The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these topics in educational theory has largely not had the benefit of biological evidence to date. In this article, I lay out two general, complementary findings that have emerged from the past decade of (...) neuroscience research on emotion and social processing, with a view to beginning a dialogue about the meaning of these findings for educational theory. First, emotion and cognition are intertwined, and involve interplay between the body and mind. Second, social processing and learning happen by internalizing our subjective interpretations of other people's beliefs, goals, feelings and actions, and vicariously experiencing aspects of these as if they were our own. Together, these two results from neuroscience could have important implications for the design of learning environments; to discover these will require reconciling established educational learning theories with the current neurobiological evidence. (shrink)
Social emotions about others’ mind states, for example, compassion for psychological pain or admiration for virtue, are an important foundation for morality because they help us decide how to treat other people. Although these emotions are ostensibly concerned with the mental qualities and situations of others, they can precipitate intimately subjective reflections on the quality of one’s own social life and mind, and via these reflections incite a desire to engage in meaningful moral actions. Our interview and neural data suggest (...) that the shift from social emotion to introspection may be facilitated by conscious mental evaluation of emotion-related visceral sensations. (shrink)
Social emotions about others’ minds, for example, admiration for virtue and compassion for social pain, play a critical role in interpersonal relationships, motivation, and morality. However, historical biases toward studying emotions as automatic reactions generated within a solitary individual limit our ability to study emotions about others’ minds, which are inherently complex, social, and subjective. Here, I argue that a microdevelopmental approach, that is, considering these emotions as dynamic, context-dependent mental constructions actively organized from simpler cognitive and affective psychological components, (...) may help to overcome the difficulties of studying these emotions by providing new perspectives on: reliably inducing these emotions; parsing the ensuing experiences into component psychological processes organizing over time; and relating these component processes to patterns of brain activation. (shrink)
Presenting evidence from the social brain, we argue that neural reuse is a dynamic, socially organized process that is influenced ontogenetically and evolutionarily by the cultural transmission of mental techniques, values, and modes of thought. Anderson's theory should be broadened to accommodate cultural effects on the functioning of architecturally similar neural systems, and the implications of these differences for reuse.
In , P. Scowcroft and L. van den Dries proved a cell decomposition theorem for p-adically closed fields. We work here with the notion of P-minimal fields defined by D. Haskell and D. Macpherson in . We prove that a P-minimal field K admits cell decomposition if and only if K has definable selection. A preprint version in French of this result appeared as a prepublication .
Marie-Hélène Desmeules | : Contre l’idée d’un temps fixe enveloppant notre expérience, les travaux de Paul Ricoeur nous permettent de penser que non seulement notre expérience du temps n’est pas si fixe qu’elle n’y paraît, mais qu’elle est en outre transformée par des refigurations découlant de nos médiations objectives. Ces médiations objectives ne se limitent pas à la narration, mais couvrent également l’amnistie, la prescription, la promesse, le pardon et les objets de notre monde familier. Chacune à leur façon, les (...) médiations examinées opèrent une synthèse du passé, du présent et du futur, au point de bouleverser le temps chronologique et successif du courant de la conscience. Ultimement, nous prendrons les réflexions de Paul Ricoeur comme ressources pour penser les implications éthiques des transformations de notre expérience du temps. Car chaque expérience du temps n’ouvre et ne ferme pas les mêmes possibilités, comme le rapport entre le pardon et l’homme capable devrait le montrer. | : Against the idea of a fixed time in which our experience would take place, Paul Ricoeur’s works allow us to think that our experience of time is not so fixed as it seems, and furthermore, that it is transformed by some refigurations which follow from an objective mediation. These objective mediation is not restricted to narrative, but also covers amnesty, prescription, promise, forgiveness and familiar things. Each examined mediation performs in its own way a synthesis of past, present and futur, to the point of changing the chronological and successive time of consciousness’ stream. We will also consider Ricoeur’s thoughts as a possibility to think ethical implications of transformations in our time experience. Every experience of time does not open and close the same ethical possibilities, as the connection between forgiveness and capable man should show it. (shrink)
In his excellent paper, Nagarjuna as anti-realist, Siderits showed that it makes sense to perform a connection between the position of the Buddhist Nagarjuna and contemporary anti realist theses such as Dummett’s one. The point of this talk is to argue that this connection is an important one to perform for one’s correct understanding of what Nagarjuna is doing when he criticizes the contemporary Indian theories of knowledge and assertion, first section, but as soon as the theories of argumentation are (...) involved, this connection can be implemented in a better way from another anti realist perspective, namely the one of Dialogical logic, in which the signification is given in terms of rules in a language game. The philosophical issues are to hold an interpretation of the type of assertion performed by Nagarjuna. We here aim at making a rational reconstruction of his chief claim 'I do not assert any proposition' in which a proposition is considered as the set of its strategies of justification. As for the last section, the point will be to apply these analyses to Buddhist practice. We will in this section consider the conventional character of human activities as the fact that any speech act is performed within a dialogue under ad-hoc restrictions; and the question of one’s progress in the soteriological path to liberation will be asked. (shrink)
The monster and the woman thus find themselves on the same side, the side of dissimilarity. “The female is as it were a deformed male,” added Aristotle . As she belongs to the category of the different, the female can only contribute more figures of dissimilarities, if not creatures even more monstrous. But the female is a necessary departure from the norm, a useful monstrosity. The monster is gratuitous and useless for future generations. Aristotle’s seminal work on the generation of (...) monsters posited a rigorously physical definition that was not necessarily linked to deformities: “Monstrosities,” he wrote, “come under the class of offspring which is unlike its parents” . Further, while a “monstrosity, of course, belongs to the class of ‘things contrary to Nature,’ … it is contrary not to Nature in her entirety but only to Nature in the generality of cases” .The monster, defined repeatedly by its lack of resemblance to its legitimate parents, is also monstrous in another important way, one that Aristotle described as a false resemblance to different species: “People say that the offspring which is formed has the head of a ram or an ox; and similarly with other creatures, that one has the head of another.… at the same time, in no case are they what they are alleged to be, but resemblances only” . The monster is thus a double imposture. Its strange appearance—a misleading likeness to another species, for example—belies the otherwise rigorous law that children should resemble their parents. Further, monsters offer striking similarities to categories to which they are not related, blurring the differences between genres, and disrupting the rigorous order of nature. Thus, if the monster were defined in the first place as that which did not resemble him who engendered it, it nevertheless displayed some sort of resemblance, albeit a false resemblance to an object external to its conception. Marie-Hélène Huet is William R. Kenan Professor of Romance Languages at Amherst College. She is the author of Rehearsing the Revolution: The Staging of Marat’s Death, 1793-1797 and is currently completing a book on literature and tetratology. (shrink)
Les grandes tendances de l’art contemporain invitent dans leurs convergences étonnantes à renouveler notre image de la culture artistique. Quasi-mysticisme des artistes «visionnaires», ou jeux del’esprit des démarches dada, se rejoignent au delà des contrastes, pour rompre avec l’héritage artistique, le savoir infaillible, les voies usuelles de communication. La «perception aigüe d’une incompréhensibilité éternelle» ou le goût de la subversion peuvent.-ils s’enseigner? Qu’en est-il de notre désir de comprendre et de faire comprendre de telles démarches?
The hypothesis I develop involves that we have been witnessing, during the last ten years or so, an interpenetration in the area of applied ethics of certain concepts originally belonging to different areas of ethics, namely bioethics, environmental ethics, and also business ethics. Certain concepts such as “future generations,” “consent,” “precautionary principle,” “intrinsic value,” “global governance,” “sustainable development,” or “scientific uncertainty” are becoming “thick ethical concepts,” in the terminology of metaethics; or in the terminology of American pragmatism: “living beliefs.” They (...) are now charged with strong moral contents that unfolds a new horizon of meaning at the heart of Western Modernity, a horizon largely defined by science and technical actions. Nevertheless, is this conceptual convergence in the area of applied ethics the sign of the coming of a new ethic of technique? I will discuss this topic taking as an example the case of nanotechnology. (shrink)
The practice of rational debate between philosophers from different traditions, especially between Hindu—Naiyāyika and Mīmāṃsaka—, Buddhist and Jain philosophers, is unique in classical India. Around the 7th c., a pan-Indian consensus was achieved on what counts as a satisfactory justification. The core of such discussions is an inferential reasoning whose structure is such that it ensures that its conclusions are recognised as knowledge statements, irrespective of the obedience of the interlocutor. In this line, stories of conversion following those philosophical debates (...) are commonplace in the narratives of the different traditions and regularly involve the conversion of a royal patron. Beside the influence of argumentative practices on social and political changes, theories of argumentation have deeply influenced the whole edifice of philosophy in pre modern India, since no philosopher can claim a thesis without being committed to defend it in this highly regulated dialogical framework. Moreover, the characterisation, as well as the methods to test the validity of this justification, raised the question of the existence of shared principles and was a battlefield for the different traditions to establish their own conceptions on the constitution of the world and on our ability to know it. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the contribution of the minority tradition that is Jainism to the framework of philosophical disputation in India. (shrink)
On a longtemps rendu compte des comportements de déplacements des hommes dans l’espace par un terme renvoyant à une logique collective et de masse, celui de migration . L’intégration dans l’observation et la compréhension de toute la palette des motifs de déplacements et l’individualisation croissante des pratiques ont amené l’usage d’un terme plus générique, emprunté aux sciences sociales et notamment à ceux qui s’intéressent à la fluidité dans l’espace social, celui de mobilité. Ce glissement n’est pas purement sémantique : il (...) exprime le passage de l’empire de la nécessité aux capacités stratégiques et aux désirs des acteurs, de la représentation aréolaire d’un territoire rassemblant une « société locale » « contenant » les déplacements de ses membres à des représentations réticulaires , multi-territoriales . Sur tous ces points, les enquêtes initiées dans les années 1960 par les ingénieurs pour alimenter leurs modèles de trafic nous ont permis, grâce à l’élaboration d’indicateurs, de concepts, de représentations nouvelles, de comprendre en profondeur la dynamique et les rôles respectifs des rationalités individuelles et de la formation de normes sociales dans le champ spécifique de la mobilité quotidienne. C’est de cette construction dont nous rendons compte dans cet article, qui livre aussi à partir des quelques résultats saillants des recherches conduites, les convictions fortes en matière de dynamique de la mobilité qui s’en dégagent et les paradigmes qu’il conviendrait de mieux explorer.Spatial behaviour was studied in the past through group concepts, such as residential or regular migrations from home to work. The will to understand travel behaviour for the full range of trip purposes and the growing personalisation of behaviour leads to adopt the term of mobility from social sciences. This change is not purely semantic. It expresses the transition from a vision based on the needs to the consideration of the strategic capabilities of the persons, from areola-based representations of a local society to network and archipelago-based representations of individual behaviours. We have used, in conjunction with the international community of travel behaviour analysts, the travel surveys introduced in the sixties to feed traffic models, to build concepts, indicators and representations of travel behaviour, to understand in depth the transformations of mobility patterns and to analyze the roles of individual rationality and social norms. The paper relates this history, highlights some key results and strong beliefs, and questions the need to explore new paradigms. (shrink)
This paper is a review of the nine chapters more directly concerned with philosophy of the volume Jaina Scriptures and Philosophy. Edited in 2015 by Peter Flügel and Olle Qvarnström, this interdisciplinary volume in philosophy, philology, linguistics, literary studies and history is presented as an essential contribution to the study of Jaina philosophy inasmuch as it offers a collection of cutting-edge analyses on the emergence and development of philosophical concepts such as the Self and its epistemic faculties, with a focus (...) on early Jaina canonical literature and commentaries thereof. (shrink)
This article takes issue vigorously with what it argues are the disempowering effects of Judith Butler's more recent work, for transgendered people in particular and accordingly for the queer movement in general. In so doing it contests the way in which the reception of Butler's work in France has been mediated by a transphobic psychoanalytic establishment and attacks Butler for playing along with their self-interested political agenda by retelling, in Paris, for their ears, an anecdote of a savoury encounter with (...) a transgendered interlocutor in a subcultural queer space in San Francisco. (shrink)
The Bible describes God in many different ways: God is light; God is joy; God is wisdom. God is the beauty that fills the earth and the rock we stand on, the promises we live by and the fire that purifies us. This volume offers a collection of these images, presented in simple language that young readers can easily understand. This book's bright artwork and lyrical text, written by the bestselling author of Psalms for Young Children, explores how, even though (...) we cannot see or touch God, we can still discover him in our world. (shrink)