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Mark Risjord [40]Mark W. Risjord [7]Mark Winden Risjord [1]
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Mark Risjord
Emory University
  1. Nursing Knowledge: Science, Practice, and Philosophy.Mark W. Risjord - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    The final chapter of the book 'redraws the map', to create a new picture of nursing science based on the following principles: Problems of practice should guide ...
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  2. Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction.Mark Risjord - 2014 - Routledge.
    The Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction examines the perennial questions of philosophy by engaging with the empirical study of society. The book offers a comprehensive overview of debates in the field, with special attention to questions arising from new research programs in the social sciences. The text uses detailed examples of social scientific research to motivate and illustrate the philosophical discussion. Topics include the relationship of social policy to social science, interpretive research, action explanation, game theory, social scientific (...)
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  3.  16
    Woodcutters and Witchcraft: Rationality and Interpretive Change in the Social Sciences.Mark W. Risjord - 2000 - State University of New York Press.
    Uncovers the methodological principles that govern interpretive change.
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  4. Relativism and the Ontological Turn Within Anthropology.Martin Paleček & Mark Risjord - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):3-23.
    The “ontological turn” is a recent movement within cultural anthropology. Its proponents want to move beyond a representationalist framework, where cultures are treated as systems of belief that provide different perspectives on a single world. Authors who write in this vein move from talk of many cultures to many “worlds,” thus appearing to affirm a form of relativism. We argue that, unlike earlier forms of relativism, the ontological turn in anthropology is not only immune to the arguments of Donald Davidson’s (...)
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  5.  41
    Inferentialist-Expressivism for Explanatory Vocabulary.Jared A. Millson, Kareem Khalifa & Mark Risjord - 2018 - In Ondřej Beran, Vojtěch Kolman & Ladislav Koreň (eds.), From rules to meanings. New essays on inferentialism. Routledge.
    In this essay, we extend earlier inferentialist-expressivist treatments of traditional logical, semantic, modal, and representational vocabulary (Brandom 1994, 2008, 2015; Peregrin 2014) to explanatory vocabulary. From this perspective, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) appears to be an obvious starting point. In its simplest formulation, IBE has the form: A best explains why B, B; so A. It thereby captures one of the central inferential features of explanation. An inferentialist-expressivist treatment of “best explains” would treat it as a logical operator. (...)
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  6. Reasons, Causes, and Action Explanation.Mark Risjord - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (3):294-306.
    To explain an intentional action one must exhibit the agent’s reasons. Donald Davidson famously argued that the only clear way to understand action explanation is to hold that reasons are causes. Davidson’s discussion conflated two issues: whether reasons are causes and whether reasons causally explain intentional action. Contemporary work on explanation and normativity help disentangle these issues and ground an argument that intentional action explanations cannot be a species of causal explanation. Interestingly, this conclusion is consistent with Davidson’s conclusion that (...)
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  7. Inference, Explanation, and Asymmetry.Kareem Khalifa, Jared Millson & Mark Risjord - 2018 - Synthese.
    Explanation is asymmetric: if A explains B, then B does not explain A. Tradition- ally, the asymmetry of explanation was thought to favor causal accounts of explanation over their rivals, such as those that take explanations to be inferences. In this paper, we develop a new inferential approach to explanation that outperforms causal approaches in accounting for the asymmetry of explanation.
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  8.  48
    Is There Such a Thing as a Language?Dorit Bar-On & Mark Risjord - 1992 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):163-190.
    ‘There is no such thing as a language,’ Donald Davidson tells us. Though this is a startling claim in its own right, it seems especially puzzling coming from a leading theorizer about language. Over the years, Davidson’s important essays have sparked the hope that there is a route to a positive, nonskeptical theory of meaning for natural languages. This hope would seem to be dashed if there are no natural languages. Unless Davidson’s radical claim is a departure from his developed (...)
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  9.  10
    Woodcutters and Witchcraft: Rationality and Interpretive Change in the Social Sciences.Mark W. Risjord - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (1):230-233.
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  10. Methodological Triangulation in Nursing Research.Mark Risjord, Margaret Moloney & Sandra Dunbar - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (1):40-59.
    Methodological triangulation is the use of more than one method to investigate a phenomenon. Nurse researchers investigate health phenomena using methods drawn from the natural and social sciences. The methodological debate concerns the possibility of confirming a single theory with different kinds of methods. The nursing debate parallels the philosophical debate about how the natural and social sciences are related. This article critiques the presuppositions of the nursing debate and suggests alternatives. The consequence is a view of triangulation that permits (...)
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  11.  10
    Nursing and Human Freedom.Mark Risjord - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (1):35-45.
    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self‐care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative (...)
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  12. The Politics of Explanation and the Origins of Ethnography.Mark W. Risjord - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (1):29-52.
    : At the turn of the twentieth century, comparative studies of human culture (ethnology) gave way to studies of the details of individual societies (ethnography). While many writers have noticed a political sub-text to this paradigm shift, they have regarded political interests as extrinsic to the change. The central historical issue is why anthropologists stopped asking global, comparative questions and started asking local questions about features of particular societies. The change in questions cannot be explained by empirical factors alone, and (...)
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  13.  4
    Is There Such a Thing as a Language?Dorit Bar-On & Mark Risjord - 1992 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):163-190.
    ‘There is no such thing as a language,’ Donald Davidson tells us. Though this is a startling claim in its own right, it seems especially puzzling coming from a leading theorizer about language. Over the years, Davidson’s important essays have sparked the hope that there is a route to a positive, nonskeptical theory of meaning for natural languages. This hope would seem to be dashed if there are no natural languages. Unless Davidson’s radical claim is a departure from his developed (...)
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  14.  51
    The Sensible Foundation for Mathematics: A Defense of Kant's View.Mark Risjord - 1990 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (1):123-143.
  15.  33
    Norms and Explanation in the Social Sciences.Mark Risjord - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):223-237.
  16.  20
    When IRBs Disagree: Waiving Parental Consent for Sexual Health Research on Adolescents.Mark Risjord & Judith Greenberg - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  17.  17
    Relativism and the Possibility of Criticism.Mark Risjord - 1998 - Cogito 12 (2):155-160.
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  18.  14
    Models of Culture.Mark Risjord - 2012 - In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 387.
  19.  4
    Relativism and the Possibility of Criticism.Mark Risjord - 1998 - Cogito 12 (2):155-160.
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  20. Who Are ‘We’? Dissolving the Problem of Cultural Boundaries.Mark Risjord - 2007 - Modern Schoolman 84 (2/3):205-215.
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  21.  39
    No Strings Attached: Functional and Intentional Action Explanations.Mark Risjord - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):313.
    Functional explanation in the social sciences is the focal point for conflict between individualistic and social modes of explanation. While the agent thought she was acting for reasons, the functional explanation seems to reveal the hidden strings of the puppet master. This essay argues that the conflict is merely apparent. The erotetic model of explanation is used to analyze the forms of intentional action and functional explanations. Two explanations conflict if either the presuppositions of their respective why-questions conflict or the (...)
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  22.  31
    Meaning, Belief, and Language Acquisition.Mark Risjord - 1996 - Philosophical Psychology 9 (4):465-475.
    A very plausible and common view of meaning supposes that linguistic meaning is to be understood in terms of speakers' intentions. This program proposes to analyse the meaning of a sentence in terms of what speakers mean by or in uttering it; and this speaker meaning in turn is to be analysed in terms of the speaker's intentions. This essay argues that intention-based semantics cannot provide an adequate analysis of linguistic meaning: not because of contrived counterexamples, nor because it conflicts (...)
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  23.  14
    Wittgenstein's Woodcutters: The Problem of Apparent Irrationality.Mark Risjord - 1993 - American Philosophical Quarterly 30 (3):247-258.
  24.  51
    Inference to the Best Explanation: Fundamentalism's Failures.Kareem Khalifa, Jared A. Millson & Mark Risjord - 2017 - In Kevin McCain & Ted Poston (eds.), Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 80-96.
    Many epistemologists take Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) to be “fundamental.” For instance, Lycan (1988, 128) writes that “all justified reasoning is fundamentally explanatory reasoning.” Conee and Feldman (2008, 97) concur: “fundamental epistemic principles are principles of best explanation.” Call them fundamentalists. They assert that nothing deeper could justify IBE, as is typically assumed of rules of deductive inference, such as modus ponens. However, logicians account for modus ponens with the valuation rule for the material conditional. By contrast, fundamentalists (...)
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  25. A Qualified Bioethic: Particularity in James Gustafson and Stanley Hauer-Was, by Gerald P. McKenny 511 Advance Directives for Voluntary Euthanasia: A Volatile Combination? By Leslie Pickering Francis 297 After the Fall: Particularism in Bioethics, by Kevin Wm. Wildes, 5.7. 505. [REVIEW]Louis E. Newman, Bonnie B. O'Connor, Jean-Pierre Poullier, Mark Risjord, Wendell Stephenson & Mark D. Sullivan - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18:599-602.
  26.  3
    Anthropology Without Belief: An Anti-Representationalist Ontological Turn.Mark Risjord - 2020 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 50 (6):586-609.
    Rejecting the category of belief is one of the most striking and profound ideas to emerge from the ontological turn. This essay will argue that the rejection of belief is best understood as part of a broader rejection of representationalism. Representationalism regards thought, speech, and intentionality as depending primarily on the mind’s ability to manipulate beliefs, ideas, meanings, or similar contents. Some central strands of the ontological turn thus participate in the philosophical project of understanding human life without appeal to (...)
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  27.  11
    Bloodsucking Witchcraft: An Epistemological Study of Anthropomorphic Supernaturalism in Rural Tlaxcala. Hugo G. Nutini, John M. Roberts. [REVIEW]Mark Risjord - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):679-681.
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  28. Evolution and the Kantian Worldview.Mark Risjord - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):72-84.
    Nonhuman animals seem to make inferences and have mental representations. Brandom articulates a Kantian (and Hegelian) account of representation that seems to make nonhuman mental content impossible: animals are merely sentient, not sapient. His position is problematic because it makes it impossible to understand how our cognitive capacities evolved. This essay discusses experimental and ethological work on transitive inference. It argues that to fit such evidence within the Kantian framework, there must be degrees of normativity. This invites us to understand (...)
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  29. Race and Scientific Reduction.Mark Risjord - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Springer Publishing Company.
  30.  18
    Further Reflections on the Sensible Foundation: Replies to Leavitt and Griffin.Mark Risjord - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (4):665-672.
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  31.  6
    Genes, Neurons, and Nurses: New Directions for Nursing's Philosophy of Science.Mark Risjord - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (4):231-237.
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  32.  22
    International Philosophy of Nursing Conference 2007 Conference Review.Mark Risjord - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (2):147–148.
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  33.  18
    Metaphysics, Method, and the Exact Sciences.Mark Risjord - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (3):493-499.
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  34.  26
    Middle-Range Theories as Models: New Criteria for Analysis and Evaluation.Mark Risjord - 2019 - Nursing Philosophy 20 (1):e12225.
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  35.  10
    Naturalism and Normativity. Columbia Themes in Philosophy.Mark Risjord - 2012 - Nursing Philosophy 13 (3):230-231.
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  36. Normativity and Naturalism in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.Mark Risjord (ed.) - 2015 - Routledge.
    _Normativity and Naturalism in the Social Sciences_ engages with a central debate within the philosophy of social science: whether social scientific explanation necessitates an appeal to norms, and if so, whether appeals to normativity can be rendered "scientific." This collection brings together contributions from a diverse group of philosophers who explore a broad but thematically unified set of questions, many of which stem from an ongoing debate between Stephen Turner and Joseph Rouse on the role of naturalism in the philosophy (...)
     
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  37. Nursing Science.Mark Risjord - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  38.  19
    Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature: Thirtieth-Anniversary Edition.Mark Risjord - 2010 - Nursing Philosophy 11 (3):209-211.
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  39. Ethnography and Culture.Mark Risjord - 2007 - In Stephen Turner, Mark Risjord, John Woods & Paul Thagard (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology. Elsevier. pp. 399 - 428.
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  40.  24
    Relativism and the Social Scientific Study of Medicine.Mark Risjord - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (2):195-212.
    Does the social scientific study of medicine require a commitment to relativism? Relativism claims that some subject (e.g., knowledge claims or moral judgments) is relative to a background (e.g., a culture or conceptual scheme) and that judgments about the subject are incommensurable. Examining the concept of success as it appears in orthodox and nonorthodox medical systems, we see that judgments of success are relative to a background medical system. Relativism requires the social scientific study of medicine to be value free (...)
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  41. Scientific Change as Political Action: Franz Boas and the Anthropology of Race.Mark Risjord - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):24-45.
    A theory is value-neutral when no constitutive values are part of its content. Nonneutral theories seem to lack objectivity because it is not clear how the constitutive values could be empirically confirmed. This article analyzes Franz Boas’s famous arguments against nineteenth-century evolutionary anthropology and racial theory. While he recognized that talk of "higher civilizations" encoded a constitutive, political value with consequences for slavery and colonialism, he argued against it on empirical and methodological grounds. Boas’s arguments thus provide a model of (...)
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  42. The Limits of Cognitive Theory in Anthropology.Mark Risjord - 2004 - Philosophical Explorations 7 (3):281 – 297.
    The cognitive revolution in psychology was a significant advance in our thinking about the mind. Philosophers and social scientists have looked to the cognitive sciences with the hope that the social world will yield to similar explanatory strategies. Dan Sperber has argued for a programme that would conceptualize the entire domain of anthropological theory in cognitive terms. Sperber's 'epidemiology' specifically excludes interpretive, structuralist and functionalist theories. This essay evaluates Sperber's epidemiological approach to anthropological theory. It argues that as a programme (...)
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  43.  28
    The Social Ontology Trap: Brian Epstein: The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundation of the Social Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, Pp 298 HB.Mark Risjord - 2016 - Metascience 25 (1):135-137.
  44. When IRBs Disagree: A Case Study on Waiving Parental Consent for Sexual Health Research on Adolescents.Mark Risjord & Judith Greenberg - 2002 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 24 (2):8-14.
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  45. Great Minds of the Western Intellectual Tradition.Darren Staloff, Louis Markos, Jeremy duQuesnay Adams, Phillip Cary, Dennis Dalton, Alan Charles Kors, Jeremy Shearmur, Robert C. Solomon, Robert Kane, Kathleen Marie Higgins, Mark W. Risjord & Douglas Kellner (eds.) - 2000 - Teaching Co..
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  46. Handbook of Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology.Stephen P. Turner & Mark W. Risjord (eds.) - 2006 - Elsevier.
    This volume concerns philosophical issues that arise from the practice of anthropology and sociology. The essays cover a wide range of issues, including traditional questions in the philosophy of social science as well as those specific to these disciplines. Authors attend to the historical development of the current debates and set the stage for future work.
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  47.  4
    Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology: A Volume in Handbook of the Philosophy of Science.Stephen Turner & Mark W. Risjord (eds.) - 2007 - Elsevier.
    This volume concerns philosophical issues that arise from the practice of anthropology and sociology. The essays cover a wide range of issues, including traditional questions in the philosophy of social science as well as those specific to these disciplines. Authors attend to the historical development of the current debates and set the stage for future work.
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