)
Stem cells derived from pluripotent cells offer the hope of new treatments for diseases for which current therapy is inadequate. Clinical trials are essential in developing effective and safe stem cell therapies and fulfilling this promise. However, such clinical trials raise ethical issues that are more complex than those raised in clinical trials using drugs, cord blood stem cells, or adult stem cells. Several clinical trials are now being carried out with stem cells derived from pluripotent cells, and many more (...) can be expected in light of the rapid scientific progress in the field.Degenerative neurological diseases are desirable targets for stem cell clinical trials. The FDA has approved Phase 1 clinical trials of neural stem cell transplantation for Batten Disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease, and spinal cord injury. In Parkinson Disease, stem cell transplantation could correct the primary pathophysiological defect — inadequate levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Current treatment is unsatisfactory in late-stage PD. (shrink)
Web 2.0 innovations may enhance informed patient decision-making, but also raise ethical concerns about inaccurate or misleading information, damage to the doctor-patient relationship, privacy and confidentiality, and health disparities. To increase the benefits and decrease the risks of these innovations, we recommend steps to help patients assess the quality of health information on the Internet; promote constructive doctor-patient communication about new information technologies; and set standards for privacy and data security in patient-controlled health records and for point-of-service advertising.
Psychonarratology is an approach to the empirical study of literary response and the processing of narrative. It draws on the empirical methodology of cognitive psychology and discourse processing as well as the theoretical insights and conceptual analysis of literary studies, particularly narratology. The present work provides a conceptual and empirical basis for this interdisciplinary approach that is accessible to researchers from either disciplinary background. An integrative review is presented of the classic problems in narratology: the status of the narrator, events (...) and plot, characters and characterization, speech and thought, and focalization. For each area, Bortolussi and Dixon critique the state of the art in narratology and literary studies, discuss relevant work in cognitive psychology, and provide a new analytical framework based on the insight that readers treat the narrator as a conversational participant. Empirical evidence is presented on each problem, much of it previously unpublished. (shrink)
The economic crisis happening across the world over the last few years describes a range of interdependencies and interactions,and has highlighted the fundamentalf laws of neoclassical economic theory: its unedifying focus on prediction and, above all, its inability to explain how the economy really works. As such, it is increasingly recognised that economic phenomena cannot be exclusively investigated as being derived from deterministic, predictable and mechanistic dynamics. Instead, a new approach is required by which history-dependence, organic and ever-evolving processes are (...) also accounted for. As this view implies new challenges and opportunities for policy, we will focus our attention on innovative components of Complexity Theory for the study of economics and the evaluation of public policies. (shrink)
What is considered normal determines clinical practice in medicine and has implications at an individual level, doctor-patient relationship and health care policies. With the increase in medical information and technical abilities it is urgent to have a clear concept of normality in medicine so that crucial discussions can be held with unequivocal terms.The different meanings for normality were analyzed throughout the literature and grouped according to their relevance in the academic community in models, namely the Biostatistical Theory, Health, Ideal, Process (...) and Biological advantage. The BST is the most established naturalistic approach, however normal variability can arguably constitute a problem. Health is similar and raises the question of setting the boundaries of pathology. Normality as an Ideal is an useful tool but is naturally unrealistic. As a Process it is comprehensible but is hard to frame for practical purposes. If considered as a Biological Advantage, seems intuitive but abnormality should tend to disappear.After, three examples were presented to discuss these models. They were Anemia, Psychiatric diseases and Psychopathy. In the case of Anemia the BST was applied and the arbitrary boundaries but with social impact were exposed. Psychiatric diseases was discussed under the process of self-organization and non-suffering ideal. With Psychopathy the boundaries of biological advantage are questioned.This review appeals to the importance of redesigning of the concept of normality in medicine according to current times and stresses the importance of integrating concepts such as variability and autonomy. (shrink)
Se analizan algunas consecuencias del escepticismo humeano concernientes a laexistencia de un Yo substancial y permanente anterior a la experiencia y coordinadorde ella. Se presentan dos propuestas: la teoría de los agregadosautoorganizativos favorecida por Francisco Varela y la tesis de las ideascognoscentes de William James. Luego se examinan tres problemas que suscitanposturas a-yoicas del tipo James-Varela: el problema de la identidad, el de latemporalidad y el de la intencionalidad como propósito. Se plantean algunassoluciones y se sugiere que la consideración de (...) un paradigma a-yoico está todavíasujeta a una filosofía especulativa.We analyze some implications of Humean scepticism regarding the existence of apermanent and substantial Self that would precede and coordinate experience.Two proposals are presented: Francisco Varela’s theory of selforganizingaggregates and William James’ thesis about ideas that know. We then examinethree problems raised by “no-self” stances of the James-Varela kind, viz., theproblems of identity, of temporality and of intentionality . We sketchsome solutions and we suggest that the consideration of a “no-self” paradigm isstill a matter of speculative philosophy. (shrink)
El estudio evalúa el rol de las prácticas de servicio comunitario donde la reflexión intencional acompaña el programa. Mediante un diseño cuali-cuantitativo, se revelan los efectos de las prácticas reflexivas sobre el desarrollo reflexivo de los alumnos y asimismo pone de manifiesto el impacto de es..
Computational simulations are now useful tools in experimental life. Their novelty and continuous development make it very difficult to understand their epistemic relevance. In this paper a first evaluation of them is presented through a parallel between thought experiments and computational simulations. Both simulations that play the role of actual experiment and also simulations that are part of experiments will be under scrutiny, since both of them are important in the understanding of contemporary experiments. But simulations as parts of actual (...) experiments can especially show a new face in the complex relation theory-experiment. (shrink)
RESUMO:A hipótese apresentada neste texto é a de que a piedade, que Rousseau também denomina “segundo princípio”, encontrado por ele “ao meditar nas primeiras e mais simples operações da alma humana”, não é um princípio antagônico ao amor de si. Pretende-se mostrar como o dualismo radical dos princípios se renderia diante da evidência de uma unidade representada por um duplo movimento: o de fixar-se ou aderir-se em si e o de expansão, que seria a expressão da piedade. Desse ponto de (...) vista, o segundo princípio teria um status complementar do amor de si e não opositivo a ele, como algumas interpretações propõem. Entretanto, é uma discussão complexa, uma vez que nela estão implicadas as controvérsias entre os intérpretes de Rousseau em relação à possível divergência da noção de piedade, no Segundo Discurso, no Emílio e no Ensaio sobre a Origem das Línguas, além das discussões em torno da datação do Ensaio. ABSTRACT:The hypothesis presented in this article is that pitié, or the “second principle”, which Rousseau claims to have found by “contemplating the first and simplest operations of the human soul”, is not antagonistic to the first principle. I intend to show how the radical dualism of the principles can yield before the evidence of a unity represented by a double movement: rentrer sur soi and self-expansion. From this point of view, the “second principle” has a complementary status to love of self, and not an opposing one as some interpretations propose. However, this is a complex discussion involving controversies among the interpreters of Rousseau, a discussion which concerns the possible divergence of the concept of compassion in the Discourse on Inequality, Émile, and the Essay on the Origin of Languages, and also involves questions about the date of the writing of the latter work. (shrink)
En el presente artículo se describe la postura epistemológica de Hilary Putnam en las "Conferencias John Dewey", particularmente su oposición a la concepción de la representación mental como "interfaz", que imposibilitaría el contacto directo con (y por consiguiente el conocimiento de) las cosas del mundo externo. Tomando como punto de partida el hecho de la comunicación lingüística, se concluye, por el contrario, en la necesidad de admitir la peculiar mediación del concepto mental, en tanto signo formal. De este modo, la (...) "interfaz" aparece con características análogas a las que la gnoseología realista atribuye a los signos instrumentales. Para este análisis, se recurre a elementos propios de la epistemología de corte aristotélico-tomasiana dado que, en el marco doctrinario de Putnam, se recurre a ellos indirectamente y -según opinión de la autora- bajo una perspectiva sesgada o equívoca, que merece su esclarecimiento. (shrink)
Research on moral cleansing and moral self-licensing has introduced dynamic considerations in the theory of moral behaviour. Past bad actions trigger negative feelings that make people more likely to engage in future moral behaviour to offset them. Symmetrically, past good deeds favour a positive self-perception that creates licensing effects, leading people to engage in behaviour that is less likely to be moral. In short, a deviation from a is balanced with a subsequent action that compensates the prior behaviour. We model (...) the decision of an individual trying to reach the optimal level of moral self-worth over time and show that under certain conditions the optimal sequence of actions follows a regular pattern which combines good and bad actions. To explore this phenomenon we conduct an economic experiment where subjects play a sequence of giving decisions (dictator games). We find that donations in the previous period affect present decisions and the sign is negative: participants' behaviour in every round is negatively correlated to what they did in the past. Hence donations over time seem to be the result of a regular pattern of self-regulation: moral licensing (being selfish after altruistic) and cleansing (altruistic after selfish). (shrink)
This research examines the association between attitudes on cheating and cognitive moral development. In this research, we use Rest's (1979a) Defining Issues Test, the Attitudes on Honesty Scale (Authors) and Academic Integrity Index (Authors); the last two are adaptations of the DIT. A total of 220 students from three universities participated in the study (66 psychology majors and 154 business majors). The data indicate that 66.4 percent of the students reported that they cheated in high school, college, or both high (...) school and college. Psychology majors scored higher than business majors on both the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979a) and the Attitudes on Honesty Scale (AHS, Authors). Using factor analysis, we found significant associations between students' ratings of the importance considerations present in the three cheating scenarios and their estimates of whether cheating would occur (i.e., the Academic Integrity Index). Finally, using logistic regression, we found that the scores on the Attitudes on Honesty Scale and Academic Integrity Index associate with the self-reported cheating behavior of college students. (shrink)
This paper represents the attempt to define a methodology that can evaluate the degree to which companies'' information systems correspond to needs determined by the objectives of sustainability the firm imposes on itself. The result is the creation of a general model which define the correct approach to evaluating information systems – a model which should be adapted to the specificity of each single company which intends to adopt it. In the chart indicated, we obviously have not considered activities connected (...) to the implementation of the survey system, which are particular to each company''s situation. The first part of the paper consists of an overall introduction to the approach that has been used to assess the (MIS) of Granarolo, one of the Italian companies involved. The case study contains a profile of the company, the analysis of its MIS referred to the three dimensions of sustainability, and an evaluation of the strong points and issues to be developed. This approach to evaluate the gap between desired requirements of an information system for sustainability and current data available in a firm, has proved its consistency and usefulness. It helps to understand where data are, which dimensions, spheres, stakeholders account for and what is the level of integration between different information systems existing in the firm. (shrink)
In this study, we examine the accounts of 30 white middle- and upper-class female heroin/methadone users. Using a resistance framework, we note that these women recall their initial heroin use in ways that suggest rejection of restrictive gender and class expectations. Using a dynamic view of resistance, we begin to understand how these women attempt to resist the dominant discourse through their heroin use and to reinterpret their experiences with heroin.
Following a discourse analysis approach this study examines triadic encounters of nine medical consultations carried out in an outpatient cancer clinic in Santiago, Chile involving an oncologist, a patient and a patient’s companion. Consultations are fully transcribed and analysed to understand the participatory roles patients’ companions play in the medical exchanges. In addition, the type of linguistic functions associated with each role and the advantages or downsides of companions’ involvement in the encounters are also investigated. The analysis reveals seven prominent (...) roles that companions may engage in during the visits. These are studied in detail. The results show that although companions may not always provide information that is consistent with the patients’ views, they can be of great help. Relieving the patients of many daunting tasks, monitoring their well-being, establishing a partnership and bringing vital information to the clinic are instances where the controlling power that some may exercise in the medical encounter can be outweighed. (shrink)