Results for 'Mark H. Hansen'

991 found
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  1.  76
    Trustworthiness, Governance, and Wealth Creation.Cam Caldwell & Mark H. Hansen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):173 - 188.
    Although trustworthiness has been described as a source of competitive advantage, its value extends to organizational governance and wealth creation. We identify the importance of the commitment—compliance continuum in the decision to trust and note that trustworthiness is a subjective perception viewed through each person's mediating lens. That lens and each person's interpretation of the social contract impact one's commitment to cooperate. We suggest five propositions that integrate trustworthiness, governance, and wealth creation.
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  2.  90
    Public Stem Cell Banks: Considerations of Justice in Stem Cell Research and Therapy.Ruth R. Faden, Liza Dawson, Alison S. Bateman-House, Dawn Mueller Agnew, Hilary Bok, Dan W. Brock, Aravinda Chakravarti, Xiao-Jiang Gao, Mark Greene, John A. Hansen, Patricia A. King, Stephen J. O'Brien, David H. Sachs, Kathryn E. Schill, Andrew Siegel, Davor Solter, Sonia M. Suter, Catherine M. Verfaillie, LeRoy B. Walters & John D. Gearhart - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (6):13-27.
    If stem cell-based therapies are developed, we will likely confront a difficult problem of justice: for biological reasons alone, the new therapies might benefit only a limited range of patients. In fact, they might benefit primarily white Americans, thereby exacerbating long-standing differences in health and health care.
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  3. Public Stem Cell Banks.Hilary Bok Mueller Agnew, Danw Brock, Aravinda Chakravarti, Xiao-Jiang Gao, Mark Greene, John A. Hansen, Patricia A. King, Stephen J. O'brien, David H. Sachs & Kathryn E. Schill - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (6):13-27.
     
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  4.  19
    Eugenics before world war II: The case of norway.Nils Roll-Hansen - 1980 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 2 (2):269 - 298.
    During the first half of the twentieth century there was a marked decline in biological conceptions of man and society. This paper describes the development of the views concerning eugenics held by the Norwegian scientific expertise, from open racism before World War I to a moderate nonracist eugenic program in the 1930's. It is claimed that public criticism of the popular eugenics movement by the experts came earlier in Norway than in most other countries, including the United States. The first (...)
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  5.  12
    On The Nature Of Representation: A Case Study Of James Gibson's Theory Of Perception.Mark H. Bickhard & D. Michael Richie - 1983 - Ny: Praeger.
  6.  8
    Montesquieu and the philosophy of natural law.Mark H. Waddicor - 1970 - The Hague,: M. Nijhoff.
    In the last hundred years, the philosophy of natural law has suffered a fate that could hardly have been envisaged by the seventeenth and eighteenth century exponents of its universality and eternity: it has become old-fashioned. The positivists and the Marxists were happy to throw eternal moral ity out of the window, confident that some magic temporal harmony would eventually follow Progress in by the front door. Their hopes may not have been fully realized, but they did succeed in discrediting (...)
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  7. The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance.Mark H. Ashcraft & Elizabeth P. Kirk - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (2):224.
  8. The interactivist model.Mark H. Bickhard - 2009 - Synthese 166 (3):547 - 591.
    A shift from a metaphysical framework of substance to one of process enables an integrated account of the emergence of normative phenomena. I show how substance assumptions block genuine ontological emergence, especially the emergence of normativity, and how a process framework permits a thermodynamic-based account of normative emergence. The focus is on two foundational forms of normativity, that of normative function and of representation as emergent in a particular kind of function. This process model of representation, called interactivism, compels changes (...)
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  9. Representational content in humans and machines.Mark H. Bickhard - 1993 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 5:285-33.
    This article focuses on the problem of representational content. Accounting for representational content is the central issue in contemporary naturalism: it is the major remaining task facing a naturalistic conception of the world. Representational content is also the central barrier to contemporary cognitive science and artificial intelligence: it is not possible to understand representation in animals nor to construct machines with genuine representation given current (lack of) understanding of what representation is. An elaborated critique is offered to current approaches to (...)
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  10. Mathematics anxiety and mental arithmetic performance: An exploratory investigation.Mark H. Ashcraft & Michael W. Faust - 1994 - Cognition and Emotion 8 (2):97-125.
  11.  28
    Newborns' preferential tracking of face-like stimuli and its subsequent decline.Mark H. Johnson, Suzanne Dziurawiec, Hadyn Ellis & John Morton - 1991 - Cognition 40 (1-2):1-19.
  12.  68
    Autonomy, function, and representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 2000 - Communication and Cognition-Artificial Intelligence 17 (3-4):111-131.
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  13. Emergence.Mark H. Bickhard - 2000 - In P.B. Andersen, Claus Emmeche, N.O. Finnemann & P.V. Christiansen (eds.), Downward Causation. University of Aarhus Press. pp. 322-348.
    * This paper was to have been written jointly with Don Campbell. His tragic death on May 6, 1996, occurred before we had been able to do much planning for the paper. As a result, this is undoubtedly a very different paper than if Don and I had written it together, and, undoubtedly, not as good a paper. Nevertheless, I believe it maintains at least the spirit of what we had discussed. Clearly, all errors are mine alone.
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  14. Process and emergence: Normative function and representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 2004 - Axiomathes - An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems 14:135-169.
    Emergence seems necessary for any naturalistic account of the world — none of our familiar world existed at the time of the Big Bang, and it does now — and normative emergence is necessary for any naturalistic account of biology and mind — mental phenomena, such as representation, learning, rationality, and so on, are normative. But Jaegwon Kim’s argument appears to render causally efficacious emergence impossible, and Hume’s argument appears to render normative emergence impossible, and, in its general form, it (...)
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  15. Some Consequences (and Enablings) of Process Metaphysics.Mark H. Bickhard - 2011 - Axiomathes 21 (1):3-32.
    The interactivist model has explored a number of consequences of process metaphysics. These include reversals of some fundamental metaphysical assumptions dominant since the ancient Greeks, and multiple further consequences throughout the metaphysics of the world, minds, and persons. This article surveys some of these consequences, ranging from issues regarding entities and supervenience to the emergence of normative phenomena such as representation, rationality, persons, and ethics.
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  16. Motivation and Emotion: An Interactive Process Model.Mark H. Bickhard - 2000 - In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), The Caldron of Consciousness: Motivation, Affect and Self-Organization. John Benjamins. pp. 161.
    In this chapter, I outline dynamic models of motivation and emotion. These turn out not to be autonomous subsystems, but, instead, are deeply integrated in the basic interactive dynamic character of living systems. Motivation is a crucial aspect of particular kinds of interactive systems -- systems for which representation is a sister aspect. Emotion is a special kind of partially reflective interaction process, and yields its own emergent motivational aspects. In addition, the overall model accounts for some of the crucial (...)
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  17.  78
    Interactivism: A manifesto.Mark H. Bickhard - manuscript
  18.  73
    Levels of representationality.Mark H. Bickhard - 1998 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 10 (2):179-215.
    The dominant assumptions -- throughout contemporary philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence -- about the ontology underlying intentionality, and its core of representationality, is that of encodings -- some sort of informational or correspondence or covariation relationship between the represented and its representation that constitutes that representational relationship. There are many disagreements concerning details and implementations, and even some suggestions about claimed alternative ontologies, such as connectionism (though none that escape what I argue is the fundamental flaw in these (...)
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  19. The dynamic emergence of representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 2004 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Representation in Mind. Elsevier. pp. 71--90.
    A final version of this paper is in press as: Bickhard, M. H.. The Dynamic Emergence of Representation. In H. Clapin, P. Staines, P. Slezak Representation in Mind: New Approaches to Mental Representation. Praeger.
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  20. On moral considerability: an essay on who morally matters.H. Bernstein Mark - 1998 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  21.  69
    The biological foundations of cognitive science.Mark H. Bickhard - manuscript
  22.  4
    Commercialization of the University and Problem Choice by Academic Biological Scientists.Mark H. Cooper - 2009 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 34 (5):629-653.
    Based on data from a survey of biological scientists at 125 American universities, this article explores how the commercialization of the university affects the problems academic scientists pursue and argues that this reorientation of scientific agendas results in a shift from science in the public interest to science for private goods. Drawing on perspectives from Bourdieu on how actors employ strategic practices toward the accumulation of social capital and acquire dispositional and perceptional tendencies that in turn recondition social structures, the (...)
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  23. A Process Model of the Emergence of Representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 1998 - In G. L. Farre & T. Oksala (eds.), Emergence, Complexity, Hierarchy, Organization, Selected and Edited Papers From the Echo Iii Conference. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica. pp. 3-7.
    Two challenges to the very possibility of emergence are addressed, one metaphysical and one logical. The resolution of the metaphysical challenge requires a shift to a process metaphysics, while the logical challenge highlights normative emergence, and requires a shift to more powerful logical tools -- in particular, that of implicit definition. Within the framework of a process metaphysics, two levels of normative emergence are outlined: that of function and that of representation.
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  24.  42
    Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes II: Central Nervous System Functional Macro-architecture.Mark H. Bickhard - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (4):377-407.
    The first paper in this pair (Bickhard in Axiomathes, 2015) developed a model of the nature of representation and cognition, and argued for a model of the micro-functioning of the brain on the basis of that model. In this sequel paper, starting with part III, this model is extended to address macro-functioning in the CNS. In part IV, I offer a discussion of an approach to brain functioning that has some similarities with, as well as differences from, the model presented (...)
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  25. Social Ontology as Convention.Mark H. Bickhard - 2008 - Topoi 27 (1-2):139-149.
    I will argue that social ontology is constituted as hierarchical and interlocking conventions of multifarious kinds. Convention, in turn, is modeled in a manner derived from that of David K. Lewis. Convention is usually held to be inadequate for models of social ontologies, with one primary reason being that there seems to be no place for normativity. I argue that two related changes are required in the basic modeling framework in order to address this (and other) issue(s): (1) a shift (...)
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  26.  67
    The Social Ontology of Persons.Mark H. Bickhard - unknown
    Persons are biological beings who participate in social environments. Is human sociality different from that of insects? Is human sociality different from that of a computer or robot with elaborate rules for social interaction in its program memory? What is the relationship between the biology of humans and the sociality of persons? I argue that persons constitute an emergent ontological level that develops out of the biological and psychological realm, but that is largely social in its own constitution. This requires (...)
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  27. Consciousness and reflective consciousness.Mark H. Bickhard - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):205-218.
    An interactive process model of the nature of representation intrinsically accounts for multiple emergent properties of consciousness, such as being a contentful experiential flow, from a situated and embodied point of view. A crucial characteristic of this model is that content is an internally related property of interactive process, rather than an externally related property as in all other contemporary models. Externally related content requires an interpreter, yielding the familiar regress of interpreters, along with a host of additional fatal problems. (...)
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  28.  48
    What could cognition be if not computation…Or connectionism, or dynamic systems?Mark H. Bickhard - 2015 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 35 (1):53-66.
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  29.  79
    Troubles with computationalism.Mark H. Bickhard - 1996 - In W. O'Donahue & Richard F. Kitchener (eds.), The Philosophy of Psychology. Sage Publications. pp. 173--183.
  30.  32
    Why Children Don't have to Solve the Frame Problems.Mark H. Bickhard - unknown
    We all believe an unbounded number of things about the way the world is and about the way the world works. For example, I believe that if I move this book into the other room, it will not change color -- unless there is a paint shower on the way, unless I carry an umbrella through that shower, and so on; I believe that large red trucks at high speeds can hurt me, that trucks with polka dots can hurt me, (...)
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  31.  57
    Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes I: Central Nervous System Functional Micro-architecture.Mark H. Bickhard - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (3):217-238.
    Standard semantic information processing models—information in; information processed; information out —lend themselves to standard models of the functioning of the brain in terms, e.g., of threshold-switch neurons connected via classical synapses. That is, in terms of sophisticated descendants of McCulloch and Pitts models. I argue that both the cognition and the brain sides of this framework are incorrect: cognition and thought are not constituted as forms of semantic information processing, and the brain does not function in terms of passive input (...)
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  32.  69
    Function, anticipation, representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 2001 - AIP Conference Proceedings 573:459-469.
    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.
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  33.  32
    The emergence of the social brain network: Evidence from typical and atypical development.Mark H. Johnson & Leslie A. Tucker - unknown
    Several research groups have identified a network of regions of the adult cortex that are activated during social perception and cognition tasks. In this paper we focus on the development of components of this social brain network during early childhood and test aspects of a particular viewpoint on human functional brain development: “interactive specialization.” Specifically, we apply new data analysis techniques to a previously published data set of event-related potential ~ERP! studies involving 3-, 4-, and 12-month-old infants viewing faces of (...)
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  34. How does the environment affect the person?Mark H. Bickhard - 1992 - In L. T. Winegar & Jaan Valsiner (eds.), Children's Development Within Social Contexts: Metatheoretical, Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Erlbaum.
    How Does the Environment Affect the Person? Mark H. Bickhard invited chapter in Children's Development within Social Contexts: Metatheoretical, Theoretical and Methodological Issues, Erlbaum. edited by L. T. Winegar, J. Valsiner, in press.
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  35.  82
    Information and representation in autonomous agents.Mark H. Bickhard - 2000 - Cognitive Systems Research 1 (2):65-75.
    Information and representation are thought to be intimately related. Representation, in fact, is commonly considered to be a special kind of information. It must be a _special_ kind, because otherwise all of the myriad instances of informational relationships in the universe would be representational -- some restrictions must be placed on informational relationships in order to refine the vast set into those that are truly representational. I will argue that information in this general sense is important to genuine agents, but (...)
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  36.  5
    The moral equality of humans and animals.Mark H. Bernstein - 2015 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Received opinion has it that humans are morally superior to non-human animals; human interests matter more than the like interests of animals and the value of human lives is alleged to be greater than the value of nonhuman animal lives. Since this belief causes mayhem and murder, its de-mythologizing requires urgent attention.
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  37.  86
    An integration of motivation and cognition.Mark H. Bickhard - 2003 - In L. Smith, C. Rogers & P. Tomlinson (eds.), Development and Motivation: Joint Perspectives. Leicester: British Psychological Society. pp. 41-56.
  38.  34
    Is cognition an autonomous subsystem.Mark H. Bickhard - 1997 - In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins. pp. 115--131.
  39. Without a tear: our tragic relationship with animals.Mark H. Bernstein - 2004 - Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    The principle of gratuitous suffering -- The value of humans and the value of animals -- The holocaust of factory farming -- Hunting -- Animal experimentation -- The law and animals -- Women and animals.
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  40. Some notes on internal and external relations and representation.Mark H. Bickhard - 2003 - Consciousness and Emotion 4 (1):101-110.
    Internal relations are those relations that are intrinsic to the nature of one or more of the relata. They are a kind of essential relation, rather than an essential property. For example, an arc of a circle is internally related to the center of that circle in the sense that.
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  41.  8
    Neuroconstructivism: Volume 1: How the Brain Constructs Cognition.Denis Mareschal, Mark H. Johnson, Sylvain Sirois, Michael Spratling, Michael S. C. Thomas & Gert Westermann - 2007 - Oxford University Press UK.
    What are the processes, from conception to adulthood, that enable a single cell to grow into a sentient adult? The processes that occur along the way are so complex that any attempt to understand development necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach, integrating data from cognitive studies, computational work, and neuroimaging - an approach till now seldom taken in the study of child development. Neuroconstructivism is a major new 2 volume publication that seeks to redress this balance, presenting an integrative new framework for (...)
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  42.  37
    Mechanism is not enough.Mark H. Bickhard - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (3):573-585.
    I will argue that mechanism is not sufficient to capture representation, thus cognition. More generally, mechanism is not sufficient to capture normativity of any sort. I will also outline a model of emergent normativity, representational normativity in particular, and show how it transcends these limitations of mechanism. To begin, I will address some illustrative attempts to model representation within mechanistically naturalistic frameworks, first rather generally, and then in the cases of the models of Fodor and Millikan.
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  43.  20
    Interactive knowing: The metaphysics of intentionality.Mark H. Bickhard - 2010 - In Roberto Poli & Johanna Seibt (eds.), Theory and Applications of Ontology: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 207--229.
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  44.  21
    Constructivisms and relativisms: A shopper's guide.Mark H. Bickhard - 1997 - Science & Education 6 (1-2):29-42.
  45.  30
    Critical principles: on the negative side.Mark H. Bickhard - 2002 - New Ideas in Psychology 20:1-34.
    neglected aspect: knowledge of error, or ‘‘negative’’ knowledge. The development of knowledge of what counts as error occurs via a kind of internal variation and selection, or quasi-evolutionary, process. Processes of reflection generate a hierarchy of principles of error.
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  46.  37
    9 The emergent ontology of persons.Mark H. Bickhard - 2012 - In Jack Martin & Mark H. Bickhard (eds.), The Psychology of Personhood: Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental and Narrative Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 165.
  47.  42
    Executive function and developmental disorders: the flip side of the coin.Mark H. Johnson - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (9):454-457.
  48.  69
    The Tragedy of Operationalism.Mark H. Bickhard - unknown
    Operational definitions were a neo-Machean development that connected with the positivism of Logical Positivism. Logical Positivism failed, with the failure of operational definitions being just one of multiple and multifarious failures of Logical Positivism more broadly. Operationalism, however, has continued to seduce psychology more than half a century after it was repudiated by philosophers of science, including the very Logical Positivists who had first taken it seriously. It carries with it a presupposed metaphysics that is false in virtually all of (...)
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  49.  34
    Cognitive arithmetic: A review of data and theory. [REVIEW]Mark H. Ashcraft - 1992 - Cognition 44 (1-2):75-106.
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  50.  25
    Destigmatising the Placebo Effect.Mark H. Arnold, Damien G. Finniss & Ian Kerridge - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):21-23.
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