This study examines the influence of religiousness on different components of marketing professionals' ethical decision making: personal moral philosophies, perceived ethical problem, and ethical intentions. The data are from a national survey of the American Marketing Associations' professional members. The results generally indicate that the religiousness of a marketer can partially explain his or her perception of an ethical problem and behavioral intentions. Results also suggest that the religiousness significantly influences the personal moral philosophies of marketers.
This study compares Australian marketers with those in the United States along lines that are particular to the study of ethics. The test measured two different moral philosophies, idealism and relativism, and compared perceptions of ethical problems, ethical intentions, and corporate ethical values. According to Hofstede''s cultural typologies, there should be little difference between American and Australian marketers, but the study did find significant differences. Australians tended to be more idealistic and more relativistic than Americans and the other results were (...) mixed, making it difficult to generalize about the effects of moral philosophies on the components of ethical decision-making measured here. This is an important finding; as firms become increasingly more globalized, marketers will more often be involved in cross-cultural ethical dilemmas and it seems natural to assume that similar cultures will have similar ethical orientations. That assumption may well prove erroneous. (shrink)
The goals of this study are to test a pattern of ethical decision making that predicts ethical intentions of individuals within corporations based primarily on the ethical values embedded in corporate culture, and to see whether that model is generally stable across countries. The survey instrument used scales to measure the effects of corporate ethical values, idealism, and relativism on ethical intentions of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. The samples include practitioner members of the American Marketing Association in the U.S., (...) and full-time businesspeople enrolled in executive MBA programs in Thailand and Turkey. The study is positioned within a fairly new stream that assesses patterns across countries, rather than differences between them, in a way that might be called “culture free.” The results show a generally positive influence between cultural ethical values and ethical intentions. The results also indicate that the positive effect of corporate ethical values on ethical intentions is greater for managers with low idealism and high relativism. We also discuss the implications of our results for managers of international businesses. (shrink)
A finales del siglo veinte la historiografía acuñó el concepto de republicanismo para definir la ideología que había sustentado la revolución americana. Posteriormente el concepto fue apropiado normativamente por la filosofía política y se presentó como una alternativa a la hegemonía del liberalismo. En el primer caso se señaló una continuidad entre la tradición republicana de pensamiento político y la ideología revolucionaria. En el segundo caso, lo que se intentó fue una exhumación de temas republicanos para formar una nueva ideología. (...) Denominaré a este proyecto ideológico neo-republicanismo y señalaré algunas de las dificultades a las que se enfrenta. (shrink)
This article interprets the accounts and testimonies of native Chilean Pentecostalism, from a philosophical approach. In these accounts Pentecostal dilemmas are expressed and that oppressed beings prove by the economical and social conditions that the Chilean society lived in the 20th century. These dilemmas manifest anguish produced by absurd, emptiness and loneliness; that rise due to illness, alcoholism and poverty, which leads the individual to critical situations that push him to choose being Pentecostal, stigmatized beings and socially excluded, or to (...) suffer and death. Once they have chosen being Pentecostal the symbolic exodus starts, interpreting the past, the society and individuality in a tragic way. (shrink)
The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of (...) communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness. Keywords: communication, dialogism, informed consent, linguistics, performative, physician-patient relationship CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
In this paper I focus on what we can call “the obvious assumption” in the debate between defenders and deniers (of the reductionist sort) of cognitive phenomenology: conscious thought is phenomenal and phenomenal thought is conscious. This assumption can be refused if “conscious” and "phenomenal” are not co-extensive in the case of thought. I discuss some prominent ways to argue for their dissociation and I argue that we have reasons to resist such moves, and thus, that the “obvious assumption” can (...) be transformed into a grounded claim one can explicitly believe and defend. (shrink)
The article tracks the development of Agnes Heller”s political philosophy as it evolves through the Marxism and reform communism of her years as a dissent Hungarian intellectual, followed by the period of her encounters with the Western Left and with the currents of postmodern liberalism.
This paper explores the value of a Poststructuralist psychoanalytic model of persons, or Subjects, as an expanded frame for the question Whose consent is it anyway? The elaboration of the need for this expanded frame, its tenets and its value form the substance of the paper. This frame incorporates the emotional, linguistic, and socio-cultural dimensions that help restore patients and physicians to their full status as persons from their restricted status, in the current dominant theory and model, as unidimensional, rationalistic, (...) medico-legally constructed players; emphasizes their interconnectedness; and, focuses broadly on responsibility as bearing consequences, and not only accountability. This frame does not deny the role and importance of cognition or rationality, it supplements them. It does not supplant rationality, but rather includes it in a view of the person that also includes those other human capacities which are not based on an ideal of pure reason. (shrink)
There is a set of Spanish verbs which admit both Indicative and Subjunctive complements. The Indicative complementizer is correlated with a positive presupposition about the truth of the complement; the Subjunctive implies a neutral attitude. This paper shows that these presuppositions must be reflected in the underlying structure of the complement and cannot be explained through the use of surface structure interpretation rules because the presuppositional nature of the subordinate clause affects the application of a number of transformations, even very (...) early ones. Indicative and Subjunctive restrictive relative clauses imply the same types of presuppositions as the Indicative and Subjunctive complements respectively. They can be explained through the same type of configurations which can account for the syntactic and semantic behavior of the two types of complements. (shrink)
Modernity has been seen as the final stage of the most radical process of change in the history of humanity. According to the modernist theorists, modern society was to be equated with the total abolition of all the evils of traditional society and the establishment of a totally free, egalitarian and rich society. This was the prophetic message of Marx, but the actual development of modernisation ended with modernity on trial. The actual experience of socialism was a modernist nightmare, which (...) suggests that the whole modernity project should be re-assessed. This article offers a comparison of the theories of modernity proposed by Marx and the Hungarian sociologist, Ágnes Heller, concluding with a possible future for modernity after the demise of its messianic dreams. (shrink)
En este artículo quiero mostrar que la ciudadanía, desde sus orígenes, está sujeta a la tensión entre las expectativas normativas asociadas al ciudadano y la ciudad y su realidad cotidiana, lo que la convierte, parcialmente, en un mito o en un ideal. En los estados modernos el contenido de la ciudadanía se vuelve aún más difuso y contradictorio. Por un lado la ciudadanía se vuelve un ideal melancólico o nostálgico; por otro, la relación del Estado y los individuos adopta la (...) forma de un contrato bajo la lógica del interés privado. Por último, con la globalización, los límites territoriales que definen la ciudadanía se vuelven aún más difusos y el concepto se vuelve, si cabe, más abstracto. El artículo se pregunta si, bajo estas circunstancias, resulta todavía útil hablar de ciudadanía. (shrink)