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Martin Kusch
University of Vienna
  1. Knowledge by Agreement : The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology: The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology.Martin Kusch - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    Martin Kusch puts forth two controversial ideas: that knowledge is a social status and that knowledge is primarily the possession of groups rather than individuals. He defends the radical implications of his views: that knowledge is political, and that it varies with communities. This bold approach to epistemology is a challenge to philosophy and the wider academic world.
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  2.  82
    A Sceptical Guide to Meaning and Rules: Defending Kripke’s Wittgenstein.Martin Kusch - 2006 - Mcgill-Queen's University Press.
    No other recent book in Anglophone philosophy has attracted as much criticism and has found so few friends as Saul Kripke's "Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language". Amongst its critics, one finds the very top of the philosophical profession. Yet, it is rightly counted amongst the books that students of philosophy, at least in the Anglo-American world, have to read at some point in their education. Enormously influential, it has given rise to debates that strike at the very heart of (...)
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  3. Psychologism: A Case Study in the Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 1995 - Routledge.
    In the 1890's, when fields such as psychology and philosophy were just emerging, turf wars between the disciplines were common-place. Philosophers widely discounted the possibility that psychology's claim to empirical truth had anything relevant to offer their field. And psychologists, such as the crazed and eccentric Otto Weinegger, often considered themselves philosophers. Freud, it is held, was deeply influenced by his wife, Martha's, uncle, who was also a philosopher. The tension between the fields persisted, until the two fields eventually matured (...)
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  4. Epistemic Relativism, Scepticism, Pluralism.Martin Kusch - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4687-4703.
    There are a number of debates that are relevant to questions concerning objectivity in science. One of the eldest, and still one of the most intensely fought, is the debate over epistemic relativism. —All forms of epistemic relativism commit themselves to the view that it is impossible to show in a neutral, non-question-begging, way that one “epistemic system”, that is, one interconnected set of epistemic standards, is epistemically superior to others. I shall call this view “No-metajustification”. No-metajustification is commonly taken (...)
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  5. Psychologism: The Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 1995 - Routledge.
    First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  6. The Genealogical Method in Epistemology.Martin Kusch & Robin McKenna - forthcoming - Synthese 197 (3):1057-1076.
    In 1990 Edward Craig published a book called Knowledge and the State of Nature in which he introduced and defended a genealogical approach to epistemology. In recent years Craig’s book has attracted a lot of attention, and his distinctive approach has been put to a wide range of uses including anti-realist metaepistemology, contextualism, relativism, anti-luck virtue epistemology, epistemic injustice, value of knowledge, pragmatism and virtue epistemology. While the number of objections to Craig’s approach has accumulated, there has been no sustained (...)
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  7.  8
    Relativism in the Philosophy of Science.Martin Kusch - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    'Relativism versus absolutism' is one of the fundamental oppositions that have dominated reflections about science for much of its history. Often these reflections have been inseparable from wider social-political concerns regarding the position of science in society. Where does this debate stand in the philosophy and sociology of science today? And how does the 'relativism question' relate to current concerns with 'post truth' politics? In Relativism in the Philosophy of Science, Martin Kusch examines some of the most influential relativist proposals (...)
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  8. Disagreement, Certainties, Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2018 - Topoi 40 (5):1097-1105.
    This paper seeks to widen the dialogue between the “epistemology of peer disagreement” and the epistemology informed by Wittgenstein’s last notebooks, later edited as On Certainty. The paper defends the following theses: not all certainties are groundless; many of them are beliefs; and they do not have a common essence. An epistemic peer need not share all of my certainties. Which response to a disagreement over a certainty is called for, depends on the type of certainty in question. Sometimes a (...)
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  9. Scientific Pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:69-79.
    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H₂O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable “systems of practice” in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment (...)
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  10.  86
    Psychologism -- Substantively Revised.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  11.  80
    De-Idealizing Disagreement, Rethinking Relativism.Katherina Kinzel & Martin Kusch - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (1):40-71.
    Relativism is often motivated in terms of certain types of disagreement. In this paper, we survey the philosophical debates over two such types: faultless disagreement in the case of gustatory conflict, and fundamental disagreement in the case of epistemic conflict. Each of the two discussions makes use of a implicit conception of judgement: brute judgement in the case of faultless disagreement, and rule-governed judgement in the case of fundamental disagreement. We show that the prevalent accounts work with unreasonably high levels (...)
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  12. Wittgenstein’s On Certainty and Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2016 - In Harald A. Wiltsche & Sonja Rinofner-Kreidl (eds.), Analytic and Continental Philosophy: Methods and Perspectives. Proceedings of the 37th International Wittgenstein Symposium. De Gruyter. pp. 29-46.
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  13. Hacking’s Historical Epistemology: A Critique of Styles of Reasoning.Martin Kusch - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2):158-173.
    The paper begins with a detailed reconstruction of the development of Ian Hacking’s theory of scientific ‘styles of reasoning’, paying particular attention to Alistair Crombie’s influence, and suggesting that Hacking’s theory deserves to come under the title ‘historical epistemology’. Subsequently, the paper seeks to establish three critical theses. First, Hacking’s reliance on Crombie leads him to adopt an outdated historiographical position; second, Hacking is unsuccessful in his attempt to distance historical epistemology from epistemic relativism; and third, Hacking has not offered (...)
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  14. Knowledge by Agreement: The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology.Martin Kusch - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (1):235-238.
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  15.  87
    Knowledge and Certainties in the Epistemic State of Nature.Martin Kusch - 2011 - Episteme 8 (1):6-23.
    This paper seeks to defend, develop, and revise Edward Craig's “genealogy of knowledge”. The paper first develops the suggestion that Craig's project is naturally thought of as an important instance of “social cognitive ecology”. It then introduces the genealogy of knowledge and some of its main problems and weaknesses, suggesting that these are best taken as challenges for further work rather than as refutations. The central sections of the paper conduct a critical dialogue between Craig's theory and Wittgenstein's claim–familiar from (...)
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  16. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism.Martin Kusch (ed.) - 2019 - Routledge.
    Relativism can be found in all philosophical traditions and subfields of philosophy. It is also a central idea in the social sciences, the humanities, religion and politics. This is the first volume to map relativistic motifs in all areas of philosophy, synchronically and diachronically. It thereby provides essential intellectual tools for thinking about contemporary issues like cultural diversity, the plurality of the sciences, or the scope of moral values. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism is an outstanding major reference (...)
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  17. Testimony and the Value of Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 2009 - In Pritchard, Haddock & MIllar (eds.), Epistemic Value. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 60--94.
    This chapter gives substance to the idea of a ‘communitarian value-driven epistemology’ by developing and combining ideas from Edward Craig's and Bernard Williams' ‘epistemic genealogy’ and Barry Barnes' and Steven Shapin's ‘sociology of knowledge’. In order to make transparent how this project might slot into more familiar, or more mainstream, projects, the paper maintains throughout a critical dialogue with Jon Kvanvig's position. The chapter is structured around an attempt to defend Craig's position against Kvanvig's criticisms: by treating the institution of (...)
     
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  18.  39
    Psychological Knowledge: A Social History and Philosophy.Martin Kusch - 1998 - Routledge.
    Psychologists and philosophers have assumed that psychological knowledge is knowledge about, and held by, the individual mind. _Psychological Knowledge_ challenges these views. It argues that bodies of psychological knowledge are social institutions like money or the monarchy, and that mental states are social artefacts like coins or crowns. Martin Kusch takes on arguments of alternative proposals, shows what is wrong with them, and demonstrates how his own social-philosophical approach constitutes an advance. We see that exists a substantial natural amount of (...)
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  19. Relativism in Feyerabend's Later Writings.Martin Kusch - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57:106-113.
  20. Psychologism: A Case Study in the Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):439-443.
     
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  21. From Völkerpsychologie to the Sociology of Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):250-274.
    This article focuses on two developments in nineteenth-century (philosophy of) social science: Moritz Lazarus’s and Heymann Steinthal’s Völkerpsychologie and Georg Simmel’s early sociology of knowledge. The article defends the following theses. First, Lazarus and Steinthal wavered between a “strong” and a “weak” program for Völkerpsychologie. Ingredients for the strong program included methodological neutrality and symmetry; causal explanation of beliefs based on causal laws; a focus on groups, interests, tradition, culture, or materiality; determinism; and a self-referential model of social institutions. Second, (...)
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  22.  31
    II—Relativist Stances, Virtues And Vices.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 93 (1):271-291.
    This paper comments on Maria Baghramian’s ‘The Virtues of Relativism’. We agree that some relativist positions are naturally couched as ‘stances’ and that it is fruitful to connect relativism to virtue epistemology. But I find Baghramian’s preferred rendering of relativism uncharitable.
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  23. Wittgenstein on Mathematics and Certainties.Martin Kusch - 2016 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (2-3):120-142.
    _ Source: _Volume 6, Issue 2-3, pp 120 - 142 This paper aims to contribute to the debate over epistemic versus non-epistemic readings of the ‘hinges’ in Wittgenstein’s _On Certainty_. I follow Marie McGinn’s and Daniele Moyal-Sharrock’s lead in developing an analogy between mathematical sentences and certainties, and using the former as a model for the latter. However, I disagree with McGinn’s and Moyal-Sharrock’s interpretations concerning Wittgenstein’s views of both relata. I argue that mathematical sentences as well as certainties are (...)
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  24. The World of Chronic Pain.Martin Kusch & Matthew Ratcliffe - 2018 - In Kevin Aho (ed.), Existential Medicine: Essays on Health and Illness. London, New York: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 61-80.
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  25. Stances, Voluntarism, Relativism.Martin Kusch - forthcoming - In New Essays on Objectivity. Berlin and New York: DeGruyter.
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  26. Social Epistemology.Martin Kusch - 2010 - In Sven Bernecker & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Routledge Companion to Epistemology. New York: Routledge. pp. 873--884.
     
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  27. Relativist Stances, Virtues and Vices.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society:271-291.
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  28. Epistemological Anarchism Meets Epistemic Voluntarism.Martin Kusch - forthcoming - In Karim Bschir & Jamie Shaw (eds.), Interpreting Feyerabend. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  29. Analysing Holocaust Survivor Testimony.Martin Kusch - 2017 - In S. Krämer & S. Weigel (eds.), Testimony / Bearing Witness. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefied. pp. 137-167.
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  30.  55
    The Metaphysics and Politics of Corporate Personhood.Martin Kusch - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S9):1587-1600.
    This paper consists of brief critical comments on Chapter 8, “Personifying Group Agents”, of Christian List’s and Philip Pettit’s book Group Agency (2011). A first set of objections concerns the chapter’s history of ideas. List and Pettit present the history of the idea of corporate personhood as divided between “intrinsicist” and “performative” conceptions. I argue that this distinction does not fit with the historical record and that it makes important political and legal divides and battles invisible. A second set of (...)
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  31. Scientific Realism and Social Epistemology.Martin Kusch - 2018 - In Juha Saatsi (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Scientific Realism. London: Routledge. pp. 261-275.
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  32. The Genealogy of Relativism and Absolutism.Martin Kusch & Robin McKenna - 2018 - In Christos Kyriacou & Robin McKenna (eds.), Metaepistemology: Realism and Anti-Realism. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 217-239.
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  33.  43
    The Sociophilosophy of Folk Psychology.Martin Kusch - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (1):1-25.
  34.  6
    Stances, Voluntarism, Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2020 - In Dominik Finkelde & Paul M. Livingston (eds.), Idealism, Relativism, and Realism: New Essays on Objectivity Beyond the Analytic-Continental Divide. De Gruyter. pp. 131-154.
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  35.  82
    Microscopes and the Theory-Ladenness of Experience in Bas van Fraassen’s Recent Work.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):167-182.
    Bas van Fraassen’s recent book Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective modifies and refines the “constructive empiricism” of The Scientific Image in a number of ways. This paper investigates the changes concerning one of the most controversial aspects of the overall position, that is, van Fraassen’s agnosticism concerning the veridicality of microscopic observation. The paper tries to make plausible that the new formulation of this agnosticism is an advance over the older rendering. The central part of this investigation is an attempt (...)
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  36. Epistemic Relativism and Pluralism.Martin Kusch - 2017 - In Annalisa Coliva & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (eds.), Epistemic Pluralism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 203-227.
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  37. Fodor V. Kripke: Semantic Dispositionalism, Idealization, and Ceteris Paribus Clauses.Martin Kusch - 2005 - Analysis 65 (2):156-63.
  38.  81
    Testimony: A Primer.Martin Kusch & Peter Lipton - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2):209-217.
  39.  91
    Annalisa Coliva on Wittgenstein and Epistemic Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (1):37-49.
  40. Introduction: A Primer on Relativism.Martin Kusch - forthcoming - In The Routledge Handbook on Relativism. London: Routledge.
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  41. Rule-Scepticism and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: The Bloor-Lynch Debate Revisited.Martin Kusch - 2004 - Social Studies of Science 34:571-591.
  42. Kripke's Wittgenstein, on Certainty, and Epistemic Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2010 - In Daniel Whiting (ed.), The Later Wittgenstein on Language. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  43.  30
    Epistemic Replacement Relativism Defended.Martin Kusch - 2009 - In M. Suàrez, Mauro Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 165--175.
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  44. Georg Simmel and Pragmatism.Martin Kusch - 2019 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 11 (1).
  45.  64
    A Branch of Human Natural History.Martin Kusch - 2015 - In Oliver Schlaudt and Lara Huber (ed.), Standardization in Measurement. London: Pickering & Chatto. pp. 11-24.
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  46.  81
    When Paul Met Ludwig: Wittgensteinian Comments on Boghossian’s Antirelativism.Martin Kusch - 2017 - In Katharina Neges, Josef Mitterer, Sebastian Kletzl & Christian Kanzian (eds.), Realism - Relativism - Constructivism: Proceedings of the 38th International Wittgenstein Symposium in Kirchberg. De Gruyter. pp. 203-214.
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  47.  83
    Testimony in Communitarian Epistemology.Martin Kusch - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2):335-354.
    This paper suggests a new way of analysing testimony. The starting point of the analysis is ‘epistemological communitarianism’. This is the view that communities, rather than individuals, are the primary bearers of knowledge. The new perspective is developed through a discussion of four issues: the scope of testimony; the role of inferences in the reception and evaluation of testimony; the possibility of a global justification of testimony; and the question of whether testimony is a generative source of knowledge or a (...)
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  48.  76
    Reflexivity, Relativism, Microhistory: Three Desiderata for Historical Epistemologies. [REVIEW]Martin Kusch - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (3):483-494.
    This paper tries to motivate three desiderata for historical epistemologies: (a) that they should be reflective about the pedigree of their conceptual apparatus; (b) that they must face up to the potentially relativistic consequences of their historicism; and (c) that they must not forget the hard-won lessons of microhistory (i.e. historical events must be explained causally; historical events must not be artificially divided into internal/intellectual and external/social “factors” or “levels”; and constructed series of homogenous events must not be treated as (...)
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  49.  84
    Psychologism, History Of.Martin Kusch - 2015 - In J. D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition). Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 391-393.
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  50.  14
    Disagreement and Picture in Wittgenstein’s ‘Lectures on Religious Belief’.Martin Kusch - 2011 - In Publications of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society - N.S. 17. De Gruyter. pp. 35-58.
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