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Mark Ryan [24]Mark R. Ryan [2]Mark D. Ryan [1]
  1. In AI We Trust: Ethics, Artificial Intelligence, and Reliability.Mark Ryan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2749-2767.
    One of the main difficulties in assessing artificial intelligence (AI) is the tendency for people to anthropomorphise it. This becomes particularly problematic when we attach human moral activities to AI. For example, the European Commission’s High-level Expert Group on AI (HLEG) have adopted the position that we should establish a relationship of trust with AI and should cultivate trustworthy AI (HLEG AI Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI, 2019, p. 35). Trust is one of the most important and defining activities in (...)
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  2. Artificial intelligence ethics guidelines for developers and users: clarifying their content and normative implications.Mark Ryan & Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2021 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 19 (1):61-86.
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is clearly illustrate this convergence and the prescriptive recommendations that such documents entail. There is a significant amount of research into the ethical consequences of artificial intelligence. This is reflected by many outputs across academia, policy and the media. Many of these outputs aim to provide guidance to particular stakeholder groups. It has recently been shown that there is a large degree of convergence in terms of the principles upon which these guidance documents are (...)
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  3.  78
    Organisational responses to the ethical issues of artificial intelligence.Bernd Carsten Stahl, Josephina Antoniou, Mark Ryan, Kevin Macnish & Tilimbe Jiya - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):23-37.
    The ethics of artificial intelligence is a widely discussed topic. There are numerous initiatives that aim to develop the principles and guidance to ensure that the development, deployment and use of AI are ethically acceptable. What is generally unclear is how organisations that make use of AI understand and address these ethical issues in practice. While there is an abundance of conceptual work on AI ethics, empirical insights are rare and often anecdotal. This paper fills the gap in our current (...)
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  4. Stop re-inventing the wheel: or how ELSA and RRI can align.Mark Ryan & Vincent Blok - 2023 - Journal of Responsible Innovation (x):x.
    Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects (ELSA) originated in the 4thEuropean Research Framework Programme (1994) andresponsible research and innovation (RRI) from the EC researchagenda in 2010. ELSA has received renewed attention inEuropean funding schemes and research. This raises the questionof how these two approaches to social responsibility relate toone another and if there is the possibility to align. There is aneed to evaluate the relationship/overlap between ELSA and RRIbecause there is a possibility that new ELSA research will reinventthe wheel if it (...)
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  5.  49
    The Future of Transportation: Ethical, Legal, Social and Economic Impacts of Self-driving Vehicles in the Year 2025.Mark Ryan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1185-1208.
    Self-driving vehicles offer great potential to improve efficiency on roads, reduce traffic accidents, increase productivity, and minimise our environmental impact in the process. However, they have also seen resistance from different groups claiming that they are unsafe, pose a risk of being hacked, will threaten jobs, and increase environmental pollution from increased driving as a result of their convenience. In order to reap the benefits of SDVs, while avoiding some of the many pitfalls, it is important to effectively determine what (...)
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  6.  38
    Research and Practice of AI Ethics: A Case Study Approach Juxtaposing Academic Discourse with Organisational Reality.Bernd Stahl, Kevin Macnish, Tilimbe Jiya, Laurence Brooks, Josephina Antoniou & Mark Ryan - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-29.
    This study investigates the ethical use of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies (BD + AI)—using an empirical approach. The paper categorises the current literature and presents a multi-case study of 'on-the-ground' ethical issues that uses qualitative tools to analyse findings from ten targeted case-studies from a range of domains. The analysis coalesces identified singular ethical issues, (from the literature), into clusters to offer a comparison with the proposed classification in the literature. The results show that despite the variety (...)
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  7.  34
    The social and ethical impacts of artificial intelligence in agriculture: mapping the agricultural AI literature.Mark Ryan - 2023 - AI and Society 38 (6):2473-2485.
    This paper will examine the social and ethical impacts of using artificial intelligence (AI) in the agricultural sector. It will identify what are some of the most prevalent challenges and impacts identified in the literature, how this correlates with those discussed in the domain of AI ethics, and are being implemented into AI ethics guidelines. This will be achieved by examining published articles and conference proceedings that focus on societal or ethical impacts of AI in the agri-food sector, through a (...)
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  8.  9
    Business Ethics as a Form of Practical Reasoning: What Philosophers Can Learn from Patagonia.Mark R. Ryan - 2021 - Humanistic Management Journal 6 (1):103-116.
    As with other fields of applied ethics, philosophers engaged in business ethics struggle to carry out substantive philosophical reflection in a way that mirrors the practical reasoning that goes on within business management itself. One manifestation of the philosopher’s struggle is the field’s division into approaches that emphasize moral philosophy and those grounded in the methods of social science. I claim here that the task for those who come to business ethics with philosophical training is to avoid unintentionally widening the (...)
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  9.  45
    An AI ethics ‘David and Goliath’: value conflicts between large tech companies and their employees.Mark Ryan, Eleni Christodoulou, Josephina Antoniou & Kalypso Iordanou - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-16.
    Artificial intelligence ethics requires a united approach from policymakers, AI companies, and individuals, in the development, deployment, and use of these technologies. However, sometimes discussions can become fragmented because of the different levels of governance or because of different values, stakeholders, and actors involved. Recently, these conflicts became very visible, with such examples as the dismissal of AI ethics researcher Dr. Timnit Gebru from Google and the resignation of whistle-blower Frances Haugen from Facebook. Underpinning each debacle was a conflict between (...)
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  10.  30
    Agricultural Big Data Analytics and the Ethics of Power.Mark Ryan - 2020 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 33 (1):49-69.
    Agricultural Big Data analytics (ABDA) is being proposed to ensure better farming practices, decision-making, and a sustainable future for humankind. However, the use and adoption of these technologies may bring about potentially undesirable consequences, such as exercises of power. This paper will analyse Brey’s five distinctions of power relationships (manipulative, seductive, leadership, coercive, and forceful power) and apply them to the use agricultural Big Data. It will be shown that ABDA can be used as a form of manipulative power to (...)
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  11.  61
    Counterfactuals and updates as inverse modalities.Mark Ryan & Pierre-Yves Schobbens - 1997 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (2):123-146.
    We point out a simple but hitherto ignored link between the theoryof updates, the theory of counterfactuals, and classical modal logic: update is a classicalexistential modality, counterfactual is a classical universalmodality, and the accessibility relations corresponding to these modalities are inverses. The Ramsey Rule (often thought esoteric) is simply an axiomatisation of this inverse relationship. We use this fact to translate between rules for updates andrules for counterfactuals. Thus, Katsuno and Mendelzons postulatesU1--U8 are translated into counterfactual rules C1--C8(Table VII), and (...)
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  12. Belief Revision and Verisimilitude.Mark Ryan & Pierre-Yves Schobbens - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):15-29.
    The Egli-Milner power-ordering is used to define verisimilitude orderings on theories from preference orderings on models. The effects of the definitions on constraints such as stopperedness and soundness are explored. Orderings on theories are seen to contain more information than orderings on models. Belief revision is defined in terms of both types of orderings, and conditions are given which make the two notions coincide.
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  13.  8
    Justice and Sustainability Tensions in Agriculture: Wicked Problems in the Case of Dutch Manure Policy.Mark Ryan & Anne-Charlotte Hoes - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    In recent years, there has been tension between farmers and the Dutch government regarding sustainability policy (in the efforts to reduce the harm caused by manure surplus) and how implementing this policy affects farmers (in the form of justice concerns). We interviewed Dutch farmers to uncover how they view manure policy. We identified four types of injustices: procedural, contributive, distributive, and intergenerational. We propose that a multi-tiered approach is required to overcome these kinds of ‘wicked problems’, avoid paralysis from lack (...)
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  14.  4
    We’re only human after all: a critique of human-centred AI.Mark Ryan - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    The use of a ‘human-centred’ artificial intelligence approach (HCAI) has substantially increased over the past few years in academic texts (1600 +); institutions (27 Universities have HCAI labs, such as Stanford, Sydney, Berkeley, and Chicago); in tech companies (e.g., Microsoft, IBM, and Google); in politics (e.g., G7, G20, UN, EU, and EC); and major institutional bodies (e.g., World Bank, World Economic Forum, UNESCO, and OECD). Intuitively, it sounds very appealing: placing human concerns at the centre of AI development and use. (...)
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  15. Implementation of Belief Change Operators Using BDDs.Nikos Gorogiannis & Mark D. Ryan - 2002 - Studia Logica 70 (1):131-156.
    While the theory of belief change has attracted a lot of interest from researchers, work on implementing belief change and actually putting it to use in real-world problems is still scarce. In this paper, we present an implementation of propositional belief change using Binary Decision Diagrams. Upper complexity bounds for the algorithm are presented and discussed. The approach is presented both in the general case, as well as on specific belief change operators from the literature. In an effort to gain (...)
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  16.  9
    Human Value, Environmental Ethics and Sustainability: The Precautionary Ecosystem Health Principle.Mark Ryan - 2016 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Should we care about the environment because it is economically valuable or because nature has intrinsic value? This book gives a clear overview of some of the main theoretical problems within environmental ethics and offers definitive solutions and alternatives.
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  17.  29
    Prime Movers of Globalization: The History and Impact of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines.Mark Ryan - 2013 - The European Legacy 18 (5):675-676.
  18.  16
    Sharing God’s Company: A Theology of the Communion of Saints by David Matzko McCarthy.Mark Ryan - 2015 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 35 (1):192-194.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Sharing God’s Company: A Theology of the Communion of Saints by David Matzko McCarthyMark RyanSharing God’s Company: A Theology of the Communion of Saints By David Matzko McCarthy GRAND RAPIDS: WILLIAM B. EERDMANS, 2012. 182 PP. $28.00What is the meaning of “communion” as it occurs in Christian references to the “Communion of Saints”? It clearly implies a particular social bond, but of what sort? David Matzko McCarthy observes (...)
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  19.  4
    Scripture, Tradition, and Reason in Christian Ethics.Mark Ryan - 2022 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 42 (1):231-232.
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  20.  5
    The Person and the Polis; On Wings of Faith and Reason.Mark Ryan - 2011 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 31 (1):206-209.
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