34 found
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  1. Development and Validation of a Multi-Dimensional Measure of Intellectual Humility.Mark Alfano, Kathryn Iurino, Paul Stey, Brian Robinson, Markus Christen, Feng Yu & Daniel Lapsley - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (8):e0182950.
    This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual humility. We find that intellectual humility has four core dimensions: Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance), Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity), Corrigibility (versus Fragility), and Engagement (versus Boredom). These dimensions display adequate self-informant agreement, and adequate convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity. In particular, Open-mindedness (...)
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  2.  39
    Ethical Challenges of Simulation-Driven Big Neuroscience.Markus Christen, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Berit Bringedal, Kevin Grimes, Julian Savulescu & Henrik Walter - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):5-17.
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  3.  13
    Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinsonian Patients—Ethical Evaluation of Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Sequelae.Sabine Müller & Markus Christen - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (1):3-13.
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  4.  14
    An Ethical Evaluation of Stereotactic Neurosurgery for Anorexia Nervosa.Sabine Müller, Rita Riedmüller, Henrik Walter & Markus Christen - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (4):50-65.
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  5.  23
    Moral Sensitivity as a Precondition of Moral Distress.Markus Christen & Johannes Katsarov - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):19-21.
  6.  11
    Ethical Focal Points in the International Practice of Deep Brain Stimulation.Markus Christen, Christian Ineichen, Merlin Bittlinger, Hans-Werner Bothe & Sabine Müller - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):65-80.
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  7. Ethical Issues of 'Morality Mining': When the Moral Identity of Individuals Becomes a Focus of Data-Mining.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano, Endre Bangerter & Daniel Lapsley - 2013 - In Hakikur Rahman & I. Ramos (eds.), Ethical Data Mining Applications for Socio-Economic Development. IGI Global. pp. 1-21.
  8. Constructing and Validating a Scale of Inquisitive Curiosity.Kathryn Iurino, Brian Robinson, Markus Christen, Paul Stey & Mark Alfano - 2018 - In Ilhan Inan, Lani Watson, Dennis Whitcomb & Safiye Yigit (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Curiosity. Rowman & Littlefield.
    We advance the understanding of the philosophy and psychology of curiosity by operationalizing and constructing an empirical measure of Nietzsche’s conception of inquisitive curiosity, expressed by the German term Wissbegier, (“thirst for knowledge” or “need/impetus to know”) and Neugier (“curiosity” or “inquisitiveness”). First, we show that existing empirical measures of curiosity do not tap the construct of inquisitive curiosity, though they may tap related constructs such as idle curiosity and phenomenological curiosity. Next, we map the concept of inquisitive curiosity and (...)
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  9.  27
    How “Moral” Are the Principles of Biomedical Ethics? – a Cross-Domain Evaluation of the Common Morality Hypothesis.Markus Christen, Christian Ineichen & Carmen Tanner - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):47.
    The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship (...)
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  10. The Semantic Neighborhood of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2014 - Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence.
    Intellectual humility is an interesting but underexplored disposition. The claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker expresses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both synonyms and antonyms of ‘intellectual humility’. We present a thesaurus-based method to map the semantic space (...)
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  11.  8
    Humanistic Values and the Values of Humanities in Interdisciplinary Research.Brian Robinson, Stephanie Vasko, Chad Gonnerman, Markus Christen, Michael O'Rourke & Daniel Steel - 2016 - Cogent Arts and Humanities 3:1123080.
    Research integrating the perspectives of different disciplines, or interdisciplinary research, has become increasingly common in academia and is considered important for its ability to address complex questions and problems. This mode of research aims to leverage differences among disciplines in generating a more complex understanding of the research landscape. To interact successfully with other disciplines, researchers must appreciate their differences, and this requires recognizing how the research landscape looks from the perspective of other disciplines. One central aspect of these disciplinary (...)
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  12.  17
    Two Concepts of Group Privacy.Michele Loi & Markus Christen - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):207-224.
    Luciano Floridi was not the first to discuss the idea of group privacy, but he was perhaps the first to discuss it in relation to the insights derived from big data analytics. He has argued that it is important to investigate the possibility that groups have rights to privacy that are not reducible to the privacy of individuals forming such groups. In this paper, we introduce a distinction between two concepts of group privacy. The first, the “what happens in Vegas (...)
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  13.  15
    Cybersecurity in Health – Disentangling Value Tensions.Michele Loi, Markus Christen, Nadine Kleine & Karsten Weber - 2019 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (2):229-245.
    Purpose Cybersecurity in healthcare has become an urgent matter in recent years due to various malicious attacks on hospitals and other parts of the healthcare infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an outline of how core values of the health systems, such as the principles of biomedical ethics, are in a supportive or conflicting relation to cybersecurity. Design/methodology/approach This paper claims that it is possible to map the desiderata relevant to cybersecurity onto the four principles of medical (...)
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  14.  24
    Measuring Value Sensitivity in Medicine.Christian Ineichen, Markus Christen & Carmen Tanner - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):5.
    BackgroundValue sensitivity – the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice – is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity.MethodsWe developed an instrument (...)
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  15.  29
    Resolving Some, But Not All Informed Consent Issues in DCDD—the Swiss Experiences.Markus Christen, Sohaila Bastami, Martina Gloor & Tanja Krones - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):29-31.
  16.  51
    Neuroethik – Geschichte, Definition Und Gegenstandsbereich Eines Neuen Wissenschaftsgebiets Neuroethics—History, Definition, and Scope of a New Field of Science.Sabine Müller, Merlin Bittlinger, Kirsten Brukamp, Markus Christen, Orsolya Friedrich, Malte-C. Gruber, Jon Leefmann, Grischa Merkel, Saskia K. Nagel, Marco Stier & Ralf J. Jox - 2018 - Ethik in der Medizin 30 (2):91-106.
    ZusammenfassungFünfzehn Jahre nach ihrer Entstehung ist die Neuroethik ein internationales wissenschaftliches Feld mit enormer Dynamik. Innerhalb weniger Jahre wurden eigene Kongresse, Zeitschriften, Forschungsförderprogramme, Fachgesellschaften und Institute gegründet. Gleichwohl besteht erheblicher Dissens über die Definition und den Gegenstandsbereich dieses neuen Gebiets. Wir argumentieren hier für eine differenzierte Konzeption, wonach neben der Reflexion ethischer Probleme der Neurowissenschaft und ihrer überwiegend neurotechnologischen Anwendungen auch die ethische Reflexion neurowissenschaftlicher Forschung zur Moralität zur Neuroethik gehört. Dies umfasst zwar nicht neurowissenschaftliche oder neuropsychologische Studien zur Moralität, (...)
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  17.  11
    Comparing and Integrating Biological and Cultural Moral Progress.Markus Christen, Darcia Narvaez & Eveline Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (1):55-73.
    Moral progress may be a matter of time scale. If intuitive measures of moral progress like the degree of physical violence within a society are taken as empirical markers, then most human societies have experienced moral progress in the last few centuries. However, if the development of the human species is taken as relevant time scale, there is evidence that humanity has experienced a global moral decline compared to a small-band hunter-gatherer baseline that represents a lifestyle presumed to largely account (...)
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  18. A Research Program for Empirically Informed Ethics.Markus Christen & Mark Alfano - 2013 - In Empirically Informed Ethics. Springer. pp. 3-27.
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  19.  22
    Digital Medicine, Cybersecurity, and Ethics: An Uneasy Relationship.Karsten Weber, Michele Loi, Markus Christen & Nadine Kleine - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):52-53.
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  20.  16
    Dealing With Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation: Lessons Learned From Stimulating the STN.Markus Christen, Merlin Bittlinger, Henrik Walter, Peter Brugger & Sabine Müller - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (1):37-43.
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  21.  17
    DBS Combined With Optogenetics—Fine-Tuning the Mind?Sabine Müller, Markus Christen & Henrik Walter - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (1):35-37.
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  22.  16
    Expanding DBS Indications: Reminder of the Consequences of Establishing a Therapeutic Practice.Markus Christen & Sabine Müller - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (2):57-58.
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  23.  32
    A Cross-Cultural Assessment of the Semantic Dimensions of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):785-801.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable of acquiring more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. Therefore, measuring intellectual humility via self-report may be methodologically unsound. As a consequence, we suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both (...)
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  24.  10
    A Cross-Cultural Assessment of the Semantic Dimensions of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):785-801.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable of acquiring more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. Therefore, measuring intellectual humility via self-report may be methodologically unsound. As a consequence, we suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both (...)
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  25. An Evaluation Schema for the Ethical Use of Autonomous Robotic Systems in Security Applications.Markus Christen, Thomas Burri, Joseph O. Chapa, Raphael Salvi, Filippo Santoni de Sio & John P. Sullins - unknown
    We propose a multi-step evaluation schema designed to help procurement agencies and others to examine the ethical dimensions of autonomous systems to be applied in the security sector, including autonomous weapons systems.
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  26. A Multi-Modal, Cross-Cultural Study of the Semantics of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable to acquire more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker ex- presses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual (...)
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  27.  30
    Birgit Beck (2013) Ein neues Menschenbild? Der Anspruch der Neurowissenschaften auf Revision unseres Selbstverständnisses: Mentis-Verlag, Münster, 315 Seiten, 38 €, ISBN 978-3-89785-828-2.Markus Christen - 2015 - Ethik in der Medizin 27 (3):265-266.
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  28.  10
    Comparing Cultural Differences with Domain-Specific Differences of Appreciating and Understanding Values.Markus Christen - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):333-345.
    ABSTRACTHuman endeavors such as promoting science or creating art have a close connection to underlying values and virtues. For example, creativity, curiosity or objectivity provide orientation when working as scientist or artist, outlining the ultimate aim of practitioners active in those domains. The appreciation and interpretation of domain values are expected to depend upon the domain, which should less be the case for moral values. This study investigates differences in the semantics, perceived importance and interpretation of 10 domain and 10 (...)
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  29. Die Ontologie künstlicher Körper.Markus Christen - 2003 - Studia Philosophica 62:225-243.
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  30.  20
    Ethische Relevanz und faktische Mängel in der Kommunikation von Spezifika der Organspende nach Kreislaufstillstand.Markus Christen & Martina Gloor - 2018 - Ethik in der Medizin 30 (4):343-361.
    ZusammenfassungIn zahlreichen Ländern nimmt die Zahl von Organspenden nach Kreislaufstillstand zu, obwohl in der Medizinethik verschiedene Aspekte der DCDD kritisch diskutiert werden. In unserer Arbeit identifizieren wir ethisch relevante Aspekte der DCDD basierend auf einer umfassenden Literaturanalyse. Wir fokussieren dabei insbesondere auf zwei Aspekte: vorbereitende Maßnahmen und Irreversibilität des Todeskriteriums. Danach untersuchen wir in einer weltweit durchgeführten Auswertung von Webseiten von Organspende-Organisationen und einer begleitenden Umfrage, inwieweit diese ethisch relevanten Aspekte von DCDD in der Information potenziell spendewilliger Personen eine Rolle (...)
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  31.  33
    Mapping Collective Behavior – Beware of Looping.Markus Christen & Peter Brugger - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):80-81.
  32.  1
    Choosing How to Discriminate: Navigating Ethical Trade-Offs in Fair Algorithmic Design for the Insurance Sector.Michele Loi & Markus Christen - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-26.
    Here, we provide an ethical analysis of discrimination in private insurance to guide the application of non-discriminatory algorithms for risk prediction in the insurance context. This addresses the need for ethical guidance of data-science experts, business managers, and regulators, proposing a framework of moral reasoning behind the choice of fairness goals for prediction-based decisions in the insurance domain. The reference to private insurance as a business practice is essential in our approach, because the consequences of discrimination and predictive inaccuracy in (...)
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  33.  2
    Correction to: Highway to (Digital) Surveillance: When Are Clients Coerced to Share Their Data with Insurers?Michele Loi, Christian Hauser & Markus Christen - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-1.
    The initial online publication contained a typesetting mistake in the author information. The original article has been corrected.
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  34.  10
    Highway to (Digital) Surveillance: When Are Clients Coerced to Share Their Data with Insurers?Michele Loi, Christian Hauser & Markus Christen - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-13.
    Clients may feel trapped into sharing their private digital data with insurance companies to get a desired insurance product or premium. However, private insurance must collect some data to offer products and premiums appropriate to the client’s level of risk. This situation creates tension between the value of privacy and common insurance business practice. We argue for three main claims: first, coercion to share private data with insurers is pro tanto wrong because it violates the autonomous choice of a privacy-valuing (...)
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