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Martin Sand
Delft University of Technology
  1.  18
    The Virtues and Vices of Innovators.Martin Sand - 2018 - Philosophy of Management 17 (1):79-95.
    Innovation processes are extremely complex and opaque, which makes it tough or even impossible to govern them. Innovators lack control of large parts of these developments and lack of foreknowledge about the possible consequences of emerging technologies. Because of these features some scholars have argued that innovation processes should be structurally reformed and the agent-centered model of responsibility for innovation should be dismissed altogether. In the present article it will be argued that such a structural idea of responsible research and (...)
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  2.  18
    Varieties of Responsibility: Two Problems of Responsible Innovation.Ibo van de Poel & Martin Sand - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    The notion of responsible innovation suggests that innovators carry additional responsibilities beyond those commonly suggested. In this paper, we will discuss the meaning of these novel responsibilities focusing on two philosophical problems of attributing such responsibilities to innovators. The first is the allocation of responsibilities to innovators. Innovation is a process that involves a multiplicity of agents and unpredictable, far-reaching causal chains from innovation to social impacts, which creates great uncertainty. A second problem is constituted by possible trade-offs between different (...)
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  3.  9
    Responsibility and Visioneering—Opening Pandora’s Box.Martin Sand - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (1):75-86.
    The number of publications that highlight the influence of visions and futuristic narratives on the development of emerging technologies increases. Toolboxes such as “Hermeneutical Technology Assessment” and “Vision Assessment” provide methodological considerations on how to assess techno-futuristic narratives, their proponents, and their impact on technological development. Because of their contributions to the technoscientific discourse, a special responsibility for technological processes is attributed to the “visioneers” of such narratives. While such a claim naturally follows from an agential role in a process, (...)
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  4.  2
    Futures, Visions, and Responsibility: An Ethics of Innovation.Martin Sand - 2018 - Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
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  5.  11
    The Usual Suspects: Why Techno-Fixing Dementia is Flawed.Karin Rolanda Jongsma & Martin Sand - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (1):119-130.
    Dementia is highly prevalent and up until now, still incurable. If we may believe the narrative that is currently dominant in dementia research, in the future we will not have to suffer from dementia anymore, as there will be a simple techno-fix solution. It is just a matter of time before we can solve the growing public health problem of dementia. In this paper we take a critical stance towards overly positive narratives of techno-fixes by placing our empirical analysis of (...)
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  6.  4
    Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  7.  4
    Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  8.  1
    Did Alexander Fleming Deserve the Nobel Prize?Martin Sand - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):899-919.
    Penicillin is a serendipitous discovery par excellence. But, what does this say about Alexander Fleming’s praiseworthiness? Clearly, Fleming would not have received the Nobel Prize, had not a mould accidently entered his laboratory. This seems paradoxical, since it was beyond his control. The present article will first discuss Fleming’s discovery of Penicillin as an example of moral luck in science and technology and critically assess some common responses to this problem. Second, the Control Principle that says that people are not (...)
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  9.  37
    Prometheus' Legacy: Responsibility and Technology.Michael Klenk & Martin Sand - 2020 - In Birgit Recki (ed.), Welche Technik? Dresden: Text & Dialog. pp. 23-40.
    A prominent view in contemporary philosophy of technology suggests that more technology implies more possibilities and, therefore, more responsibilities. Consequently, the question ‘What technology?’ is discussed primarily on the backdrop of assessing, assigning, and avoiding technology-borne culpability. The view is reminiscent of the Olympian gods’ vengeful and harsh reaction to Prometheus’ play with fire. However, the Olympian view leaves unexplained how technologies increase possibilities. Also, if Olympians are right, endorsing their view will at some point demand putting a halt to (...)
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  10.  5
    Technology Assessment of Socio-Technical Futures—A Discussion Paper.Andreas Lösch, Knud Böhle, Christopher Coenen, Paulina Dobroc, Reinhard Heil, Armin Grunwald, Dirk Scheer, Christoph Schneider, Arianna Ferrari, Dirk Hommrich, Martin Sand, Stefan C. Aykut, Sascha Dickel, Daniela Fuchs, Karen Kastenhofer, Helge Torgersen, Bruno Gransche, Alexandra Hausstein, Kornelia Konrad, Alfred Nordmann, Petra Schaper-Rinkel, Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer & Alexander Wentland - 2019 - In Andreas Lösch, Armin Grunwald, Martin Meister & Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer (eds.), Socio-Technical Futures Shaping the Present: Empirical Examples and Analytical Challenges. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 285-308.
    Problem: Visions of technology, future scenarios, guiding visions represent imaginations of future states of affairs that play a functional role in processes of technological research, development and innovation—e.g. as a means to create attention, communication, coordination, or for the strategic exertion of influence. Since a couple of years there is a growing attention for such imaginations of futures in politics, the economy, research and the civil society. This trend concerns technology assessment as an observer of these processes and a consultant (...)
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  11.  9
    A Defence of the Control Principle.Martin Sand - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-11.
    The nexus of the moral luck debate is the control principle, which says that people are responsible only for things within their control. In this paper, I will first argue that the control principle should be restrained to blameworthiness, because responsibility is too wide a concept to square with control. Many deniers of moral luck appeal to the intuitiveness of the control principle. Defenders of moral luck do not share this intuition and demand a stronger defence of the control principle. (...)
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  12.  2
    At the End or Just at the Beginning?: Review of “Planning Later Life-Bioethics and Public Health in Ageing Societies”: Edited by Mark Schweda, Larissa Pfaller, Kai Brauer, Frank Adloff, and Silke Schicktanz. [REVIEW]Martin Sand - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 36 (1-4):96-99.
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  13.  13
    How the Future Has a Grip on Us.Martin Sand - 2018 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
    Being faced with bold statements about the technological future, the wickedness of technological systems and our frequent cluelessness when aiming at predicting the course of such systems, scholars from philosophy of technology and Technology Assessment have given up believing that any method can enhance our knowledge about the future. Hence, hermeneutic TA, forensics of wishing and other approaches shift their focus on the present of such futures. While these approaches are meaningful in their own right, they basically rest on a (...)
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  14.  14
    Sven Nyholm: Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency, and Anthropomorphism. [REVIEW]Martin Sand - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):487-489.
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  15. Scientists’ Views on (Moral) Luck.Martin Sand & Karin Jongsma - forthcoming - Journal of Responsible Innovation:1-22.
    Scientific discoveries are often to some degree influenced by luck. Whether luck’s influence is at odds with common-sense intuitions about responsibility, is the central concern of the philosophical debate about moral luck. Do scientists acknowledge that luck plays a role in their work and – if so – do they consider it morally problematic? The present article discusses the results of four focus groups with scientists, who were asked about their views on luck in their fields and its moral implications. (...)
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  16.  7
    Visioneering Socio-Technical Innovations — a Missing Piece of the Puzzle.Martin Sand & Christoph Schneider - 2017 - NanoEthics 11 (1):19-29.
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  17.  10
    Why Neural Determinism is Not Real Determinism and Why Mental States Cannot Act.Martin Sand & Karin Jongsma - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (4):205-207.
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