We give an extender characterization of a very strong elementary embedding between transitive models of set theory, whose existence is known as the axiom I2. As an application, we show that the positive solution of a partition problem raised by Magidor would refute it.
As in other countries, the traditional doctor-patient relationship in the Japanese healthcare system has often been characterised as being of a paternalistic nature. However, in recent years there has been a gradual shift towards a more participatory-patient model in Japan. With advances in technology, the possibility to use digital technologies to improve patient interactions is growing and is in line with changing attitudes in the medical profession and society within Japan and elsewhere. The implementation of an online patient engagement platform (...) is being considered by the Myotonic Dystrophy Registry of Japan. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand patients’ views and attitudes to using digital tools in patient registries and engagement with medical research in Japan, prior to implementation of the digital platform. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire with a sample of myotonic dystrophy patients attending an Open Day at Osaka University, Japan. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were 18 years or older, and were diagnosed with MD. A total of 68 patients and family members attended the Open Day and were invited to participate in the survey. Of those, 59 % submitted a completed questionnaire. The survey showed that the majority of patients felt that they were not receiving the information they wanted from their clinicians, which included recent medical research findings and opportunities to participate in clinical trials, and 88 % of patients indicated they would be willing to engage with digital technologies to receive relevant medical information. Patients also expressed an interest in having control over when and how they received this information, as well as being informed of how their data is used and shared with other researchers. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that there is scope to develop a digital platform to engage with patients so that they can receive information about medical care and research opportunities. While this study group is a small, self-selecting population, who suffer from a particular condition, the results suggest that there are interested populations within Japan that would appreciate enhanced communication and interaction with healthcare teams. (shrink)
In experiments of games, players frequently make choices which are regarded as irrational in game theory. In papers of Khrennikov (Information Dynamics in Cognitive, Psychological and Anomalous Phenomena. Fundamental Theories of Physics, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, 2004; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 155:4–17, 2005; Biosystems 84:225–241, 2006; Found. Phys. 35(10):1655–1693, 2005; in QP-PQ Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, vol. XXIV, pp. 105–117, 2009), it was pointed out that statistics collected in such the experiments have “quantum-like” properties, which can not be explained in (...) classical probability theory. In this paper, we design a simple quantum-like model describing a decision-making process in a two-players game and try to explain a mechanism of the irrational behavior of players. Finally we discuss a mathematical frame of non-Kolmogorovian system in terms of liftings (Accardi and Ohya, in Appl. Math. Optim. 39:33–59, 1999). (shrink)
There exist several phenomena breaking the classical probability laws. The systems related to such phenomena are context-dependent, so that they are adaptive to other systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formalism to compute the joint probability distribution for two event-systems by using concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory, e.g., quantum channels and liftings. In physics the basic example of the context-dependent phenomena is the famous double-slit experiment. Recently similar examples have been found in biological (...) and psychological sciences. Our approach is an extension of traditional quantum probability theory, and it is general enough to describe aforementioned contextual phenomena outside of quantum physics. (shrink)
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology —one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from “traditional quantum biophysics”. The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (...) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: adaptivity; openness. These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems. (shrink)
Affect misattribution occurs when affective cues color subsequent unrelated evaluations. Research suggests that affect misattribution decreases when one is aware that affective cues are unrelated to the evaluation at hand. We propose that affect misattribution may even occur when one is aware that affective cues are irrelevant, as long as the source of these cues seems ambiguous. When source ambiguity exists, affective cues may freely influence upcoming unrelated evaluations. We examined this using an adapted affect misattribution procedure where pleasant and (...) unpleasant responses served as affective cues that could influence later evaluations of unrelated targets. These affective cues were either perceived as reflecting a single source , or as reflecting two sources suggesting source ambiguity. Results show that misattribution of affect decreased when participants perceived affective cues as representing one source rather than two. (shrink)
We investigated the key anatomical structures mediating interhemispheric integration during the perception of apparent motion across the retinal midline. Previous studies of commissurotomized patients suggest that subcortical structures mediate interhemispheric transmission but the specific regions involved remain unclear. Here, we exploit interindividual variations in the propensity of normal subjects to perceive horizontal motion, in relation to vertical motion. We characterize these differences psychophysically using a Dynamic Dot Quartet (an ambiguous stimulus that induces illusory motion). We then tested for correlations between (...) a tendency to perceive horizontal motion and fractional anisotropy (FA) (from structural diffusion tensor imaging), over subjects. FA is an indirect measure of the orientation and integrity of white matter tracts. Subjects who found it easy to perceive horizontal motion showed significantly higher FA values in the pulvinar. Furthermore, fiber tracking from an independently identified (subject-specific) visual motion area converged on the pulvinar nucleus. These results suggest that the pulvinar is an anatomical hub and may play a central role in interhemispheric integration. (shrink)
The notion of quasi-minimal structures was defined by B. Zil'ber as a natural generalization of minimal structures. Inspired by his work, we study here basic model theoretic properties of quasiminimal structures. Main result is the construction of ω-saturated quasi-minimal models under ω-stability assumption.
A lifting is a map from the state of a system to that of a compound system, which was introduced in Accardi and Ohya (Appl. Math. Optim. 39:33–59, 1999). The lifting can be applied to various physical processes.In this paper, we defined a quantum mutual entropy by the lifting. The usual quantum mutual entropy satisfies the Shannon inequality (Ohya in IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(5):770–774, 1983), but the mutual entropy defined through the lifting does not satisfy this inequality unless some (...) conditions hold. (shrink)
We study the following conjecture. Conjecture. Let $T$ be an $\omega$-stable theory with continuum many countable models. Then either i) $T$ has continuum many complete extensions in $L_1$, or ii) some complete extension of $T$ in $L_1$ has continuum many $L_1$-types without parameters. By Shelah's proof of Vaught's conjecture for $\omega$-stable theories, we know that there are seven types of $\omega$-stable theory with continuum many countable models. We show that the conjecture is true for all but one of these seven (...) cases. In the last case we show the existence of continuum many $L_2$-types. (shrink)
We study the following conjecture. Conjecture. Let T be an ω-stable theory with continuum many countable models. Then either i) T has continuum many complete extensions in L1(T), or ii) some complete extension of T in L1 has continuum many L1-types without parameters. By Shelah's proof of Vaught's conjecture for ω-stable theories, we know that there are seven types of ω-stable theory with continuum many countable models. We show that the conjecture is true for all but one of these seven (...) cases. In the last case we show the existence of continuum many L2-types. (shrink)
Neuronal activities have recently been reported to exhibit power-law scaling behavior. However, it has not been demonstrated that the power-law component can play an important role in human perceptual functions. Here, we demonstrate that the power spectrum of magnetoencephalograph recordings of brain activity varies in coordination with perception of subthreshold visual stimuli. We observed that perceptual performance could be better explained by modulation of the power-law component than by modulation of the peak power in particular narrow frequency ranges. The results (...) suggest that the brain operates in a state of self-organized criticality, modulating the power spectral exponent of its activity to optimize its internal state for response to external stimuli. (shrink)
We investigated how the structure of the brain network relates to the stability of perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry. Historically, binocular rivalry has provided important new insights to our understandings in neuroscience. Although various relationships between the local regions of the human brain structure and perceptual switching phenomena have been shown in previous researches, the global organization of the human brain structural network relating to this phenomenon has not yet been addressed. To approach this issue, we reconstructed fiber-tract bundles using (...) diffusion tensor imaging and then evaluated the correlations between the speeds of perceptual alternation and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in each fiber-tract bundle integrating among 84 brain regions. The resulting comparison revealed that the distribution of the global organization of the structural brain network showed positive or negative correlations between the speeds of perceptual alternation and the FA values. First, the connections between the subcortical regions stably were negatively correlated. Second, the connections between the cortical regions mainly showed positive correlations. Third, almost all other cortical connections that showed negative correlations were located in one central cluster of the subcortical connections. This contrast between the contribution of the cortical regions to destabilization and the contribution of the subcortical regions to stabilization of perceptual alternation provides important information as to how the global architecture of the brain structural network supports the phenomenon of binocular rivalry. (shrink)
The brain is a very complex structure. Over the past several decades, many studies have aimed to understand how various non-uniform variables relate to each other. The current study compared the whole-brain network organization and global spatial distribution of cell densities in the monkey brain. Wide comparisons between 27 graph theoretical measures and cell densities revealed that only participation coefficients (PCs) significantly correlated with cell densities. Interestingly, PCs did not show a significant correlation with spatial coordinates. Furthermore, the significance of (...) the correlation between cell densities and spatial coordinates disappeared only with the removal of the visual module, while the significance of the correlation between cell densities and PCs disappeared with the removal of any one module. Taken together, these results suggested the presence of a combinatorial effect of modular architectures in the network organization related to the non-uniformity of cell densities additional to the spatially monotonic change. (shrink)