Recent studies from Western countries indicate significant levels of questionable research practices, but similar data from low and middle-income countries are limited. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of and attitudes regarding research misconduct among researchers in several universities in the Middle East and to identify factors that might account for our findings. We distributed an anonymous questionnaire to a convenience sample of investigators at several universities in Egypt, Lebanon, and Bahrain. Participants were asked to a) self-report their extent (...) of research misconducts, as well as their knowledge of colleagues engaging in similar research misconducts and b) provide their extent of agreement with certain attitudes about research misconduct. We used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression statistics to analyze the data. Data from 278 participants showed a high prevalence of misconduct, as 59.4% of our respondents self-reported to committing at least one misbehaviors and 74.5% reported having knowledge of any misbehaviors among any of their colleagues. The most common type of self-report misconduct was “circumventing research ethics regulations” followed by “fabrication and falsification”. A significant predictor of misconduct included a lack of “prior ethics training”. Scientific misconduct represents a significant issue in several universities in the Middle East. The demonstration that a lack of “prior ethics training” was a significant predictor of misconduct should lead to educational initiatives in research integrity. Further studies are needed to confirm whether our results can be generalized to other universities in the Middle East. (shrink)
Background Protecting the privacy of research participants is widely recognized as one of the standard ethical requirements for clinical research. It is unknown, however, how research professionals regard concepts of privacy as well as the situations in the research setting that require privacy protections. The aim of this study was to explore the views of research professionals from Arab countries regarding concepts and scope of privacy that occur in clinical research. Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative approach by the use (...) of focus group discussions. We recruited individuals involved in research from Egypt and Morocco. We analyzed focus group data via a constant comparison approach, which consisted of close reading of the transcribed interviews followed by coding and then determining themes and subthemes. Results Between August 2016 and July 2018, we conducted nine focus group discussions. Respondents discussed several privacy issues that occurred before the research began ; during research, and after the research. Respondents revealed their perspectives of patients towards privacy in the clinical and research settings and mentioned that patients are more likely to permit access to their privacy in the clinical setting compared with research setting due to the existence of benefits and trust in clinical care. Respondents also recommended training regarding data protections for individuals involved in research. Conclusions Our study shows that research professionals discussed a range of privacy issues that are present during the different stages of research. We recommend 1) development of standards regarding privacy protections during recruitment efforts; 2) additional training for individuals involved in research regarding best practices with data security in secondary research; 3) a quantitative study involving investigators and REC members to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding privacy issues that occur in research; and 4) a quantitative study involving patients to elicit their views regarding their privacy concerns in research. (shrink)
Our aim here is to show that an enigmatic text of Avicenna's Glosses, devoted to the problem of evil, takes on its full meaning in the light of the last chapter of the Šifā ' on De generatione et corruptione. We will see how Avicenna, deepening and developing a cosmological argument already present in the commentary of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the De generatione, ends up building most of his theodicy on the relative incommensurability of the different celestial periods. All (...) the problem of divine Justice is thus reinterpreted in terms of opposition between discrete and continuous. Finally we will show the importance that this development of Avicenna had in Western Christendom in the 14th century, and the complex relationship which Leibniz has with it in his recently edited reflections on the Great Year. (shrink)
Recruiting patients into clinical research is essential for the advancement of medical knowledge. However, when the physician undertaking the care of the patient is also responsible for recruitment into clinical research, a situation arises of an inter-role breach of confidentiality which is distinguishable from other conflicts of interest. Such discord arises as the physician utilizes confidential information obtained within the therapeutic relationship beyond its primary objective, and safeguards ought to be observed in order to avert this important, and generally overlooked, (...) problem. The moral worth of the pledge of confidentiality is based not on its innate value but on its being a promise on which subsequent interactions and disclosures are founded. Within the patient-doctor interaction, confidentiality is an important facet of the promised fidelity and, as such, a loose interpretation of the notion threatens the essence of the relationship, and any violation thereof requires compelling moral justification. To avoid conflict, patients' confidential information ought not be used for the purpose of recruitment, which needs to be undertaken through general education and non-directed appeals, and a preliminary consent to be approached for research should be obtained from the patient prior to her being identified as a suitable research subject. Securing this prior consent would avoid one source of potential, albeit unintended, coercion. (shrink)
In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is (...) today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies. (shrink)
Source: Author: Marwan Kadhim Mohammed, Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya Martin Amis's manipulation of the patriarchal concept of power is a notable indication of his transgressive attitudes that raise remarkable questions about the human identity. Transgressing power investigates the violation of the normal and familiar trends of literature in order to circulate a new discourse by which a new identity is reframed. Hence, the study of power in Martin Amis's novels, as an important technique of identity re-definition, is not taken (...) into consideration in the light of Foucault's theory of power. The objective of this study is to examine the role applied by transgression as a technique of subverting the common discourse of power in the field of identity re-formation. The study investigates the concept of power manipulated in Amis's Money to define the identity of the 'New Man'. Accordingly, the Foucauldian theory of power is taken as a framework of this study. The study reveals a conclusion in which the transgressive aspects of power are effectively utilized by Amis to re-define the identity of his protagonist in the novel. Although John Self-has finally lost his name and fortune, which are necessary demands to define one's self-in the patriarchal society, he finds his own new identity away from the materialistic norms of the common discourse. ]]>. (shrink)
The present study aims at explaining how the Relevance Theory could be a viable approach to weigh up the main functions of some concessive Pragmatic Operators in Jordanian Arabic at the production and interpretation levels. A sample of twenty-two speeches delivered by members of the Jordanian Parliament the 16th was randomly selected for scrutiny. Three POs detected in their speeches were analyzed at the token level in light of three elementary RT assumptions about discourse connectives in general, namely connectivity, the (...) conceptual-procedural distinction, and monosemy. The major finding of this study was that concessive POs, as a subset of contrastives, are used to optimize relevance: highlight certain dimensions and/or suppress others of the scenario to the background. However, the point of departure from possibly all previous treatments is that the speakers, as politicians, still used them more strategically because total ambiguity resolution should not be a viable alternative in social settings laden with politics. (shrink)
RésuméCet article vise à restituer la doctrine du « signe du manifeste au caché » d'Abū Hāšim al-Ğubbāʾī. Il montre qu'Abū Hāšim a tendu à interpréter ce signe comme une inférence, dont il a reconnu deux types principaux : le type-1 procède par déduction analytique de concepts en neutralisant les conditions de réalisation de ces derniers, c'est-à-dire leur soubassement ontologique. C'est, typiquement, la procédure la plus directement consonante avec l'ontologie modale d'Abū Hāšim. Le type-2 exhibe un même rapport de causalité (...) au plan du connu et au plan de l'inconnu et considère que la causalité au plan du connu est elle-même la cause de la causalité au plan de l'inconnu. Cette partition parfaitement inédite dans la philosophie et le kalām est en revanche préfigurée dans la doctrine de la preuve exposée par al-Ḫwārizmī dans son Algèbre. Al-Ḫwārizmī distingue en effet entre la preuve « par la cause », qui consiste à transférer une certaine déduction géométrique au plan de l'algèbre et la preuve « par l'expression » qui opère directement sur les expressions algébriques, qu'elle réduit analytiquement. En se fondant sur un texte d'Abū Hāšim consacré à la connaissance humaine qui paraît se référer à l’œuvre d'al-Ḫwārizmī, l'article suggère pour finir que le parallèle conceptuel étroit entre la doctrine de la preuve d'al-Ḫwārizmī et la doctrine du signe d'Abū Hāšim pourrait ne pas être une simple coïncidence. Deux appendices ont été ajoutés. Le premier traite de la lecture par al-Fārābī de la théorie de l'inférence d'Abū Hāšim. Le second, en s'appuyant sur toutes les données disponibles, établit pour la première fois les dates correctes et précises de la vie d'Abū Hāšim.This article aims to unravel the doctrine of the “sign from the manifest to the hidden” of Abū Hāšim al-Ğubbāʾī. It shows that Abū Hāšim tended to interpret this sign as an inference, of which he recognized two main types: Type-1 proceeds by analytical deduction of concepts by neutralizing the conditions of their realization, i. e. their ontological basis. This is, typically, the procedure most directly consonant with Abū Hāšim's modal ontology. Type-2 exhibits the same causal relationship at the known and unknown levels and considers causality at the known level to be itself the cause of causality at the unknown level. This partition was completely new in philosophy and kalām at the time of Abū Hāšim, but it is foreshadowed in al-Ḫwārizmī’s Algebra. In this book, al-Ḫwārizmī distinguishes between proof “by cause”, which consists in transferring a certain geometric deduction to algebra, and proof “by expression”, which operates directly on algebraic expressions, which it reduces analytically. A text by Abū Hāšim devoted to human knowledge that seems to refer to the work of al-Ḫwārizmī suggests, finally, that the close parallel between al-Ḫwārizmī’s doctrine of proof and Abū Hāšim's doctrine of the sign may not be a mere coincidence. Two appendices have been added. The first deals with al-Fārābī’s reading of Abū Hāšim's theory of inference. The second, based on all available data, establishes for the first time the correct and precise dates of Abū Hāšim's life. (shrink)
The present article aims to show that the treatise On the Harmonization of the Opinions of the Two Sages the Divine Plato and Aristotle cannot have been written by al-FbwillryAdAdrr in the field of cosmology, for theological reasons.
In this work, a novel hyperjerk system, with hyperbolic sine function as the only nonlinear term, is proposed, as a modification of a hyperjerk system proposed by Leutcho et al. First, a dynamical analysis on the system is performed and interesting phenomena concerning chaos theory, such as route to chaos, antimonotonicity, crisis, and coexisting attractors, are studied. For this reason, the system’s bifurcation diagrams with respect to different parameter values are plotted and its Lyapunov exponents are computed. Afterwards, the synchronization (...) of the system is considered, using active control. The proposed system is then applied, as a chaotic generator, to the problem of chaotic path planning, using a combination of sampling and a modulo tactic technique. (shrink)
Le présent article réunit deux études indépendantes. Elles étaient cependant si intimement liées par les divers aspects d’un sujet commun, par des investigations complémentaires et des conclusions qui se rejoignent et se recoupent, que leurs auteurs ont décidé de les fondre dans un article commun.
This article proposes a reconstitution of the philosophical tenor of al-Fb al-Mawdayyira). It is shown that this work is not only a response to book VI of John Philoponus' Contra Aristotelem, but that its real issues can only be grasped in the context of the author's metaphysical system. Although, for al-Fbī, genuine demonstrations proceed from the cause to the caused, thus following the order of being, it will be explained how he also admits a strictly physical proof of the simple (...) fact, independently of its cause, and that the physical demonstration of the eternity of the world pertains to this type of proof. This physical proof is specifically directed against the Kindian doctrine of creation. (shrink)
This article aims at reconstructing the most damaged part of the Strasbourg papyrus of Empedocles (fragment f-d), by taking into account all the parameters at our disposal: palaeography, metre and, of course, content. According to this attempt, Empedocles would be describing the very moment in the phase of increasing Strife when the whole-natured creatures (the ολοφυ) were split into male and female beings. Thus, the first part of the fragment becomes very similar, in its content, to fr. 62 D.-K. and (...) to Plato's parody of Empedocles in Aristophanes' myth in the Symposium , while its second part emerges as containing new details of the process by which double creatures were split into two. If this reconstruction is accepted, its implication will be that Aetius' presentation of Empedocles' cosmic cycle as a fourfold continuous process is deeply inadequate. (shrink)
In this article, we use the principlist approach to identify, analyse and attempt to solve the ethical problem raised by a pregnant woman's request for cesarean delivery in absence of medical indications.We use two different types of premises: factual (facts about cesarean delivery and specifically attitudes of obstetricians as derived from the EUROBS European study) and value premises (principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice).Beneficence/non-maleficence entails physicians' responsibility to minimise harms and maximise benefits. Avoiding its inherent risks (...) makes a prima facie case against cesarean section without medical indication. However, as vaginal delivery can have unintended consequences, there is a need to balance the somewhat dissimilar risks and benefits. The principle of autonomy poses a challenge in case of disagreement between the pregnant woman and the physician. Improved communication aimed to enable better informed choice may overcome some instances of disagreement. The principle of justice prohibits unfair discrimination, and broadly favours optimising resource utilisation.Available evidence supports vaginal birth in uncomplicated term pregnancies as the standard of care. The principlist approach offered a useful framework for ethical analysis of cesarean delivery on maternal request, identified the rights and duties of those involved, and helped reach a conclusion, although conflict at the individual level may remain challenging. (shrink)
The series Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca et Byzantina: Series academica is published by the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, and functions as a complement to the series Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca et Byzantina: Sources and Studies. The editions and source collections of the Series academica provide a basis for research on Byzantine philosophy and education and on the lasting impact of peripatetic philosophy in the Greek middle ages. The series succeeds to the Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca directed by Hermann Diels and (...) published by the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. The publication schedule of the series includes editions of commentaries by Alexander of Aphrodisias, Simplicius, John Philoponus, Michael of Ephesus, Nicephorus Blemmydes, George Pachymeres, Theodore Metochites, George Scholarius, and Bessarion. The series is also open for preliminary studies and companion volumes. https://www.degruyter.com/view/serial/CAGB-B. (shrink)
One of the most important threats to today’s civilization is terrorism. Terrorism not only disturbs the law and order situations in a society but also affects the quality of lives of humans and makes them suppressed physically and emotionally and deprives them of enjoying life. The more the civilizations have advanced, the more the people are working towards exploring different mechanisms to protect the mankind from terrorism. Different techniques have been used as counterterrorism to protect the lives of individuals in (...) society and to improve the quality of life in general. Machine learning methods have been recently explored to develop techniques for counterterrorism based on artificial intelligence. Since deep learning has recently gained more popularity in machine learning domain, in this paper, these techniques are explored to understand the behavior of terrorist activities. Five different models based on deep neural network are created to understand the behavior of terrorist activities such as is the attack going to be successful or not? Or whether the attack is going to be suicide or not? Or what type of weapon is going to be used in the attack? Or what type of attack is going to be carried out? Or what region is going to be attacked? The models are implemented in single-layer neural network, five-layer DNN, and three traditional machine learning algorithms, i.e., logistic regression, SVM, and Naïve Bayes. The performance of the DNN is compared with NN and the three machine learning algorithms, and it is demonstrated that the performance in DNN is more than 95% in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-Score, while ANN and traditional machine learning algorithms have achieved a maximum of 83% accuracy. This concludes that DNN is a suitable model to be used for predicting the behavior of terrorist activities. Our experiments also demonstrate that the dataset for terrorist activities is big data; therefore, a DNN is a suitable model to process big data and understand the underlying patterns in the dataset. (shrink)
In this paper, we highlight a number of difficulties concerning the relationship between theCritiasand theTimaeus, notably a contradiction betweenTimaeus27a-b andCritias108a-c. On this basis we argue that theCritiasmust be considered spurious.
This paper presents a new fragment of Philoponus' treatise De aeternitate mundi contra Aristotelem. The fragment, preserved only in an Arabic translation by al-Bīrūnī, derives in all probability from the third book of the treatise, and it deals with the moonstone or selenite. It is hypothesized that this mirabile, which is described by Damascius in his Life of Isidore, was deployed by Philoponus at the point of his polemic against Aristotle.
The editing of three anonymous Greek texts preserved in the Parisinus Suppl. gr. 643 allows us to clarify certain ideas on the transmission of knowledge in the Mediterranean during the second half of the 13th century. These texts are in fact translations from Latin probably made at Salerno at the end of the Norman period or at the beginning of the Angevin dynasty. They allow us to establish the influence of the Parisian Faculty of Arts on the Sicilian intellectual milieu (...) of the period and to illustrate how, whilst remaining true to its medical vocation, the University of Salerno evolved nonetheless towards a model of general education in the Arts. Finally these texts reveal the considerable influence of Arabic learning on the Aristotelian teaching of their author. This very fact, combined with the presence of the Parisinus in Byzantium, in an environment of advanced philological learning, a few decades after its composition, leads us to question our understanding of the Palaeologan Renaissance as well as its independence with regard to the Arabo-latin scholarly tradition of the 13th century. (shrink)