This study aimed to: (1) develop and evaluate the Moral Distress Scale for Psychiatric nurses (MDS-P); (2) use the MDS-P to examine the moral distress experienced by Japanese psychiatric nurses; and (3) explore the correlation between moral distress and burnout. A questionnaire on the intensity and frequency of moral distress items (the MDS-P: 15 items grouped into three factors), a burnout scale (Maslach Burnout Inventory — General Survey) and demographic questions were administered to 391 Japanese psychiatric nurses in 2007—2008. These (...) nurses experienced relatively low levels of moral distress despite the fact that they were commonly confronted by morally distressing situations. All the circumstances in which the participants experienced moral distress were included in the ‘low staffing’ factor, which reflects the characteristics of Japanese psychiatric care. The frequency score of the low staffing factor was a significant predictor of burnout. (shrink)
In the United States, a series of survey studies have been done to examine corporate managers' views of business ethics and various business practices (Baumhart, 1961; Brenner and Molander, 1977; Vitell and Festervand, 1987). This paper is a replication study conducted in Japan of those American studies. The results of the study suggest that Japanese managers tend to be more situational in their ethical orientation than Americans. The results also show that the company policy on ethics is the most important (...) factor influencing Japanese managers' ethical decisions. (shrink)
A series of survey studies on corporations' institutionalization of ethics has been done in the U.S. and Japan. Among them, one Japanese study suggests that company policy is the most influential factor in managers' ethical decision-making and behavior. This empirical evidence suggests that, in Japan, company efforts to institutionalize ethics are effective in improving business behavior. The author examines this by describing three case studies of Japanese managers' ethical decision-making.
The aim of this article is to examine the theory of “self-affection” in the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories in the second edition of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. I propose that the self-affection, identified with transcendental synthesis of imagination, should be considered as a condition of all reception of the manifold of intuition in the spatio-temporal order. In other words, spontaneity of the subject is required for the reception of materials for cognition. Analyzing some interpretations on Kant's notions such (...) as temporality, inner sense and synthesis, I try to show the necessity to avoid supposing materials that would be given independently of spontaneity and regarded as antecedent conditions of self-affection. (shrink)
While Economic and Business Ethics has already attracted increasing attention in East Asia, a comprehensive survey of Economic and Business Ethics has never been done in this region. This study investigates the current status of Economic and Business Ethics as field of teaching, training and research in the East Asia region, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on multiple approaches that include questionnaire surveys, desktop analysis, and personal observation, this article reports on the current state of training, teaching, and (...) research in the field of Economic and Business Ethics in the three countries. It also discusses similarities and differences with regard to these themes among the countries studied. (shrink)
In this article we present a parameterized model for generating multimodal behavior based on cultural heuristics. To this end, a multimodal corpus analysis of human interactions in two cultures serves as the empirical basis for the modeling endeavor. Integrating the results from this empirical study with a well-established theory of cultural dimensions, it becomes feasible to generate culture-specific multimodal behavior in embodied agents by giving evidence for the cultural background of the agent. Two sample applications are presented that make use (...) of the model and are designed to be applied in the area of coaching intercultural communication. (shrink)
Single crystal samples of n - deformed to a permanent strain of 2% at room temperature under multiple-slip conditions contain faulted dipoles whose density exhibits some dependence on load orientation. Although FDs are hard to observe after compression along , they are profuse and congregated in places in the [1 1 8.6] load orientation. They exhibit most of the topological characteristics of FDs formed under single slip as reported by Grégori and Veyssière such as elongation in the screw direction of (...) the primary d 011] slip direction and a noticeable shape asymmetry. It is shown further that, in the [1 1 8.6] samples, bundles of FDs originate at jogs that result from intersection with forest dislocations of appropriate Burgers vectors. A mechanism for FD nucleation is proposed on the basis of asymmetrical dissociation of the parent d 011] dislocation and specific impingements between the various partials on two adjacent octahedral planes. Implications of the FD nucleation at jogs on the load orientation dependence of the FD density are discussed. (shrink)
Comparative studies between Latin America and Asia can be productive if they reflect the structural necessities based on history and geopolitics that these regions have experienced in relation to the western countries since the nineteenth century. These non-western regions have developed themselves in a parallel way without direct communication with each other. Stephanie Rivera Berruz and Leah Kalmanson detect this parallelism precisely and sketch a possible productivity of this new area. This book serves as a starting point for further studies.
This paper shows that the inhabitation problem in the lambda calculus with negation, product, polymorphic, and existential types is decidable, where the inhabitation problem asks whether there exists some term that belongs to a given type. In order to do that, this paper proves the decidability of the provability in the logical system defined from the second-order natural deduction by removing implication and disjunction. This is proved by showing the quantifier elimination theorem and reducing the problem to the provability in (...) propositional logic. The magic formulas are used for quantifier elimination such that they replace quantifiers. As a byproduct, this paper also shows the second-order witness theorem which states that a quantifier followed by negation can be replaced by a witness obtained only from the formula. As a corollary of the main results, this paper also shows Glivenko’s theorem, Double Negation Shift, and conservativity for antecedent-empty sequents between the logical system and its classical version. (shrink)
Desde "Los límites del sentido" de Strawson, la Deducción trascendental, en la Crítica de la razón pura de Kant, se considera generalmente como demostración de la objetividad del conocimiento como una condición de la unidad de la autoconciencia. Sin embargo, también se reconoce que se encuentran pas..
A simple model is presented in which the statevector evolves every ε seconds in one of two ways, according to a particular probability rule. It is shown that this random walk in Hilbert space results in reduction of the statevector. It is also shown how the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) theory of statevector reduction is achieved as a limiting case of this model, exactly as Brownian motion is a limiting case of ordinary random walk. Finally, a slightly different but completely (...) equivalent form of the CSL equations suggested by the simple model given here is discussed. (shrink)
La Deducción trascendental de las categorías en la segunda edición de la Crítica de la razón pura de Kant se divide en dos partes. Sin embargo, el papel de la segunda mitad no está inmediatamente claro. En este artículo examinaré su argumento después de aclarar su objetivo. Con base en mi análisis d..
It is often held that Wittgenstein had to introduce numbers in elementary propositions due to problems related to the so-called colour-exclusion problem. I argue in this paper that he had other reasons for introducing them, reasons that arise from an investigation of the continuity of visual space and what Wittgenstein refers to as ‘intensional infinity’. In addition, I argue that the introduction of numbers by this route was prior to introducing them _via_ the colour-exclusion problem. To conclude, I discuss two (...) problems that Wittgenstein faced in the writings before _Some Remarks on Logical Form _, problems that are independent of the colour-exclusion problem but dependent on the introduction of numbers in elementary propositions. (shrink)
It seems to me quite appropriate to report, though briefly, on Hegel studies in Japan in this organ of HSA. For they owe their very inception to America. Their first stimulus was provided neither directly from Germany nor by any German philosophers coming to Japan, but by the lectures delivered at Tokyo University by an American, E.F. Fenollosa, a Harvard graduate, who later became famous as an art critic discovering the aesthetic value of Japanese traditional arts, and who established an (...) art academy in Tokyo. (shrink)
A key issue in social intelligence design is the realization of artifacts that can fluently communicate with people. Thus, we proposed a two-layered approach to enhance a robot’s capacity of involvement and engagement. The upper layer flexibly controls social interaction by dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) representing social interaction patterns. The lower layer improves the robustness of the system by detecting rhythmic and repetitive gestures. We designed a listener robot that can follow and record humans’ explanation on how to assemble and/or (...) disassemble a bicycle. The implementation of this system is described by assembling the key algorithms presented in this paper. (shrink)
This essay criticizes David Held's proposal of cosmopolitan democracy. Held argues that cosmopolitan realities are emerging, which help to open up the possibility of a cosmopolitan democracy. However, the author argues that Held tends to exaggerate cosmopolitan realities. What Held sees as cosmopolitan realities are international realities rather than cosmopolitan, and what he calls 'transnational civil society' is in fact the product of nation-states. Held endorses 'the institutionalization of cosmopolitan principles', which implies two different institutionalizations, though Held does not explicitly (...) recognize this difference: the global and national institutionalization. However, the global institutionalization of cosmopolitan principles would not only fail to work but also cause undesirable consequences, in particular, global cultural homogenization, while the national one does not deserve the name of cosmopolitanism. Instead of introducing a cosmopolitan democracy, the author proposes that we should utilize and enhance the capacities of nation-states and develop the existing international order so as to cope with global problems. (shrink)
En este artículo, analizo las nociones de forma de la intuición e intuición formal en el § 26 de la Crítica de la razón pura. Según Kant, la intuición formal contiene unidad de diversas representaciones, la cual no implica la forma de la intuición. Aclararé que la intuición formal es un híbrido de l..
The Transcendental Deduction in the second edition of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason is divided in two parts. Nevertheless, the role of the second half is not immediately clear. This article intends to examine the argument presented in the second half after clarifying its purpose. Based on this approach, we sustain an interpretation according to which Kant tries to establish the validity of categories for all intuition given through sensibility. This interpretation seeks to confirm a conceptual articulation among sensible intuitions (...) that is not regarded as a result of objective judgment. (shrink)
Incidents are peripheral, rather than central, phenomena. This Collision considers sound and installation artist Inouk Demers, whose recent work explores the incidental in both its geographical and conceptual relationships to the megalopolis of Los Angeles. In Zine-o-file, Conveyance, Wireless Landscape, and Custom Audio Products, Demers offers the incidental as an alternative to straightforward themes and fleshed-out narratives.
After the publication of Strawson’s “The Bounds of Sense”, the Transcendental Deduction in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason has been widely regarded as a proof of the objectivity of knowledge as a condition of unity of self-consciousness. Nevertheless, many interpreters accept that there are passages which cannot be easily integrated into such a strategy. In this article, through an analysis of the first half of the Transcendental Deduction, I try to point out the need to adopt a different interpretation according (...) to which Kant does not consider objectivity as a condition of self-consciousness, but rather self-consciousness as a necessary condition of objectivity. (shrink)