Results for 'Martin Peterson Rosemary Lowry'

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  1.  6
    Pure Time Preference.Martin Peterson Rosemary Lowry - 2011 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (4):490-508.
    Pure time preference is a preference for something to come at one point in time rather than another merely because of when it occurs in time. In opposition to Sidgwick, Ramsey, Rawls, and Parfit we argue that it is not always irrational to be guided by pure time preferences. We argue that even if the mere difference of location in time is not a rational ground for a preference, time may nevertheless be a normatively neutral ground for a preference, and (...)
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  2.  62
    Pure Time Preference.Rosemary Lowry & Martin Peterson - 2011 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (4):490-508.
    Pure time preference is a preference for something to come at one point in time rather than another merely because of when it occurs in time. In opposition to Sidgwick, Ramsey, Rawls, and Parfit we argue that it is not always irrational to be guided by pure time preferences. We argue that even if the mere difference of location in time is not a rational ground for a preference, time may nevertheless be a normatively neutral ground for a preference, and (...)
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  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Non-Utilitarian Ethics.Rosemary Lowry & Martin Peterson - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (3):1470594-11416767.
    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly understood to be intimately connected with utilitarianism and incompatible with other moral theories, particularly those that focus on deontological concepts such as rights. We reject this claim and argue that cost-benefit analysis can take moral rights as well as other non-utilitarian moral considerations into account in a systematic manner. We discuss three ways of doing this, and claim that two of them (output filters and input filters) can account for a wide range of rights-based moral theories, (...)
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  4.  53
    Pure Time Preference: Reply to Johansson and Rosenqvist.Rosemary Lowry & Martin Peterson - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (1):442-445.
    Johansson and Rosenqvist reject our argument for the rational permissibility of pure time preferences. Johansson and Rosenqvist's main objection is that where two options, X and Y, have equal intrinsic value, there will be a reason to be indifferent between X and Y, and therefore a reason to not hold a PTP for X or Y. In this reply, we argue that if two options have equal intrinsic value, it does not follow that you have a reason to be indifferent. (...)
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  5.  1
    Pure Time Preference: Reply to Johansson and Rosenqvist.Rosemary Lowry & Martin Peterson - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (3):442-445.
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  6.  49
    ‘Pure Time Preference’: Reply to Lowry and Peterson.Jens Johansson & Simon Rosenqvist - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (3):435-441.
    A pure time preference is a preference for something to occur at one point in time rather than another, merely because of when it occurs in time. Such preferences are widely regarded as paradigm examples of irrational preferences. However, Rosemary Lowry and Martin Peterson have recently argued that, for instance, a pure time preference to go to the opera tonight rather than next month may be rationally permissible, even if the amounts of intrinsic value realized in (...)
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  7.  21
    Martin Peterson: The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles: Oxford University Press, 2017, 252 Pp, USD 74.00 , ISBN: 9780190652265.Gert-Jan Lokhorst - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1641-1643.
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  8.  94
    Martin Peterson, "The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles." Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Brendan Shea - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (2):94-96.
    Martin Peterson’s The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles offers a welcome contribution to the ethics of technology, understood by Peterson as a branch of applied ethics that attempts ‘to identify the morally right courses of action when we develop, use, or modify technological artifacts’ (3). He argues that problems within this field are best treated by the use of five domain-specific principles: the Cost-Benefit Principle, the Precautionary Principle, the Sustainability Principle, the Autonomy (...)
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  9. Transformative Decision Rules.Peterson Martin - 2003 - Erkenntnis 58 (1):71-85.
    A transformative decision rule transforms a given decision probleminto another by altering the structure of the initial problem,either by changing the framing or by modifying the probability orvalue assignments. Examples of decision rules belonging to thisclass are the principle of insufficient reason, Isaac Levi'scondition of E-admissibility, the de minimis rule, andthe precautionary principle. In this paper some foundationalissues concerning transformative decision rules are investigated,and a couple of formal properties of this class of rules areproved.
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  10.  35
    Martin Peterson, The Dimensions of Consequentialism: Ethics, Equality and Risk , Pp. Vii + 217. [REVIEW]Joanna M. Burch-Brown - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (2):223-226.
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  11.  23
    Martin Peterson, An Introduction to Decision Theory. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.Lorenz Demey - 2011 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 73 (3):591-594.
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  12.  5
    Martin Peterson. An Introduction to Decision Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009, X + 317 Pp. [REVIEW]Steven Robertson - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (3):413-415.
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  13.  5
    What Does Food Retail Research Tell Us About the Implications of Coronavirus (COVID-19) for Grocery Purchasing Habits?Rosemarie Martin-Neuninger & Matthew B. Ruby - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  14.  10
    Review: Martin Peterson, The Dimensions of Consequentialism: Ethics, Equality and Risk. [REVIEW]Review by: Brian G. Henning - 2015 - Ethics 125 (3):900-905,.
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  15.  26
    Review of Martin Peterson, An Introduction to Decision Theory[REVIEW]Ben Eggleston - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010.
    A review of Martin Peterson, _An Introduction to Decision Theory_ (Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. x + 317.
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  16.  24
    Degrees and Dimensions of Rightness: Reflections on Martin Peterson’s Dimensions of Consequentialism.Frances Howard-Snyder - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (1):31-38.
    Martin Peterson argues for two interesting and appealing claims: multi-dimensionalism and degrees of rightness. Multi-dimensionalism is the view that more than one factor determines whether an act is right. According to Peterson’s multi-dimensionalism, these factors are not simply ways of achieving some greater aggregate good. Degrees of rightness is the view that some actions are more wrong or less right than others without being entirely wrong. It is of course, compatible with this, that some actions are right (...)
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  17.  6
    The Dimensions of Consequentialism Martin Peterson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013; 228 Pp.; $90.00. [REVIEW]Eric Mathison - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):588-589.
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  18. Review of Martin Peterson's The Dimensions of Consequentialism. [REVIEW]Douglas W. Portmore - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
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  19.  17
    Book Review: The Prisoner’s Dilemma, Martin Peterson . Cambridge University Press, 2015, Viii + 298 Pages. [REVIEW]Philippe van Basshuysen - 2017 - Economics and Philosophy 33 (1):153-160.
  20.  47
    Sabine Roeser, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Per Sandin, Martin Peterson (Eds): Handbook of Risk Theory: Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk. [REVIEW]Neelke Doorn - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1409-1411.
  21.  18
    Sabine Roeser, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Per Sandin, Martin Peterson (Eds): Handbook of Risk Theory: Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk: Springer, 2012, XIX, 1187 Pp, 85 Illus., 40 in Color; 2 Volumes. [REVIEW]Neelke Doorn - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1409-1411.
  22.  79
    The Dimensions of Consequentialism: Ethics, Equality and Risk.Martin Peterson - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Consequentialism, one of the major theories of normative ethics, maintains that the moral rightness of an act is determined solely by the act's consequences and its alternatives. The traditional form of consequentialism is one-dimensional, in that the rightness of an act is a function of a single moral aspect, such as the sum total of wellbeing it produces. In this book Martin Peterson introduces a new type of consequentialist theory: multidimensional consequentialism. According to this theory, an act's moral (...)
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  23.  1
    Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification.Christopher Peterson & Martin E. P. Seligman - 2004 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This groundbreaking handbook of character strengths and virtues is the first progress report from a prestigious group of researchers who have undertaken the systematic classification and measurement of widely valued positive traits. Character Strengths and Virtues classifies twenty-four specific strengths under six broad virtues that consistently emerge across history and culture. This book demands the attention of anyone interested in psychology and what it can teach about the good life.
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  24. A Royal Road to Consequentialism?Martin Peterson - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2):153-169.
    To consequentialise a moral theory means to account for moral phenomena usually described in nonconsequentialist terms, such as rights, duties, and virtues, in a consequentialist framework. This paper seeks to show that all moral theories can be consequentialised. The paper distinguishes between different interpretations of the consequentialiser’s thesis, and emphasises the need for a cardinal ranking of acts. The paper also offers a new answer as to why consequentialising moral theories is important: This yields crucial methodological insights about how to (...)
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  25.  98
    Reasons for Action and Psychological Capacities.Rosemary Lowry - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (4):521 - 531.
    Most moral philosophers agree that if a moral agent is incapable of performing some act ϕ because of a physical incapacity, then they do not have a reason to ϕ. Most also claim that if an agent is incapable of ϕ-ing due to a psychological incapacity, brought about by, for example, an obsession or phobia, then this does not preclude them from having a reason to ϕ. This is because the 'ought implies can' principle is usually interpreted as a claim (...)
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  26.  4
    The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles.Martin Peterson - 2017 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    In this analytically oriented work, Peterson articulates and defends five moral principles for addressing ethical issues related to new and existing technologies: the cost-benefit principle, the precautionary principle, the sustainability principle, the autonomy principle, and the fairness principle.
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  27. The Modal Account of Luck Revisited.J. Adam Carter & Martin Peterson - unknown
    According to the canonical formulation of the modal account of luck [e.g. Pritchard ], an event is lucky just when that event occurs in the actual world but not in a wide class of the nearest possible worlds where the relevant conditions for that event are the same as in the actual world. This paper argues, with reference to a novel variety of counterexample, that it is a mistake to focus, when assessing a given event for luckiness, on events distributed (...)
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  28.  61
    The Moral Importance of Selecting People Randomly.Martin Peterson - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (6):321–327.
    This article discusses some ethical principles for distributing pandemic influenza vaccine and other indivisible goods. I argue that a number of principles for distributing pandemic influenza vaccine recently adopted by several national governments are morally unacceptable because they put too much emphasis on utilitarian considerations, such as the ability of the individual to contribute to society. Instead, it would be better to distribute vaccine by setting up a lottery. The argument for this view is based on a purely consequentialist account (...)
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  29. An Introduction to Decision Theory.Martin Peterson - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This up-to-date introduction to decision theory offers comprehensive and accessible discussions of decision-making under ignorance and risk, the foundations of utility theory, the debate over subjective and objective probability, Bayesianism, causal decision theory, game theory, and social choice theory. No mathematical skills are assumed, and all concepts and results are explained in non-technical and intuitive as well as more formal ways. There are over 100 exercises with solutions, and a glossary of key terms and concepts. An emphasis on foundational aspects (...)
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  30.  57
    The Value Alignment Problem: A Geometric Approach.Martin Peterson - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (1):19-28.
    Stuart Russell defines the value alignment problem as follows: How can we build autonomous systems with values that “are aligned with those of the human race”? In this article I outline some distinctions that are useful for understanding the value alignment problem and then propose a solution: I argue that the methods currently applied by computer scientists for embedding moral values in autonomous systems can be improved by representing moral principles as conceptual spaces, i.e. as Voronoi tessellations of morally similar (...)
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  31.  92
    The Reliability of Armchair Intuitions.Krist Vaesen, Martin Peterson & Bart Van Bezooijen - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (5):559-578.
    Armchair philosophers have questioned the significance of recent work in experimental philosophy by pointing out that experiments have been conducted on laypeople and undergraduate students. To challenge a practice that relies on expert intuitions, so the armchair objection goes, one needs to demonstrate that expert intuitions rather than those of ordinary people are sensitive to contingent facts such as cultural, linguistic, socio-economic, or educational background. This article does exactly that. Based on two empirical studies on populations of 573 and 203 (...)
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  32.  15
    The Social Construction of Chronicity – a Key to Understanding Chronic Care Transformations.Carmel M. Martin & Chris Peterson - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):578-585.
  33.  20
    Social Interactions and The Prisoner's Dilemma: Martin Peterson : The Prisoner’s Dilemma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, 306pp, $110.Cédric Paternotte - 2016 - Metascience 25 (2):335-338.
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  34. An Introduction to Decision Theory.Martin Peterson - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (3):413-415.
     
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  35.  51
    Insider Trading Revisited.Deryl W. Martin & Jeffrey H. Peterson - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1):57 - 61.
    A recent article in this Journal argued that insider trading is an unethical practice leading to an inefficiently functioning market. The debate on this topic has primarily pitted ethical defenses of prohibition against economic arguments extolling its allowance. In addition to being incomplete, this approach ignores other unwanted economic effects of prohibition itself and unethical implications of its existence. This article shows that Adam Smith's free market concept, when properly interpreted, provides all the incentive structure necessary for an efficient and (...)
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  36.  33
    Is the Precautionary Principle a Midlevel Principle?Per Sandin & Martin Peterson - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (1):34-48.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, we defend two claims about the precautionary principle. The first is that there is no ‘core’ precautionary principle that unifies all its different versions. It is more plausible to think of the different versions as being related to each other by way of family resemblances. So although precautionary principle x may have much in common with precautionary principle y, and y with z, there is no set of necessary and sufficient conditions that unify all versions of the (...)
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  37. Why Virtual Friendship is No Genuine Friendship.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):201-207.
    Based on a modern reading of Aristotle’s theory of friendship, we argue that virtual friendship does not qualify as genuine friendship. By ‘virtual friendship’ we mean the type of friendship that exists on the internet, and seldom or never is combined with real life interaction. A ‘traditional friendship’ is, in contrast, the type of friendship that involves substantial real life interaction, and we claim that only this type can merit the label ‘genuine friendship’ and thus qualify as morally valuable. The (...)
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  38.  36
    Multi-Dimensional Consequentialism.Martin Peterson - 2012 - Ratio 25 (2):177-194.
    This article introduces and explores a distinction between multi-dimensional and one-dimensional consequentialist moral theories. One-dimensional consequentialists believe that an act's deontic status depends on just one aspect of the act, such as the sum total of wellbeing it produces, or the sum total of priority- or equality-adjusted wellbeing. Multi-dimensional consequentialists believe that an act's deontic status depends on more than one aspect. They may, for instance, believe that the sum total of wellbeing produced by an act and the degree to (...)
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  39.  22
    A Generalization of the Pasadena Puzzle.Martin Peterson - 2013 - Dialectica 67 (4):597-603.
    By generalizing the Pasadena puzzle introduced by Nover and Hájek (2004) we show that the sum total of value produced by an act can be made to converge to any real number by applying the Riemann rearrangement theorem, even if the scenario faced by the decision maker is non-probabilistic and fully predictable. A wide range of solutions put forward in the literature for solving the original puzzle cannot solve this generalized version of the Pasadena puzzle.
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  40.  11
    The Primary Parental Investment in Children in the Contemporary USA is Education.Rosemary L. Hopcroft & David O. Martin - 2014 - Human Nature 25 (2):235-250.
  41.  86
    The Role of Non-Epistemic Values in Engineering Models.Sven Diekmann & Martin Peterson - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):207-218.
    We argue that non-epistemic values, including moral ones, play an important role in the construction and choice of models in science and engineering. Our main claim is that non-epistemic values are not only “secondary values” that become important just in case epistemic values leave some issues open. Our point is, on the contrary, that non-epistemic values are as important as epistemic ones when engineers seek to develop the best model of a process or problem. The upshot is that models are (...)
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  42.  10
    The Sense of Self Over Time: Assessing Diachronicity in Dissociative Identity Disorder, Psychosis and Healthy Comparison Groups.Martin J. Dorahy, Rafaële J. C. Huntjens, Rosemary J. Marsh, Brooke Johnson, Kate Fox & Warwick Middleton - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Dissociative experiences have been associated with diachronic disunity. Yet, this work is in its infancy. Dissociative identity disorder is characterized by different identity states reporting their own relatively continuous sense of self. The degree to which patients in dissociative identity states experience diachronic unity has not been empirically explored. This study examined the degree to which patients in dissociative identity states experienced diachronic unity. Participants were DID adults assessed in adult and child identity states, adults with a psychotic illness, adults (...)
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  43. On the Epistemology of the Precautionary Principle.J. Adam Carter & Martin Peterson - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (1):1-13.
    In this paper we present two distinctly epistemological puzzles that arise for one who aspires to defend some plausible version of the precautionary principle. The first puzzle involves an application of contextualism in epistemology; and the second puzzle concerns the task of defending a plausible version of the precautionary principle that would not be invalidated by de minimis.
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  44.  74
    Is There an Ethics of Algorithms?Martin Peterson - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):251-260.
    We argue that some algorithms are value-laden, and that two or more persons who accept different value-judgments may have a rational reason to design such algorithms differently. We exemplify our claim by discussing a set of algorithms used in medical image analysis: In these algorithms it is often necessary to set certain thresholds for whether e.g. a cell should count as diseased or not, and the chosen threshold will partly depend on the software designer’s preference between avoiding false positives and (...)
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  45.  45
    An Argument for the Principle of Maximizing Expected Utility.Martin Peterson - 2002 - Theoria 68 (2):112-128.
  46.  53
    Pandemic Influenza and Utilitarianism.Martin Peterson - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (5):290-291.
  47. .Martin Peterson - unknown
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  48.  73
    Can Technological Artefacts Be Moral Agents?Martin Peterson - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):411-424.
    In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that, ‘moral agency is distributed over both humans and technological artefacts’, recently proposed by Peter-Paul Verbeek. We present some arguments for thinking that Verbeek is mistaken. We argue that artefacts such as bridges, word processors, or bombs can never be (part of) moral agents. After having discussed some possible responses, as well as a moderate view proposed by Illies and Meijers, we conclude that technological artefacts are neutral tools that are at most bearers (...)
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  49.  15
    Friendly AI.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):207-214.
    In this paper we discuss what we believe to be one of the most important features of near-future AIs, namely their capacity to behave in a friendly manner to humans. Our analysis of what it means for an AI to behave in a friendly manner does not presuppose that proper friendships between humans and AI systems could exist. That would require reciprocity, which is beyond the reach of near-future AI systems. Rather, we defend the claim that social AIs should be (...)
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  50. On the Epistemology of the Precautionary Principle: Reply to Steglich-Petersen.J. Adam Carter & Martin Peterson - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (2):297-304.
    In a recent paper in this journal, we proposed two novel puzzles associated with the precautionary principle. Both are puzzles that materialise, we argue, once we investigate the principle through an epistemological lens, and each constitutes a philosophical hurdle for any proponent of a plausible version of the precautionary principle. Steglich-Petersen claims, also in this journal, that he has resolved our puzzles. In this short note, we explain why we remain skeptical.
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