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Mark Walker [79]Mark Thomas Walker [12]Mark A. Walker [2]
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Mark Walker
New Mexico State University
Mark Thomas Walker
University of Birmingham
  1. The Socratic Note Taking Technique.Mark Walker, David Trafimow & Jamie Bronstein - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (3):341-365.
    The notion of Socratic Note Taking is introduced to enhance students’ learning from assigned readings. SNT features students asking questions and answering their own questions while doing the readings. To test the effectiveness of SNT, half the students from two sections of a philosophy course were assigned SNT on alternating weeks. Quizzes each week alternated between the two classes as either high or low stakes in a counterbalanced format. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 within-participants factorial. On (...)
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  2. Occam’s Razor, Dogmatism, Skepticism, and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2016 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (1):1-29.
    _ Source: _Page Count 29 Underdetermination arguments for skepticism maintain that our common sense view of the external world is no better, evidentially speaking, than some skeptical competitors. An important and well-known response by dogmatists, those who believe our commonsense view is justified, appeals to abduction or inference to the best explanation. The predominant version of this strategy, going back at least to Locke, invokes Occam’s razor: dogmatists claim the common sense view is simpler than any of its skeptical alternatives (...)
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  3.  40
    The Real Reason Why the Prisoner's Dilemma is Not a Newcomb Problem.Mark Thomas Walker - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (3):841-859.
  4.  30
    Eugenic Selection Benefits Embryos.Mark Walker - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (5):214-224.
    The primary question to be addressed here is whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), used for both negative and positive trait selection, benefits potential supernumerary embryos. The phrase ‘potential supernumerary embryos’ is used to indicate that PGD is typically performed on a set of embryos, only some of which will be implanted. Prior to any testing, each embryo in the set is potentially supernumerary in the sense that it may not be selected for implantation. Those embryos that are not selected, and (...)
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  5.  40
    The Voluntariness of Judgment.Mark Thomas Walker - 1996 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):97 – 119.
    While various items closely associated with belief, such as speech?acts of assertion, or what have recently been termed acts of ?acceptance?, can clearly be voluntary, it is commonly supposed that belief itself, being intrinsically truth?directed, is essentially passive. I argue that while this may be true of belief proper, understood as a kind of disposition, it is not true of acts of assent or ?judgment?. Judgments, I contend, must be deemed voluntary precisely because of their truth?aimedness, for in their case (...)
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  6.  96
    The Anthropic Argument Against the Existence of God.Mark Walker - 2009 - Sophia 48 (4):351 - 378.
    If God is morally perfect then He must perform the morally best actions, but creating humans is not the morally best action. If this line of reasoning can be maintained then the mere fact that humans exist contradicts the claim that God exists. This is the ‘anthropic argument’. The anthropic argument, is related to, but distinct from, the traditional argument from evil. The anthropic argument forces us to consider the ‘creation question’: why did God not create other gods rather than (...)
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  7.  1
    BIG and Technological Unemployment: Chicken Litter Versus the Economists.Mark Walker - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):5-25.
    The paper rehearses arguments for and against the prediction of massive technological unemployment. The main argument in favor is that robots are entering a large number of industries; making more expensive human labor redundant. The main argument against the prediction is that for two hundred years we have seen a massive increase in productivity with no long term structural unemployment caused by automation. The paper attempts to move past this argumentative impasse by asking what humans contribute to the supply side (...)
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  8. Astrophysical Fine Tuning, Naturalism, and the Contemporary Design Argument.Mark A. Walker & M. Milan - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):285 – 307.
    Evidence for instances of astrophysical 'fine tuning' (or 'coincidences') is thought by some to lend support to the design argument (i.e. the argument that our universe has been designed by some deity). We assess some of the relevant empirical and conceptual issues. We argue that astrophysical fine tuning calls for some explanation, but this explanation need not appeal to the design argument. A clear and strict separation of the issue of anthropic fine tuning on one hand and any form of (...)
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  9.  25
    Williams, Truth-Aimedness and the Voluntariness of Judgement.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):68–83.
    I contend that while at least one of the arguments advanced by Bernard Williams in his paper ‘Deciding To Believe’ does establish that beliefs, or more precisely, judgements cannot be decided upon ‘at will’, the notion of truth‐aimedness presupposed by that argument also, ironically, provides the key to understanding why judgements are necessarily voluntary.
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  10.  49
    Religion and Transhumanism: Introducing a Conversation.Heidi Campbell & Mark Walker - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2).
  11.  33
    Personal Identity and Uploading.Mark Walker - 2011 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 22 (1):37-52.
    Objections to uploading may be parsed into substrate issues, dealing with the computer platform of upload and personal identity. This paper argues that the personal identity issues of uploading are no more or less challenging than those of bodily transfer often discussed in the philosophical literature. It is argued that what is important in personal identity involves both token and type identity. While uploading does not preserve token identity, it does save type identity; and even qua token, one may have (...)
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  12.  48
    Skepticism and Nataturalism: Can Philosophical Skepticisim Be Scientifically Tested?Mark Walker - 2004 - Theoria 70 (1):62-97.
    It may be possible to scientifically test philosophical skepticism; at least this is what I shall maintain. The argument develops the naturalistic insight that there may be no particular reason to suppose that nature has selected Homo sapiens’ epistemic capacities such that we are ideally suited to forming a true theory of everything, or indeed, a true theory of much of anything. Just as chimpanzees are cognitively limited - there are many concepts, ideas, and theories beyond their grasp - so (...)
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  13.  18
    Superlongevity and Utilitarianism.Mark Walker - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):581 – 595.
    Peter Singer has argued that there are good utilitarian reasons for rejecting the prospect of superlongevity: developing technology to double (or more) the average human lifespan. I argue against Singer's view on two fronts. First, empirical research on happiness indicates that the later years of life are (on average) the happiest, and there is no reason to suppose that this trend would not continue if superlongevity were realized. Second, it is argued that there are good reasons to suppose that there (...)
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  14.  55
    Critical Assembly: How (but Not Why) We Got the Bomb.Mark Walker - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 26 (1):117-120.
  15.  6
    The Voluntariness of Judgment: Reply to Stein.Mark Walker - 1998 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):333 – 339.
    I have maintained that judgments must be voluntary since, as truth-aimed, they may be represented as responses to practical reasons. Christian Stein has objected that this argument cannot apply to judgments which are not the outcomes of theoretical reasoning. Furthermore, he contends that I have not succeeded in overcoming an argument of H. H. Price's to the effect that judgments which are such outcomes cannot be voluntary. I argue below that neither of these objections can be sustained.
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  16.  38
    Externalism, Skepticism, and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (1):27-57.
    A claimed benefit of epistemic externalism is that it alone can avoid skepticism. Most epistemic externalists, however, allow a residual amount of internalism in terms of a defeasibility condition. The paper argues that this internal condition is sufficient for skeptics to cast doubt on many claims to justified belief about perceptual matters about the world. Furthermore, the internal defeasibility condition also opens the door to a darker form of skepticism; skeptical dogmatism, which maintains that many of our perceptually based beliefs (...)
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  17. Anthropic Reasoning and the Contemporary Design Argument in Astrophysics: A Reply to Robert Klee.Mark Walker & Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    In a recent study of astrophysical “fine-tunings” (or “coincidences”), Robert Klee critically assesses the support that such astrophysical evidence might be thought to lend to the design argument (i.e., the argument that our universe has been designed by some deity). Klee argues that a proper assessment indicates that the universe is not as “fine-tuned” as advertised by proponents of the design arguments. We argue (i) that Klee’s assessment of the data is, to a certain extent, problematic; and (ii) even if (...)
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  18.  11
    Cognitive Enhancement and the Identity Objection.Mark Walker - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):108-115.
    I argue that the technology to attempt to create posthumans is much closer than many realize and that the right to become posthuman is much more complicated than it might first appear.
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  19.  40
    Astrophysical Fine Tuning, Naturalism, and the Contemporary Design Argument.Mark A. Walker & Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):285-307.
    Evidence for instances of astrophysical ‘fine tuning’ is thought by some to lend support to the design argument. We assess some of the relevant empirical and conceptual issues. We argue that astrophysical fine tuning calls for some explanation, but this explanation need not appeal to the design argument. A clear and strict separation of the issue of anthropic fine tuning on one hand and any form of Eddingtonian numerology and teleology on the other, may help clarify arguably the most significant (...)
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  20.  28
    Underdetermination Skepticism and Skeptical Dogmatism.Mark Walker - 2015 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 5 (3):218-251.
  21.  38
    "Designer Babies" and Harm to Supernumerary Embryos.Mark Walker - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (4):349 - 364.
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  22. Censorship, Logocracy and Democracy.Mark Walker - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence (1):199-226.
    This paper argues: Canadian “Hate Speech Laws”, and similar laws in other jurisdictions, are instances of ‘unilateral censorship’, the suppression of a single political viewpoint. Unilateral censorship infringes upon the democratic commitment to free and fair elections. The legislated exclusion of some from the political process through the control of speech means that Canadian governance is best described as ‘logocratic’. It may be possible to mount a new “Charter Challenge” to Hate Speech laws invoking Section 3 of the Charter, based (...)
     
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  23.  25
    Happy-People-Pills and Prosocial Behaviour.Mark Walker - 2007 - Philosophica 79 (1):93-11.
    There is evidence from the empirical sciences that >happiness= B understood in the social scientists= sense of >positive affect=B leads to prosocial behaviour: the happiest amongst us are more likely to help others. There is also scientific evidence of a genetic component to positive affect: genetic differences can account for some of the observed variances in positive affect. Let us think of >happy-people-pills= as pharmacological agents, modeled on those with a genetic predisposition for high levels of positive affect, which will (...)
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  24.  6
    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.Mark Walker - 2017 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 40 (3):271-288.
    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges.
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  25.  15
    Experiential Embodiment and Human Immediacy: Adorno’s Negative Affinity.Mark Walker - unknown
    This thesis argues for the continuing possibility of Adorno set against the backdrop of a post-modern proliferation of affects. A major theoretical contention is the concept of the subject: a sticking point within philosophy. The thesis takes this up and offers a new pathway without falling into the cliché of a renewal of Adorno’s position. Drawing on Adorno’s theoretical thoughts on the subject the thesis contends that the subject is that which by turns dissolves all eventualities or more proportionally acts (...)
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  26.  5
    The Socratic Note Taking Technique in Advance.Mark Walker, David Trafimow & Jamie Bronstein - forthcoming - Teaching Philosophy.
  27.  38
    A Problem for Causal Theories of Action.Mark Thomas Walker - 2003 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 84 (1):84–108.
    Philosophical accounts of "action" standardly take an action to be a doing which _satisfies some description that is semantically related to the content of a propositional attitude of the subject's which _explains why that doing occurred. Causal theories of action require that the explanation in question must involve the causation of action-doings by propositional attitudes (typically intentions, volitions, or combinations of belief and desire). I argue that there are actions whose status, as such, cannot be acknowledged by any causal theory, (...)
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  28.  14
    The Case for Maternity Compensation.Mark Walker - 2009 - Social Theory and Practice 35 (2):279-302.
  29.  12
    Rejoinder to Bermúdez on Lewis, Newcomb’s Problem and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.Mark Walker - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (3):795-800.
    Against the contention of David Lewis Philosophy and Public Affairs 8, 235–240, that the Prisoner’s Dilemma is a Newcomb Problem, José Luis Bermúdez Analysis 73, 423–429, has urged that Lewis’s assimilation removes the very outcome scenarios that make the Dilemma so puzzling. I objected that this criticism of Lewis presupposes that the Dilemma is harder to resolve than Newcomb’s Problem, in effect challenging Bermúdez to justify this assumption. In his 2015 he takes up the challenge, arguing that while the former (...)
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  30.  22
    Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy.Mark Thomas Walker - 2000 - International Philosophical Quarterly 40 (4):509-510.
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  31.  29
    The Fourfold Root of Philosophical Skepticism.Mark Walker - 2002 - Sorites 14 (1):85-109.
    Knowledge may be defined in terms of four necessary conditions: belief, justification, truth and gettier. I argue that a form of philosophical skepticism may be raised with respect to each.
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  32.  19
    The Angelic Hierarchy: Aligning Ethical Push and Pull.Mark Walker - 2008 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (3).
    A complementary `monetary' system is proposed: a computer-based system that allows us to assess the relative pro-community altruism of individuals. Such an arrangement could provide us with an alternate means of seeking social recognition than that offered by capitalism; specifically it offers the possibility of recognition based on altruistic contributions to society. This proposal promises several ethical advantages to our present social arrangements.
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  33.  10
    Mark Walker.Mark Walker - 2006 - Minerva 44 (3):241-250.
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  34.  21
    The Freedom of Judgment.Mark Thomas Walker - 2003 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 11 (1):63-92.
    This is the sequel to my paper 'Against One Form of Judgment-Determinism' ( IJPS , May 2001), wherein I argued that theoretical rationalization, that is, the forming of judgments by way of inference from other judgments, cannot simply be identified with any kind of predetermination of conclusion-judgments by premise-judgments. Taking 'free' to mean 'neither mechanistically explicable nor random' (where something is mechanistically explicable if and only if it is either predetermined or probabilified in a certain way, and is random if (...)
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  35.  9
    New Light on Science, Medicine, and Engineering Under Hitler.Mark Walker - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):421-431.
  36.  19
    Punishment - a Tale of Two Islands.Mark Thomas Walker - 1993 - Ratio 6 (1):63-71.
  37.  10
    Roberto Scazzieri and Raffaella Simili (Eds.): The Migration of Ideas. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2010 - Minerva 48 (1):101-104.
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  38. Uninsured: Heal Thyself.Mark Walker - unknown
    on writing prescriptions.[2] These two reasons indicate why there are obvious repercussions for those who do not have reasonable access to physicians’ services. Of course, the word ‘reasonable’ is important here. After all, there is the old joke—for those who enjoy gallows humor—that the U.S. has universal access to healthcare so long as one is willing to commit a crime to see the county jail’s physician, or make one’s self sick enough to qualify for emergency services. Putting aside such extraordinary (...)
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  39.  5
    Harry Von Kroge. Gema: Birthplace of German Radar and Sonar. Translated by, Louis Brown. Foreword by, Louis Brown. X + 206 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index.Bristol/Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2000. $73, £45. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2002 - Isis 93 (1):152-152.
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  40.  13
    Philosophy Of Language.Mark Thomas Walker - 2004 - Philosophical Books 45 (3):241-245.
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  41.  11
    Against One Form of Judgment-Determinism.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 9 (2):199 – 227.
    Taking 'rationalized judgments' to be those formed by inference from other judgments, I argue against 'Extreme Determinism': the thesis that theoretical rationalization just is a kind of predetermination of 'conclusion-judgments' by 'premise-judgments'. The argument rests upon two key lemmas: firstly, that a deliberator - in this case, his/her assent to some proposition - to be predetermined (I call this the 'Openness Requirement'): secondly, that a subject's logical insight into his/her premise-judgments must enter into the explanation of any judgment s/he forms (...)
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  42.  4
    Gema: Birthplace Of German Radar And Sonar. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2002 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93:152-152.
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  43.  4
    Planet Dora: A Memoir of the Holocaust and the Birth of the Space Age by Yves Beon; Michael J. Neufeld; Richard L. Fague. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 1999 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 90:615-615.
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  44.  3
    Matthias Berg, Jens Thiel and Peter Th. Walther , Mit Feder und Schwert: Militär und Wissenschaft-Wissenschaftler und Krieg. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009. Pp. 380. ISBN 978-3-515-09606-5. €46.00. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (1):149-151.
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  45.  4
    Nationalism and Internationalism in Science, 1880-1939: Four Studies of the Nobel Population by Elisabeth Crawford. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 1994 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 85:355-356.
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  46.  2
    Williams, Truth‐Aimedness and the Voluntariness of Judgement.Mark Thomas Walker - 2001 - Ratio 14 (1):68-83.
    I contend that while at least one of the arguments advanced by Bernard Williams in his paper ‘Deciding To Believe’ does establish that beliefs, or more precisely, judgements cannot be decided upon ‘at will’, the notion of truth‐aimedness presupposed by that argument also, ironically, provides the key to understanding why judgements are necessarily voluntary.
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  47.  3
    Biologen Unter Hitler: Vertreibung, Karrieren, Forschung by Ute Deichmann. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 1993 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 84:608-609.
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  48.  3
    Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources by Klaus Hentschel; Ann Hentschel. [REVIEW]Mark Walker - 1997 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 88:157-158.
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  49.  3
    The ‘National’ in International and Transnational Science.Mark Walker - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (3):359-376.
    This essay analyses discussions of national versus international or transnational science, with an emphasis on the journal Osiris from 1986 to 2009, including the concepts of national science, national styles and characters in science, scientific internationalism, transfer of science and scientists from one nation to another, and comparison of different national examples. The author argues that perceiving science as a ‘national’ activity has not only been persistent, it is also perhaps inevitable. This special issue on transnational histories of science raises (...)
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  50.  2
    Kant'S Compatibilism.Mark Thomas Walker - 1996 - Philosophical Books 37 (4):256-258.
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