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Mark Walker [82]Mark Thomas Walker [12]Mark A. Walker [2]
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Mark Walker
New Mexico State University
Mark Thomas Walker
University of Birmingham
  1. The Socratic Note Taking Technique.Mark Walker, David Trafimow & Jamie Bronstein - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy.
    The notion of Socratic Note Taking is introduced to enhance students’ learning from assigned readings. SNT features students asking questions and answering their own questions while doing the readings. To test the effectiveness of SNT, half the students from two sections of a philosophy course were assigned SNT on alternating weeks. Quizzes each week alternated between the two classes as either high or low stakes in a counterbalanced format. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 within-participants factorial. On (...)
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  2. Occam’s Razor, Dogmatism, Skepticism, and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2016 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (1):1-29.
    _ Source: _Page Count 29 Underdetermination arguments for skepticism maintain that our common sense view of the external world is no better, evidentially speaking, than some skeptical competitors. An important and well-known response by dogmatists, those who believe our commonsense view is justified, appeals to abduction or inference to the best explanation. The predominant version of this strategy, going back at least to Locke, invokes Occam’s razor: dogmatists claim the common sense view is simpler than any of its skeptical alternatives (...)
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  3.  8
    Hinge Propositions, Skeptical Dogmatism, and External World Disjunctivism.Mark Walker - 2019 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 9 (2):134-167.
    Following Wittgenstein’s lead, Crispin Wright and others have argued that hinge propositions are immune from skeptical doubt. In particular, the entitlement strategy, as we shall refer to it, says that hinge propositions have a special type of justification because of their role in our cognitive lives. Two major criticisms are raised here against the entitlement strategy when used in attempts to justify belief in the external world. First, the hinge strategy is not sufficient to thwart underdetermination skepticism, since underdetermination considerations (...)
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  4.  9
    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.Mark Walker - 2017 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 40 (3):271-288.
    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges.
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  5.  44
    The Voluntariness of Judgment.Mark Thomas Walker - 1996 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):97 – 119.
    While various items closely associated with belief, such as speech?acts of assertion, or what have recently been termed acts of ?acceptance?, can clearly be voluntary, it is commonly supposed that belief itself, being intrinsically truth?directed, is essentially passive. I argue that while this may be true of belief proper, understood as a kind of disposition, it is not true of acts of assent or ?judgment?. Judgments, I contend, must be deemed voluntary precisely because of their truth?aimedness, for in their case (...)
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  6.  54
    Personal Identity and Uploading.Mark Walker - 2011 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 22 (1):37-52.
    Objections to uploading may be parsed into substrate issues, dealing with the computer platform of upload and personal identity. This paper argues that the personal identity issues of uploading are no more or less challenging than those of bodily transfer often discussed in the philosophical literature. It is argued that what is important in personal identity involves both token and type identity. While uploading does not preserve token identity, it does save type identity; and even qua token, one may have (...)
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  7.  52
    The Real Reason Why the Prisoner’s Dilemma is Not a Newcomb Problem.Mark Thomas Walker - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (3):841-859.
    It is commonly thought, in line with the position defended in an influential paper by David Lewis, that the decision problems faced in the prisoner’s dilemma and the Newcomb situation are essentially the same problem. José Luis Bermúdez has recently attacked the case Lewis makes for this claim. While I think the claim is false, I contend that Bermúdez’s reason for rejecting Lewis’s argument is inadequate, and then outline what I take to be a better reason for doing so.
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  8.  38
    Death, Faster Than Light Travel, and Einstein.Mark Walker - 2015 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 13: Sixty Years After Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Palo Alto, CA, USA: Ria University Press. pp. 1-24.
    This paper describes a thought experiment that shows that people can travel faster than the speed of light: we are not bound by Einstein’s speed limit. Of course, any two-bit sci-fi story can describe faster-than-light travel. The difference is that the thought experiment proposed here is consistent with Einstein’s theory. The way to extricate ourselves from this seeming contradiction is to acknowledge that persons are not entirely physical. In other words, the explanation for why faster-than-light travel is possible for persons, (...)
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  9.  46
    Externalism, Skepticism, and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (1):27-57.
    A claimed benefit of epistemic externalism is that it alone can avoid skepticism. Most epistemic externalists, however, allow a residual amount of internalism in terms of a defeasibility condition. The paper argues that this internal condition is sufficient for skeptics to cast doubt on many claims to justified belief about perceptual matters about the world. Furthermore, the internal defeasibility condition also opens the door to a darker form of skepticism; skeptical dogmatism, which maintains that many of our perceptually based beliefs (...)
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  10.  33
    Eugenic Selection Benefits Embryos.Mark Walker - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):214-224.
    The primary question to be addressed here is whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used for both negative and positive trait selection, benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The phrase ‘potential supernumerary embryos’ is used to indicate that PGD is typically performed on a set of embryos, only some of which will be implanted. Prior to any testing, each embryo in the set is potentially supernumerary in the sense that it may not be selected for implantation. Those embryos that are not selected, and (...)
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  11.  39
    Williams, Truth-Aimedness and the Voluntariness of Judgement.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):68–83.
    I contend that while at least one of the arguments advanced by Bernard Williams in his paper ‘Deciding To Believe’ does establish that beliefs, or more precisely, judgements cannot be decided upon ‘at will’, the notion of truth‐aimedness presupposed by that argument also, ironically, provides the key to understanding why judgements are necessarily voluntary.
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  12. The Anthropic Argument Against the Existence of God.Mark Walker - 2009 - Sophia 48 (4):351 - 378.
    If God is morally perfect then He must perform the morally best actions, but creating humans is not the morally best action. If this line of reasoning can be maintained then the mere fact that humans exist contradicts the claim that God exists. This is the ‘anthropic argument’. The anthropic argument, is related to, but distinct from, the traditional argument from evil. The anthropic argument forces us to consider the ‘creation question’: why did God not create other gods rather than (...)
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  13.  18
    Moore’s Proof, Theory-Ladenness of Perception, and Many Proofs.Mark Walker - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    I argue that if we allow that Moore’s Method, which involves taking an ordinary knowledge claim to support a substantive metaphysical conclusion, can be used to support Moore’s proof an external world, then we should accept that Moore’s Method can be used to support a variety of incompatible metaphysical conclusions. I shall refer to this as “the problem of many proofs”. The problem of many proofs, I claim, stems from the theory-ladenness of perception. I shall argue further that this plethora (...)
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  14.  50
    Skepticism and Nataturalism: Can Philosophical Skepticisim Be Scientifically Tested?Mark Walker - 2004 - Theoria 70 (1):62-97.
    It may be possible to scientifically test philosophical skepticism; at least this is what I shall maintain. The argument develops the naturalistic insight that there may be no particular reason to suppose that nature has selected Homo sapiens’ epistemic capacities such that we are ideally suited to forming a true theory of everything, or indeed, a true theory of much of anything. Just as chimpanzees are cognitively limited - there are many concepts, ideas, and theories beyond their grasp - so (...)
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  15.  16
    BIG and Technological Unemployment: Chicken Litter Versus the Economists.Mark Walker - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):5-25.
    The paper rehearses arguments for and against the prediction of massive technological unemployment. The main argument in favor is that robots are entering a large number of industries; making more expensive human labor redundant. The main argument against the prediction is that for two hundred years we have seen a massive increase in productivity with no long term structural unemployment caused by automation. The paper attempts to move past this argumentative impasse by asking what humans contribute to the supply side (...)
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  16. Astrophysical Fine Tuning, Naturalism, and the Contemporary Design Argument.Mark A. Walker & M. Milan - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):285 – 307.
    Evidence for instances of astrophysical 'fine tuning' (or 'coincidences') is thought by some to lend support to the design argument (i.e. the argument that our universe has been designed by some deity). We assess some of the relevant empirical and conceptual issues. We argue that astrophysical fine tuning calls for some explanation, but this explanation need not appeal to the design argument. A clear and strict separation of the issue of anthropic fine tuning on one hand and any form of (...)
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  17.  40
    Underdetermination Skepticism and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2015 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 5 (3):218-251.
  18.  12
    The Voluntariness of Judgment: Reply to Stein.Mark Walker - 1998 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):333-339.
    I have maintained that judgments must be voluntary since, as truth-aimed, they may be represented as responses to practical reasons. Christian Stein has objected that this argument cannot apply to judgments which are not the outcomes of theoretical reasoning. Furthermore, he contends that I have not succeeded in overcoming an argument of H. H. Price's to the effect that judgments which are such outcomes cannot be voluntary. I argue below that neither of these objections can be sustained.
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  19.  62
    Religion and Transhumanism: Introducing a Conversation.Heidi Campbell & Mark Walker - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2).
  20.  24
    Superlongevity and Utilitarianism.Mark Walker - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):581 – 595.
    Peter Singer has argued that there are good utilitarian reasons for rejecting the prospect of superlongevity: developing technology to double (or more) the average human lifespan. I argue against Singer's view on two fronts. First, empirical research on happiness indicates that the later years of life are (on average) the happiest, and there is no reason to suppose that this trend would not continue if superlongevity were realized. Second, it is argued that there are good reasons to suppose that there (...)
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  21.  60
    Critical Assembly: How (but Not Why) We Got the Bomb.Mark Walker - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (1):117-120.
  22. Anthropic Reasoning and the Contemporary Design Argument in Astrophysics: A Reply to Robert Klee.Mark Walker & Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    In a recent study of astrophysical “fine-tunings” (or “coincidences”), Robert Klee critically assesses the support that such astrophysical evidence might be thought to lend to the design argument (i.e., the argument that our universe has been designed by some deity). Klee argues that a proper assessment indicates that the universe is not as “fine-tuned” as advertised by proponents of the design arguments. We argue (i) that Klee’s assessment of the data is, to a certain extent, problematic; and (ii) even if (...)
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  23.  32
    Happy-People-Pills and Prosocial Behaviour.Mark Walker - 2007 - Philosophica 79 (1):93-11.
    There is evidence from the empirical sciences that >happiness= B understood in the social scientists= sense of >positive affect=B leads to prosocial behaviour: the happiest amongst us are more likely to help others. There is also scientific evidence of a genetic component to positive affect: genetic differences can account for some of the observed variances in positive affect. Let us think of >happy-people-pills= as pharmacological agents, modeled on those with a genetic predisposition for high levels of positive affect, which will (...)
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  24.  9
    Branching Is Not a Bug; It’s a Feature: Personal Identity and Legal (and Moral) Responsibility.Mark Walker - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology.
    Prospective developments in computer and nanotechnology suggest that there is some possibility—perhaps as early as this century—that we will have the technological means to attempt to duplicate people. For example, it has been speculated that the psychology of individuals might be emulated on a computer platform to create a personality duplicate—an “upload.” Physical duplicates might be created by advanced nanobots tasked with creating molecule-for-molecule copies of individuals. Such possibilities are discussed in the philosophical literature as cases of “fission”: one person (...)
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  25.  49
    Astrophysical Fine Tuning, Naturalism, and the Contemporary Design Argument.Mark A. Walker & Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):285-307.
    Evidence for instances of astrophysical ‘fine tuning’ is thought by some to lend support to the design argument. We assess some of the relevant empirical and conceptual issues. We argue that astrophysical fine tuning calls for some explanation, but this explanation need not appeal to the design argument. A clear and strict separation of the issue of anthropic fine tuning on one hand and any form of Eddingtonian numerology and teleology on the other, may help clarify arguably the most significant (...)
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  26.  3
    Williams, Truth‐Aimedness and the Voluntariness of Judgement.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):68-83.
    I contend that while at least one of the arguments advanced by Bernard Williams in his paper ‘Deciding To Believe’ does establish that beliefs, or more precisely, judgements cannot be decided upon ‘at will’, the notion of truth‐aimedness presupposed by that argument also, ironically, provides the key to understanding why judgements are necessarily voluntary.
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  27.  13
    Cognitive Enhancement and the Identity Objection.Mark Walker - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):108-115.
    I argue that the technology to attempt to create posthumans is much closer than many realize and that the right to become posthuman is much more complicated than it might first appear.
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  28.  49
    "Designer Babies" and Harm to Supernumerary Embryos.Mark Walker - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (4):349 - 364.
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  29.  34
    The Fourfold Root of Philosophical Skepticism.Mark Walker - 2002 - Sorites 14 (1):85-109.
    Knowledge may be defined in terms of four necessary conditions: belief, justification, truth and gettier. I argue that a form of philosophical skepticism may be raised with respect to each.
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  30. The Case for Happy-People Pills.Mark Walker - 2009 - Free Inquiry 29 (5):33-36.
     
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  31. German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power 1939-1949.Mark Walker & W. D. Hackmann - 1994 - Annals of Science 51 (4):448-448.
     
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  32. Censorship, Logocracy and Democracy.Mark Walker - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence (1):199-226.
    This paper argues: Canadian “Hate Speech Laws”, and similar laws in other jurisdictions, are instances of ‘unilateral censorship’, the suppression of a single political viewpoint. Unilateral censorship infringes upon the democratic commitment to free and fair elections. The legislated exclusion of some from the political process through the control of speech means that Canadian governance is best described as ‘logocratic’. It may be possible to mount a new “Charter Challenge” to Hate Speech laws invoking Section 3 of the Charter, based (...)
     
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  33.  30
    The Case for Maternity Compensation.Mark Walker - 2009 - Social Theory and Practice 35 (2):279-302.
  34.  15
    Against One Form of Judgment-Determinism.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 9 (2):199 – 227.
    Taking 'rationalized judgments' to be those formed by inference from other judgments, I argue against 'Extreme Determinism': the thesis that theoretical rationalization just is a kind of predetermination of 'conclusion-judgments' by 'premise-judgments'. The argument rests upon two key lemmas: firstly, that a deliberator - in this case, his/her assent to some proposition - to be predetermined (I call this the 'Openness Requirement'): secondly, that a subject's logical insight into his/her premise-judgments must enter into the explanation of any judgment s/he forms (...)
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  35.  23
    Experiential Embodiment and Human Immediacy: Adorno’s Negative Affinity.Mark Walker - unknown
    This thesis argues for the continuing possibility of Adorno set against the backdrop of a post-modern proliferation of affects. A major theoretical contention is the concept of the subject: a sticking point within philosophy. The thesis takes this up and offers a new pathway without falling into the cliché of a renewal of Adorno’s position. Drawing on Adorno’s theoretical thoughts on the subject the thesis contends that the subject is that which by turns dissolves all eventualities or more proportionally acts (...)
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  36.  22
    Rejoinder to Bermúdez on Lewis, Newcomb’s Problem and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.Mark Walker - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (3):795-800.
    Against the contention of David Lewis Philosophy and Public Affairs 8, 235–240, that the Prisoner’s Dilemma is a Newcomb Problem, José Luis Bermúdez Analysis 73, 423–429, has urged that Lewis’s assimilation removes the very outcome scenarios that make the Dilemma so puzzling. I objected that this criticism of Lewis presupposes that the Dilemma is harder to resolve than Newcomb’s Problem, in effect challenging Bermúdez to justify this assumption. In his 2015 he takes up the challenge, arguing that while the former (...)
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  37.  17
    "Forschungsstelle D": Der Schweizer Ingenieur Walter Dallenbach , die AEG, und die Entwicklung kernphysikalischer Grossgerate im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland. Burghard WeissGrossforschung in Berlin: Geschichte des Hahn-Meitner-Instituts. Burghard Weiss.Mark Walker - 1998 - Isis 89 (1):155-156.
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  38.  47
    A Problem for Causal Theories of Action.Mark Thomas Walker - 2003 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 84 (1):84–108.
    Philosophical accounts of "action" standardly take an action to be a doing which _satisfies some description that is semantically related to the content of a propositional attitude of the subject's which _explains why that doing occurred. Causal theories of action require that the explanation in question must involve the causation of action-doings by propositional attitudes (typically intentions, volitions, or combinations of belief and desire). I argue that there are actions whose status, as such, cannot be acknowledged by any causal theory, (...)
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  39.  16
    Das Deutsche Museum in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Eine Bestandaufnahme.Mark Walker - 2014 - Annals of Science 71 (1):135-138.
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  40.  27
    The Angelic Hierarchy: Aligning Ethical Push and Pull.Mark Walker - 2008 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (3).
    A complementary `monetary' system is proposed: a computer-based system that allows us to assess the relative pro-community altruism of individuals. Such an arrangement could provide us with an alternate means of seeking social recognition than that offered by capitalism; specifically it offers the possibility of recognition based on altruistic contributions to society. This proposal promises several ethical advantages to our present social arrangements.
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  41.  12
    Matthias Berg, Jens Thiel and Peter Th. Walther , Mit Feder und Schwert: Militär und Wissenschaft-Wissenschaftler und Krieg. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009. Pp. 380. ISBN 978-3-515-09606-5. €46.00. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (1):149-151.
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  42.  12
    Simone Turchetti. The Pontecorvo Affair: A Cold War Defection and Nuclear Physics. 292 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2012. $45. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2013 - Isis 104 (1):180-181.
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  43.  9
    Christian Fleck. Etablierung in der Fremde: Vertriebene Wissenschaftler in den USA Nach 1933. 475 Pp., Tables, Figs., Bibl., Index. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag, 2015. €39.90. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2017 - Isis 108 (2):476-477.
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  44.  24
    Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy.Mark Thomas Walker - 2000 - International Philosophical Quarterly 40 (4):509-510.
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  45.  14
    Mark Walker.Mark Walker - 2006 - Minerva 44 (3):241-250.
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  46.  23
    Punishment - a Tale of Two Islands.Mark Thomas Walker - 1993 - Ratio 6 (1):63-71.
  47.  23
    The Freedom of Judgment.Mark Thomas Walker - 2003 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 11 (1):63-92.
    This is the sequel to my paper 'Against One Form of Judgment-Determinism' ( IJPS , May 2001), wherein I argued that theoretical rationalization, that is, the forming of judgments by way of inference from other judgments, cannot simply be identified with any kind of predetermination of conclusion-judgments by premise-judgments. Taking 'free' to mean 'neither mechanistically explicable nor random' (where something is mechanistically explicable if and only if it is either predetermined or probabilified in a certain way, and is random if (...)
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  48.  9
    Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Klaus Hentschel, Ann Hentschel.Mark Walker - 1997 - Isis 88 (1):157-158.
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  49.  9
    Uwe Hoßfeld. Geschichte der biologischen Anthropologie in Deutschland: Von den Anfängen bis in die Nachkriegszeit. 504 pp., figs., app., bibl., index. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005. €58. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2007 - Isis 98 (1):171-172.
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  50.  11
    New Light on Science, Medicine, and Engineering Under Hitler.Mark Walker - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):421-431.
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