91 found
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  1. What is Wrong with the Miracle Argument??☆.Martin Carrier - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):23-36.
    One of the arguments advanced in favor of scientific realism is the 'miracle argument'. It says that for the anti-realist the predictive success of science appears as an utter miracle. This argument indeed has some prima facie plausibility, provided that it is sharpened by construing "predictive success" as prediction of previously unknown laws and the occurrence of a consilience of inductions. Still, the history of science teaches us that it is possible to arrive at predictive success in this sense by (...)
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  2. Underdetermination as an Epistemological Test Tube: Expounding Hidden Values of the Scientific Community.Martin Carrier - 2011 - Synthese 180 (2):189 - 204.
    Duhem—Quine underdetermination plays a constructive role in epistemology by pinpointing the impact of non-empirical virtues or cognitive values on theory choice. Underdetermination thus contributes to illuminating the nature of scientific rationality. Scientists prefer and accept one account among empirical equivalent alternatives. The non-empirical virtues operating in science are laid open in such theory choice decisions. The latter act as an epistemological test tube in making explicit commitments to how scientific knowledge should be like.
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  3.  6
    Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences.Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
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  4.  20
    Values and Objectivity in Science: Value-Ladenness, Pluralism and the Epistemic Attitude.Martin Carrier - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2547-2568.
  5.  74
    The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited.Martin Carrier, Don Howard & Janet A. Kourany (eds.) - 2008 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    ISBN-13: 978-0-8229-4317-4 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8229-4317-4 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Science — Philosophy. 2. Science — Social aspects. 3. Values. 4. Science and civilization. I. Carrier, Martin. II. Howard, Don, professor. III. Kourany ...
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  6.  18
    Facing the Credibility Crisis of Science: On the Ambivalent Role of Pluralism in Establishing Relevance and Reliability.Martin Carrier - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):439-464.
    One of the pervasive distinctions in the history of political thought is the distinction between rule by consent and rule by competence or expertise. A classic locus of this debate is Plato's Politeia in which Plato argues against the rule by consent and advocates philosophers as political leaders. Philosophers are geared toward eternal ideas and for this reason place emphasis on the long-term consequences of political actions. The same idea is expressed today by the notion that devising policies adequately requires (...)
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  7. Knowledge and the World Challenges Beyond the Science Wars.Martin Carrier - 2004
     
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  8.  11
    Knowledge and Control.Martin Carrier - 2004 - In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 275.
  9.  59
    Changing Laws and Shifting Concepts.Martin Carrier - 2001 - In Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.), Incommensurability and Related Matters. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 65--90.
  10.  37
    Prediction in Context: On the Comparative Epistemic Merit of Predictive Success.Martin Carrier - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:97-102.
    The considerations set out in the paper are intended to suggest that in practical contexts predictive power does not play the outstanding roles sometimes accredited to it in an epistemic framework. Rather, predictive power is part of a network of other merits and achievements. Predictive power needs to be judged differently according to the specific conditions that apply. First, predictions need to be part of an explanatory framework if they are supposed to guide actions reliably. Second, in scientific expertise, the (...)
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  11. Enzyklopädie Philosophie Und Wissenschaftstheorie.Gottfried Gabriel, Martin Carrier & Jürgen Mittelstrass (eds.) - 2005 - Metzler.
    Bd. 1. A-B -- Bd. 2. C-F -- Bd. 3. G-Inn -- Bd. 4. Ins-Loc.
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  12.  32
    Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Conditions of Their Trustworthiness.Martin Carrier - 2010 - Analyse & Kritik 32 (2):195-212.
    The article explores epistemic and social conditions of the trustworthiness of scientific expertise. I claim that there are three kinds of conditions for the trustworthiness of scientific expertise. The first condition is epistemic and means that scientific knowledge enjoys high credibility. The second condition concerns the significance of scientific knowledge. It means that scientific generalizations are relevant for elucidating the particular cases that constitute the challenges for expert judgment. The third condition concerns the social processes involved in producing science-based recommendations. (...)
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  13.  36
    How to Serve the Customer and Still Be Truthful: Methodological Characteristics of Applied Research.Matthias Adam, Martin Carrier & Torsten Wilholt - 2006 - Science and Public Policy 33 (6):435-444.
    Transdisciplinarity includes the assumption that within new institutional settings, scientific research becomes more closely responsive to practical problems and user needs and is therefore often subject to considerable application pressure. This raises the question whether transdisciplinarity affects the epistemic standards and the fruitfulness of research. Case studies show how user-orientation and epistemic innovativeness can be combined. While the modeling involved in all cases under consideration was local and focused primarily on features of immediate practical relevance, it was informed by theoretical (...)
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  14. Evolutionary Change and Lawlikeness : Beatty on Biological Generalizations.Martin Carrier - unknown
  15. Raum-Zeit.Martin Carrier - 2009 - Walter de Gruyter.
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  16.  19
    Climate Models: How to Assess Their Reliability.Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard - 2019 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 32 (2):81-100.
    The paper discusses modelling uncertainties in climate models and how they can be addressed based on physical principles as well as based on how the models perform in light of empirical data. We ar...
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  17. In Defense of Psychological Laws.Martin Carrier - 1998 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (3):217 – 232.
    Abstract It is argued that psychological explanations involve psychological generalizations that exhibit the same features as laws of physics. On the basis of the ?systematic theory of lawhood?, characteristic features of laws of nature are elaborated. Investigating some examples of explanations taken from cognitive psychology shows that these features can also be identified in psychological generalizations. Particular attention is devoted to the notion of ?ccteris?paribus laws?. It is argued that laws of psychology are indeed ceteris?paribus laws. However, this feature does (...)
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  18.  64
    What is Right with the Miracle Argument: Establishing a Taxonomy of Natural Kinds.Martin Carrier - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (3):391-409.
  19.  37
    Science in the Context of Application: Methodological Change, Conceptual Transformation, Cultural Reorientation.Martin Carrier & Alfred Nordmann - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 1--7.
  20.  47
    Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Standards—The Example of the German Radiation Protection Commission.Martin Carrier & Wolfgang Krohn - 2018 - Topoi 37 (1):55-66.
    In their self-understanding, expert committees solely draw on scientific knowledge to provide policy advice. However, we try to show, first, on the basis of material related to the German Radiation Protection Commission that much of their work consists in active model building. Second, expert advice is judged by criteria that diverge from standards used for judging epistemic research. In particular, the commitment to generality or universality is replaced by the criterion of specificity, and the value of precision gives way to (...)
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  21.  22
    Knowledge, Politics, and Commerce: Science Under the Pressure of Practice.Martin Carrier - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 11--30.
  22. The Completeness of Scientific Theories on the Derivation of Empirical Indicators Within a Theoretical Framework : The Case of Physical Geometry.Martin Carrier - 1994
  23.  46
    Kants Theorie der Materie und ihre Wirkung auf die zeitgenössische Chemie.Martin Carrier - 1990 - Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 81 (2):170.
    Kant's theory of matter is reconstructed and his views about and impact on chemistry are studied. His early "monadological" conception is analyzed and compared to other dynamical approaches of the period. His later attempt to regard matter as a continuum and to derive some of its properties from the interaction of forces is reconstructed. His conception of chemistry is examined and compared to the notion of some chemists who were inspired by Kant's work.
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  24.  41
    How to Tell Causes From Effects: Kant’s Causal Theory of Time and Modern Approaches.Martin Carrier - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):59-71.
    I attempt a reconstruction of Kant’s version of the causal theory of time that makes it appear coherent. Two problems are at issue. The first concerns Kant’s reference to reciprocal causal influence for characterizing simultaneity. This approach is criticized by pointing out that Kant’s procedure involves simultaneous counterdirected processes—which seems to run into circularity. The problem can be defused by drawing on instantaneous processes such as the propagation of gravitation in Newtonian mechanics. Another charge of circularity against Kant’s causal theory (...)
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  25.  53
    Explaining Scientific Progress: Lakatos' Methodological Account of Kuhnian Patterns of Theory Change.Martin Carrier - 2002 - In G. Kampis, L.: Kvasz & M. Stöltzner (eds.), Appraising Lakatos: Mathematics, Methodology and the Man. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 53--72.
  26.  76
    The Politicization of Science: The ESF-ZiF-Bielefeld Conference on Science and Values.Martin Carrier & Peter Weingart - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):373-378.
  27.  68
    Theories for Use: On the Bearing of Basic Science on Practical Problems.Martin Carrier - 2007 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 23--33.
    Funding policies for science are usually directed at supporting technological innovations. The im-pact and success of such policies depend crucially on how science and technology are connected to each other. I propose an “interactive view” of the relationship between basic science and technol-ogy development which comprises the following four claims: First, technological change derives from science but only in part. The local models used in accounting for technologically relevant phenomena contain theoretical and non-theoretical elements alike. Second, existing technologies and rules (...)
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  28.  41
    On Novel Facts.Martin Carrier - 1988 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (2):205-231.
    Das Problem, unter welchen Bedingungen eine Hypothese oder Theorienmodifikation als methodologisch akzeptabel gilt, wird in der wissenschaftstheoretischen Tradition als die Frage des Ad-Hoc-Charakters von Hypothesen diskutiert. Das gleichartige Problem tritt aber auch in Lakatos' Methodologie wissenschaftlicher Forschungsprogramme auf, welche von methodologisch zulässigen Theorienänderungen die Vorhersage 'neuer Tatsachen' verlangt. Über diesen Begriff der neuen Tatsache und damit der Adäquatheitsbedingungen für wissenschaftliche Erklärungen hat sich eine weitgefächerte Debatte entsponnen. In diesem Papier wird der Versuch unternommen, die Forderung der unabhängigen Testbarkeit einer Hypothese, (...)
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  29.  57
    Explanatory Loops and the Limits of Genetic Reductionism.Martin Carrier & Patrick Finzer - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):267 – 283.
    We reconstruct genetic determinism as a reductionist thesis to the effect that the molecular properties of cells can be accounted for to a great extent by their genetic outfit. The non-reductionist arguments offered at this molecular level often use the relationship between structure and function as their point of departure. By contrast, we develop a non-reductionist argument that is confined to the structural characteristics of biomolecules; no appeal to functions is made. We raise two kinds of objections against the reducibility (...)
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  30.  16
    Systematizität: Eine systematische Charakterisierung der Wissenschaft? Kommentar zu Paul Hoyningen-Huenes Systematicity.Martin Carrier - 2015 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 69 (2):230-234.
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  31.  65
    Semantic Incommensurability and Empirical Comparability: The Case of Lorentz and Einstein.Martin Carrier - 2004 - Philosophia Scientiae 8 (1):73-94.
    Semantic incommensurability is understood as non-translatability of concepts taken from different theories. My aim is to give a rational reconstruction of the notion of incommensurability underlying the writings of Feyerabend and the later Kuhn. I claim that incommensurability can be reconstructed on this basis as a coherent conception and that relevant instances can be identified. The translation failure between incommensurable concepts arises from the impossibility to jointly fulfil two conditions of adequacy that the context theory of meaning places on translations. (...)
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  32.  10
    Multiplicity and Heterogeneity: On the Relations Between Functions and Their Realizations.Martin Carrier - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (1):179-192.
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  33.  80
    Kant’s Relational Theory of Absolute Space.Martin Carrier - 1992 - Kant-Studien 83 (4):399-416.
  34.  5
    Inquiring Into Space-Time, the Human Mind, and Religion: The Life and Work of Adolf Grünbaum.Martin Carrier & Gereon Wolters - 2019 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 50 (4):409-427.
    Grünbaum's three chief fields of research were space-time philosophy, the methodological credentials of psychoanalysis, and reasons given in favor of the existence of God. Grünbaum defended the so-called conventionality thesis of physical geometry. He partially followed Hans Reichenbach in this respect but developed a new ontological argument for the conventionality claim in addition. In addressing the physical basis of the direction of time, Grünbaum advocated that there is a physical basis for the distinction between the past and the future, but (...)
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  35. Geometric Facts and Geometric Theory : Helmholtz and 20th-Century Philosophy of Physical Geometry.Martin Carrier - unknown
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  36.  20
    Historical Epistemology: On the Diversity and Change of Epistemic Values in Science.Martin Carrier - 2012 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 35 (3):239-251.
    Historische Epistemologie: Vielfalt und Wandel epistemischer Werte in der Wissenschaft. Die historische Epistemologie beinhaltet die Auffassung, dass das System des Wissens nicht durch die Beobachtungen festgelegt ist, sondern auch von epistemischen Anforderungen geprägt ist, die sich im historischen Forschungsprozess wandeln können. In der Folge ist das System des Wissens pfadabhängig in dem Sinn, dass seine Gestalt von epistemischen Entscheidungen beeinflusst ist, die zu bestimmten historischen Zeitpunkten getroffen wurden. Die vorliegende Arbeit zielt darauf ab, diesen Denkansatz auszuarbeiten, indem die doppelte Rolle (...)
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  37. Circles Without Circularity : Testing Theories by Theory-Laden Observations.Martin Carrier - unknown
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  38. Science at Century's End Philosophical Questions on the Progress and Limits of Science.Martin Carrier, Gerald J. Massey, Laura Ruetsche & Pittsburgh-Konstanz Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science - 2000
  39.  28
    Goethes Farbenlehre — ihre Physik und Philosophie.Martin Carrier - 1981 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 12 (2):209-225.
    Da Goethes Farbenlehre im allgemeinen allein unter dem Blickwinkel der darin enthaltenen methodologischen Thesen untersucht wird, tritt hier die Rekonstruktion ihres physikalischen Gehalts in den Vordergrund. Es zeigt sich auf diese Weise, daß die Farbenlehre als eine Verbindung physikalischer und sinnesphysiologischer Aspekte einige der zentralen Versuche der Newtonschen Optik angemessen interpretieren kann. Die Diskussion der Methodologie zeitigt anschließend ein zukunftweisendes Element: die Erkenntnis der Bedeutung der Meßapparatur für die Konstitution der Theorie. Schließlich wird Goethes Naturbild und seine Aktualisierung in den (...)
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  40.  48
    Constructing or Completing Physical Geometry? On the Relation Between Theory and Evidence in Accounts of Space-Time Structure.Martin Carrier - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (3):369-394.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relation between the observation basis and the theoretical principles of General Relativity. More specifically, this relation is analyzed with respect to constructive axiomatizations of the observation basis of space-time theories, on the one hand, and in attempts to complete them, on the other. The two approaches exclude one another so that a choice between them is necessary. I argue that the completeness approach is preferable for methodological reasons.
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  41.  24
    First Page Preview.James W. McAllister, Lars Bergström, James Robert Brown, Martin Carrier, Nancy Cartwright, Jiwei Ci, David Davies, Catherine Elgin, Márta Fehér & Michel Ghins - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (4).
  42. Some Aspects of Hélène Metzger's Philosophy of Science.Martin Carrier - 1988 - Corpus: Revue de philosophie 8:135-150.
     
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  43. Historical Approaches: Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend.Martin Carrier - 2012 - In James R. Brown (ed.), Philosophy of Science: The Key Thinkers. Continuum Books. pp. 132.
     
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  44.  8
    On Novel Facts: A Discussion of Criteria for Non-Ad-Hoc-Ness in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes.Martin Carrier - 1988 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (2):205-231.
    Das Problem, unter welchen Bedingungen eine Hypothese oder Theorienmodifikation als methodologisch akzeptabel gilt, wird in der wissenschaftstheoretischen Tradition als die Frage des Ad-Hoc-Charakters von Hypothesen diskutiert. Das gleichartige Problem tritt aber auch in Lakatos' Methodologie wissenschaftlicher Forschungsprogramme auf, welche von methodologisch zulässigen Theorienänderungen die Vorhersage 'neuer Tatsachen' verlangt. Über diesen Begriff der neuen Tatsache und damit der Adäquatheitsbedingungen für wissenschaftliche Erklärungen hat sich eine weitgefächerte Debatte entsponnen. In diesem Papier wird der Versuch unternommen, die Forderung der unabhängigen Testbarkeit einer Hypothese, (...)
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  45.  87
    Mind, Brain, Behavior: The Mind-Body Problem and the Philosophy of Psychology.Martin Carrier & J. Mittelstrass - 1991 - De Gruyter.
  46.  5
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Coming to Grips with an Ambitious Concept.Martin Carrier & Gürol Irzik - forthcoming - Synthese:1-7.
    This Introduction to the Special Issue on “Responsible Research and Innovation” outlines features of the philosophical debate about the concepts involved and summarizes the papers assembled in this issue. The topic of RRI is widely discussed in science studies and has made its way into science policy. This SI is intended to make the contributions of philosophers of science more visible. The philosophically relevant parts of the field concern, among others, the processes of public participation in science and their impact (...)
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  47.  6
    How to Conceive of Science for the Benefit of Society: Prospects of Responsible Research and Innovation.Martin Carrier - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    Responsible research and innovation features the dialog of science “with society,” and research performed “for society,” i.e., for the benefit of the people. I focus on this latter, outcome-oriented notion of RRI and discuss two kinds of problems. The first one concerns options to anticipate the future course of science and technology. Such foresight knowledge seems necessary for subjecting research to demands of social and moral responsibility. However, predicting science and technology is widely considered impossible. The second problem concerns moral (...)
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  48.  80
    The Unity of Science.Martin Carrier - 1990 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (1):17-31.
    Abstract The paper addresses the question of how the unity of science can adequately be characterized. A mere classification of scientific fields and disciplines does not express the unity of science unless it is supplemented with a perspective that establishes a systematic coherence among the different branches of science. Four ideas of this kind are discussed. Namely, the unity of scientific language, of scientific laws, of scientific method and of science as a practical?operational enterprise. Whereas reference to the unity of (...)
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  49.  35
    Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Rationale Rekonstruktion Und Die Begründung Von Methodologien.Martin Carrier - 1986 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 17 (2):201-228.
    The paper exposes the principal procedures of assessing methodological theories. The first one is based on a consensus about the aims of science, the second uses epistemological criteria, and the third checks the adequacy of methodological requirements against the history of science. This third procedure is singled out for a more detailed treatment. It is argued that rational reconstruction constitutes a separate level of historiography and concerns historical explanation. The subject of a rational reconstruction is the methodological explanation of all (...)
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  50.  8
    Lakatos und Bohrs Programm.Martin Carrier - 1983 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 14 (2):368-371.
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