Results for 'Markov Sergey'

518 found
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  1.  31
    Modeling of Biological and Social Phases of Big History.Leonid Grinin, Andrey V. Korotayev & Alexander V. Markov - 2015 - In Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev (eds.), Evolution: From Big Bang to Nanorobots. Volgograd,Russia: Uchitel Publishing House. pp. 111-150.
    In the first part of this article we survey general similarities and differences between biological and social macroevolution. In the second (and main) part, we consider a concrete mathematical model capable of describing important features of both biological and social macroevolution. In mathematical models of historical macrodynamics, a hyperbolic pattern of world population growth arises from non-linear, second-order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. Based on diverse paleontological data and an analogy with macrosociological models, we suggest that the (...)
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  2.  9
    Mathematical Modeling of Biological and Social Evolutionary Macrotrends.Leonid Grinin, Alexander V. Markov & Andrey V. Korotayev - 2014 - In History & Mathematics: Trends and Cycles. Volgograd,Russia: Uchitel Publishing House. pp. 9-48.
    In the first part of this article we survey general similarities and differences between biological and social macroevolution. In the second (and main) part, we consider a concrete mathematical model capable of describing important features of both biological and social macroevolution. In mathematical models of historical macrodynamics, a hyperbolic pattern of world population growth arises from non-linear, second-order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. Based on diverse paleontological data and an analogy with macrosociological models, we suggest that the (...)
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  3.  12
    Heidegger and Nietzsche.Boris V. Markov - 2011 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 50 (1):34-61.
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  4.  27
    An Example of Statistical Investigation of the Text Eugene Onegin Concerning the Connection of Samples in Chains.A. A. Markov - 2006 - Science in Context 19 (4):591.
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  5.  37
    Beliefs in Afterlife as a by-Product of Persistence Judgments.E. Newman George, V. Blok Sergey & J. Rips Lance - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):481.
    We agree that supernatural beliefs are pervasive. However, we propose a more general account rooted in how people trace ordinary objects over time. Tracking identity involves attending to the causal history of an object, a process that may implicate hidden mechanisms. We discuss experiments in which participants exhibit the same “supernatural” beliefs when reasoning about the fates of cups and automobiles as those exhibited by Bering's participants when reasoning about spirits.
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  6. An Approach to Constructive Mathematical Logic.A. A. Markov, B. van Rootselaar & J. F. Staal - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (1):85-85.
  7.  34
    Aromorphoses in Biological and Social Evolution: Some General Rules for Biological and Social Forms of Macroevolution.Leonid Grinin, Alexander Markov, Markov & Andrey Korotayev - 2009 - Social Evolution and History 8 (2).
    The comparison between biological and social macroevolution is a very important (though insufficiently studied) subject whose analysis renders new significant possibilities to comprehend the processes, trends, mechanisms, and peculiarities of each of the two types of macroevolution. Of course, there are a few rather important (and very understandable) differences between them; however, it appears possible to identify a number of fundamental similarities. One may single out at least three fundamental sets of factors determining those similarities. First of all, those similarities (...)
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  8.  12
    VI: Byzantine Philosophy. Section 1: The Aristotelian Corpus and Christian Philosophy in Byzantium Between the Ninth and Fifteenth Centuries. Readings and Traditions.Georgi Kapriev & Smilen Markov - 2014 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 56:7-11.
    “The Aristotelian corpus and Christian Philosophy in Byzantium between the Ninth and Fifteenth Centuries: Readings and Traditions” is the topic of Section I of SIEPM Commission VIII: Byzantine Philosophy. Aristotle’s writings, which were assimilated variously, function as a meta-text of medieval intellectual culture. Between the nineth and fifteenth centuries Byzantine thinkers developed stable and functional strategies for integrating Aristotle’s philosophical methodology into different theological and philosophical contexts. The project will study the influence of Aristotle on Byzantine metaphysics, epistemology, physics and (...)
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  9.  9
    The “Street Light Syndrome”, or How Protein Taxonomy Can Bias Experimental Manipulations.Gabriel Markov, Guillaume Lecointre, Barbara Demeneix & Vincent Laudet - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (4):349-357.
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  10.  9
    The Croatian Philosophical Society Celebrating its 50th Anniversary.Ivan Jelović, Anita Lunić, Damir Markov, Željka Metesi & Hrvoje Jurić - 2008 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 27 (4):959-969.
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  11.  4
    Scientific-Technological Progress and the Development of the Individual Under Socialism.I. I. Kravchenko & V. S. Markov - 1972 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 11 (1):48-69.
    As noted in the Report of the Central Committee of the CPSU to the Twenty-Fourth Party Congress, presented by the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, the economy is taking on an entirely new scale of operations at the present stage. The basis of our economic power is coming to be industry with its numerous branches and a socialist agriculture organized on a large scale, advanced science, and skilled corps of workers, experts in (...)
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  12.  3
    Obilježavanje 50. obljetnice Hrvatskog filozofskog društva.Ivan Jelović, Anita Lunić, Damir Markov, Željka Metesi & Hrvoje Jurić - 2008 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 27 (4):959-969.
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  13.  3
    Einstein on Peace.M. A. Markov - 1979 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 18 (3):3-18.
    Note by editors of Voprosy filosofii: The great transformer of modern natural science, Albert Einstein, was not only a physicist of genius, not merely the discoverer of outstanding scientific discoveries: he was also a remarkable human being, a courageous protagonist of peace and justice on earth. A convinced humanist and antifascist, he spoke out irreconcilably against chauvinism, militarism, and misanthropy, always and everywhere. Defending the principles of humanism and high ideals of citizenship, aware of his responsibility as a scientist, he (...)
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  14.  1
    Zum Problem der Darstellbarkeit von Matrizen.A. Wlodzimierz Mostowski & A. A. Markov - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):653.
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  15.  1
    Design of Self-Cleaning TiO2coating on Clay Roofing Tiles.Milica Hadnadjev, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Snezana Petrovic, Sinisa Markov, Vilma Ducman & Radmila Marinkovic-Neducin - 2010 - Philosophical Magazine 90 (22):2989-3002.
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  16.  1
    On a Remarkable Case of Samples Connected in a Chain. Appendix on the Statistical Investigation of a Text by Aksakov.A. A. Markov - 2006 - Science in Context 19 (4):601.
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  17. Chelovek, Gosudarstvo I Bog V Filosofii Nit͡sshe.B. V. Markov - 2005 - "Vladimir Dalʹ".
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  18. Gültigkeit Und Anerkennung der Natürlichen Grenzen Gennadios Scholarios’ Konzept des Natürlichen Gesetzes.Smilen Markov - 2014 - In Guy Guldentops & Andreas Speer (eds.), Das Gesetz - the Law - la Loi. De Gruyter. pp. 437-454.
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  19.  11
    The Markov Blankets of Life: Autonomy, Active Inference and the Free Energy Principle.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2018 - Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15 (138).
    This work addresses the autonomous organization of biological systems. It does so by considering the boundaries of biological systems, from individual cells to Home sapiens, in terms of the presence of Markov blankets under the active inference scheme—a corollary of the free energy principle. A Markov blanket defines the boundaries of a system in a statistical sense. Here we consider how a collective of Markov blankets can self-assemble into a global system that itself has a Markov (...)
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  20. Causal Markov, Robustness and the Quantum Correlations.Mauricio Suárez & Iñaki San Pedro - 2010 - In Mauricio Suarez (ed.), Causes, Probabilities and Propensities in Physics. Springer. pp. 173–193.
    It is still a matter of controversy whether the Principle of the Common Cause (PCC) can be used as a basis for sound causal inference. It is thus to be expected that its application to quantum mechanics should be a correspondingly controversial issue. Indeed the early 90’s saw a flurry of papers addressing just this issue in connection with the EPR correlations. Yet, that debate does not seem to have caught up with the most recent literature on causal inference generally, (...)
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  21. Addressing the Conflict Between Relativity and Quantum Theory: Models, Measurement and the Markov Property.Gareth Ernest Boardman - 2013 - Cosmos and History 9 (2):86-115.
    Twenty-first century science faces a dilemma. Two of its well-verified foundation stones - relativity and quantum theory - have proven inconsistent. Resolution of the conflict has resisted improvements in experimental precision leaving some to believe that some fundamental understanding in our world-view may need modification or even radical reform. Employment of the wave-front model of electrodynamics, as a propagation process with a Markov property, may offer just such a clarification.
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  22.  55
    Relating Bell’s Local Causality to the Causal Markov Condition.Gábor Hofer-Szabó - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1110-1136.
    The aim of the paper is to relate Bell’s notion of local causality to the Causal Markov Condition. To this end, first a framework, called local physical theory, will be introduced integrating spatiotemporal and probabilistic entities and the notions of local causality and Markovity will be defined. Then, illustrated in a simple stochastic model, it will be shown how a discrete local physical theory transforms into a Bayesian network and how the Causal Markov Condition arises as a special (...)
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  23.  48
    Markov Interactions in a Class of Dynamic Games.Charles Figuières - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (1):39-68.
    This paper contributes to the understanding of economic strategic behaviors in inter-temporal settings. Comparing the MPE and the OLNE of a widely used class of differential games it is shown: (i) what qualifications on behaviors a markov (dynamic) information structure brings about compared with an open-loop (static) information structure, (ii) what is the reason leading to intensified or reduced competition between the agents in the long run. It depends on whether agents’ interactions are characterized by markov substitutability or (...)
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  24.  29
    Transition Effect Matrices and Quantum Markov Chains.Stan Gudder - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (6):573-592.
    A transition effect matrix (TEM) is a quantum generalization of a classical stochastic matrix. By employing a TEM we obtain a quantum generalization of a classical Markov chain. We first discuss state and operator dynamics for a quantum Markov chain. We then consider various types of TEMs and vector states. In particular, we study invariant, equilibrium and singular vector states and investigate projective, bistochastic, invertible and unitary TEMs.
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  25.  22
    Testing the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo With People Using Facial Affect Categories.Jay B. Martin, Thomas L. Griffiths & Adam N. Sanborn - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (1):150-162.
    Exploring how people represent natural categories is a key step toward developing a better understanding of how people learn, form memories, and make decisions. Much research on categorization has focused on artificial categories that are created in the laboratory, since studying natural categories defined on high-dimensional stimuli such as images is methodologically challenging. Recent work has produced methods for identifying these representations from observed behavior, such as reverse correlation (RC). We compare RC against an alternative method for inferring the structure (...)
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  26.  33
    Aspects of Arranged Marriages and the Theory of Markov Decision Processes.Amitrajeet A. Batabyal - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (3):241-253.
    The theory of Markov decision processes (MDP) can be used to analyze a wide variety of stopping time problems in economics. In this paper, the nature of such problems is discussed and then the underlying theory is applied to the question of arranged marriages. We construct a stylized model of arranged marriages and, inter alia, it is shown that a decision maker's optimal policy depends only on the nature of the current marriage proposal, independent of whether there is recall (...)
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  27.  29
    Automatic Phonetic Segmentation of Hindi Speech Using Hidden Markov Model.Archana Balyan, S. S. Agrawal & Amita Dev - 2012 - AI and Society 27 (4):543-549.
    In this paper, we study the performance of baseline hidden Markov model (HMM) for segmentation of speech signals. It is applied on single-speaker segmentation task, using Hindi speech database. The automatic phoneme segmentation framework evolved imitates the human phoneme segmentation process. A set of 44 Hindi phonemes were chosen for the segmentation experiment, wherein we used continuous density hidden Markov model (CDHMM) with a mixture of Gaussian distribution. The left-to-right topology with no skip states has been selected as (...)
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  28.  5
    On A.A. Markov’s Attitude Towards Brouwer’s Intuitionism.Ioannis M. Vandoulakis - 2015 - Philosophia Scientae 19:143-158.
    The paper examines Andrei A. Markov’s critical attitude towards L.E.J. Brouwer’s intuitionism, as is expressed in his endnotes to the Russian translation of Heyting’s Intuitionism, published in Moscow in 1965. It is argued that Markov’s algorithmic approach was shaped under the impact of the mathematical style and values prevailing in the Petersburg mathematical school, which is characterized by the proclaimed primacy of applications and the search for rigor and effective solutions.
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  29.  3
    On Weak Markov's Principle.Ulrich Kohlenbach - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (S1):59-65.
    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in [MATHEMATICAL SCRIPT CAPITAL T]ω ≔ E-HAω + AC. Since [MATHEMATICAL SCRIPT CAPITAL T]ω allows one to formalize Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the framework of Bishop-style mathematics . The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension for negated formulas is added, which allows one to derive the law of (...)
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  30.  2
    On the Disjunctive Markov Principle.Ulrich Kohlenbach - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (6):1313-1317.
    In this note we show that over a strong intuitionistic base theory, the recursive comprehension principle \ -CA does not imply the disjunctive Markov principle MP\.
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  31.  8
    Application of a Markov Model to Free Recall and Recognition.Walter Kintsch & Charles J. Morris - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (2):200.
  32. Modelling Asynchrony in Automatic Speech Recognition Using Loosely Coupled Hidden Markov Models.H. J. Nock & S. J. Young - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (3):283-301.
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  33. How to Knit Your Own Markov Blanket.Andy Clark - 2017 - Philosophy and Predictive Processing.
    Hohwy (Hohwy 2016, Hohwy 2017) argues there is a tension between the free energy principle and leading depictions of mind as embodied, enactive, and extended (so-called ‘EEE1 cognition’). The tension is traced to the importance, in free energy formulations, of a conception of mind and agency that depends upon the presence of a ‘Markov blanket’ demarcating the agent from the surrounding world. In what follows I show that the Markov blanket considerations do not, in fact, lead to the (...)
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  34.  87
    Independence, Invariance and the Causal Markov Condition.DM Hausman & J. Woodward - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):521-583.
    This essay explains what the Causal Markov Condition says and defends the condition from the many criticisms that have been launched against it. Although we are skeptical about some of the applications of the Causal Markov Condition, we argue that it is implicit in the view that causes can be used to manipulate their effects and that it cannot be surrendered without surrendering this view of causation.
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  35. Against Modularity, the Causal Markov Condition, and Any Link Between the Two: Comments on Hausman and Woodward.Nancy Cartwright - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (3):411-453.
    In their rich and intricate paper ‘Independence, Invariance, and the Causal Markov Condition’, Daniel Hausman and James Woodward ([1999]) put forward two independent theses, which they label ‘level invariance’ and ‘manipulability’, and they claim that, given a specific set of assumptions, manipulability implies the causal Markov condition. These claims are interesting and important, and this paper is devoted to commenting on them. With respect to level invariance, I argue that Hausman and Woodward's discussion is confusing because, as I (...)
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  36.  85
    Modularity and the Causal Markov Condition: A Restatement.Daniel M. Hausman & James Woodward - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):147-161.
    expose some gaps and difficulties in the argument for the causal Markov condition in our essay ‘Independence, Invariance and the Causal Markov Condition’ ([1999]), and we are grateful for the opportunity to reformulate our position. In particular, Cartwright disagrees vigorously with many of the theses we advance about the connection between causation and manipulation. Although we are not persuaded by some of her criticisms, we shall confine ourselves to showing how our central argument can be reconstructed and to (...)
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  37. Indeterminism and the Causal Markov Condition.Daniel Steel - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (1):3-26.
    The causal Markov condition (CMC) plays an important role in much recent work on the problem of causal inference from statistical data. It is commonly thought that the CMC is a more problematic assumption for genuinely indeterministic systems than for deterministic ones. In this essay, I critically examine this proposition. I show how the usual motivation for the CMC—that it is true of any acyclic, deterministic causal system in which the exogenous variables are independent—can be extended to the indeterministic (...)
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  38.  53
    Manipulation and the Causal Markov Condition.Daniel Hausman & James Woodward - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):846-856.
    This paper explores the relationship between a manipulability conception of causation and the causal Markov condition (CM). We argue that violations of CM also violate widely shared expectations—implicit in the manipulability conception—having to do with the absence of spontaneous correlations. They also violate expectations concerning the connection between independence or dependence relationships in the presence and absence of interventions.
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  39.  57
    Probability and Time Symmetry in Classical Markov Processes.Guido Bacciagaluppi - unknown
    Definitions of time symmetry and examples of time-directed behaviour are discussed in the framework of discrete Markov processes. It is argued that typical examples of time-directed behaviour can be described using time-symmetric transition probabilities. Some current arguments in favour of a distinction between past and future on the basis of probabilistic considerations are thereby judged to be unjustified.
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  40.  64
    Entropy Increase and Information Loss in Markov Models of Evolution.Elliott Sober & Mike Steel - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):223-250.
    Markov models of evolution describe changes in the probability distribution of the trait values a population might exhibit. In consequence, they also describe how entropy and conditional entropy values evolve, and how the mutual information that characterizes the relation between an earlier and a later moment in a lineage’s history depends on how much time separates them. These models therefore provide an interesting perspective on questions that usually are considered in the foundations of physics—when and why does entropy increase (...)
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  41.  35
    Comment on Hausman & Woodward on the Causal Markov Condition.Daniel Steel - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):219-231.
    Woodward present an argument for the Causal Markov Condition (CMC) on the basis of a principle they dub ‘modularity’ ([1999, 2004]). I show that the conclusion of their argument is not in fact the CMC but a substantially weaker proposition. In addition, I show that their argument is invalid and trace this invalidity to two features of modularity, namely, that it is stated in terms of pairwise independence and ‘arrow-breaking’ interventions. Hausman & Woodward's argument can be rendered valid through (...)
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  42.  74
    From Metaphysics to Method: Comments on Manipulability and the Causal Markov Condition.Nancy Cartwright - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):197-218.
    Daniel Hausman and James Woodward claim to prove that the causal Markov condition, so important to Bayes-nets methods for causal inference, is the ‘flip side’ of an important metaphysical fact about causation—that causes can be used to manipulate their effects. This paper disagrees. First, the premise of their proof does not demand that causes can be used to manipulate their effects but rather that if a relation passes a certain specific kind of test, it is causal. Second, the proof (...)
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  43.  71
    Is Determinism More Favorable Than Indeterminism for the Causal Markov Condition?Isabelle Drouet - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):662-675.
    The present text comments on Steel 2005 , in which the author claims to extend from the deterministic to the general case, the result according to which the causal Markov condition is satisfied by systems with jointly independent exogenous variables. I show that Steel’s claim cannot be accepted unless one is prepared to abandon standard causal modeling terminology. Correlatively, I argue that the most fruitful aspect of Steel 2005 consists in a realist conception of error terms, and I show (...)
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  44.  39
    Carnapian Inductive Logic for Markov Chains.Brian Skyrms - 1991 - Erkenntnis 35 (1-3):439 - 460.
    Carnap's Inductive Logic, like most philosophical discussions of induction, is designed for the case of independent trials. To take account of periodicities, and more generally of order, the account must be extended. From both a physical and a probabilistic point of view, the first and fundamental step is to extend Carnap's inductive logic to the case of finite Markov chains. Kuipers (1988) and Martin (1967) suggest a natural way in which this can be done. The probabilistic character of Carnapian (...)
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  45. Temporally Asymmetric Inference in a Markov Process.Elliott Sober - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (3):398-410.
    A model of a Markov process is presented in which observing the present state of a system is asymmetrically related to inferring the system's future and inferring its past. A likelihood inference about the system's past state, based on observing its present state, is justified no matter what the parameter values in the model happen to be. In contrast, a probability inference of the system's future state, based on observing its present state, requires further information about the parameter values.
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  46.  78
    The Principle of the Common Cause, the Causal Markov Condition, and Quantum Mechanics: Comments on Cartwright.Iain Martel - 2008 - In Luc Bovens, Carl Hoefer & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Nancy Cartwright’s Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 242-262.
    Nancy Cartwright believes that we live in a Dappled World– a world in which theories, principles, and methods applicable in one domain may be inapplicable in others; in which there are no universal principles. One of the targets of Cartwright’s arguments for this conclusion is the Causal Markov condition, a condition which has been proposed as a universal condition on causal structures.1 The Causal Markov condition, Cartwright argues, is applicable only in a limited domain of special cases, and (...)
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  47.  27
    Discrete State Systems, Markov Chains, and Problems in the Theory of Scientific Explanation and Prediction.Nicholas Rescher - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (4):325-345.
    Recent discussions in the philosophy of science have devoted considerable attention to the analysis of conceptual issues relating to the methodology of explanation and prediction in the sciences. Part of this literature has been devoted to clarifying the very ideas of explanation and prediction. But the discussion has also ranged over various related topics, including the status of laws to be used for explanatory and predictive purposes, the logical interrelationships between explanatory and predictive reasonings, the differences in the strategy of (...)
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  48.  11
    On Theorems of Gödel and Kreisel: Completeness and Markov's Principle.D. C. McCarty - 1994 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (1):99-107.
    In 1957, Gödel proved that completeness for intuitionistic predicate logic HPL implies forms of Markov's Principle, MP. The result first appeared, with Kreisel's refinements and elaborations, in Kreisel. Featuring large in the Gödel-Kreisel proofs are applications of the axiom of dependent choice, DC. Also in play is a form of Herbrand's Theorem, one allowing a reduction of HPL derivations for negated prenex formulae to derivations of negations of conjunctions of suitable instances. First, we here show how to deduce Gödel's (...)
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  49.  2
    A Banach–Mazur Computable but Not Markov Computable Function on the Computable Real Numbers.Peter Hertling - 2005 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 132 (2-3):227-246.
    We consider two classical computability notions for functions mapping all computable real numbers to computable real numbers. It is clear that any function that is computable in the sense of Markov, i.e., computable with respect to a standard Gödel numbering of the computable real numbers, is computable in the sense of Banach and Mazur, i.e., it maps any computable sequence of real numbers to a computable sequence of real numbers. We show that the converse is not true. This solves (...)
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  50.  35
    A Characterization of Markov Equivalence Classes for Ancestral Graphical Models.Jiji Zhang & Peter Spirtes - unknown
    JiJi Zhang and Peter Spirtes. A Characterization of Markov Equivalence Classes for Ancestral Graphical Models.
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