Results for 'Matthew Betts'

987 found
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  1.  19
    Conflicts—and Consensus—about Conflicts of Interest in Medicine.Matthew K. Wynia & Bette–Jane Crigger - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (2):101-105.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Conflicts—and Consensus—about Conflicts of Interest in MedicineMatthew K. Wynia and Bette–Jane Crigger*This fascinating collection of essays about individual experiences of conflict of interest leaves little doubt that physicians remain divided about the importance, impact and meaning of conflicts of interest in their work. These essays offer differing views about what conflicts of interest look and feel like “on the ground” and about whether specific conflicts of interest are bad, (...)
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  2.  21
    The Honesty Effect.Bette-Jane Crigger & Matthew K. Wynia - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (3):3-3.
    Anne Barnhill focuses her article in this issue on the American Medical Association's ethics policy governing clinical use of placebos, but the implications of her analysis are deeper, touching on how physicians should make judgments about which interventions to offer patients in the process of shared decision‐making. The bottom line is that, even if an undisclosed placebo might be marginally more effective for a particular patient in the short term, over the long haul the integrity of the patient‐physician relationship relies (...)
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  3. International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation.Adam D. Farmer, Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, Alexander V. Gourine, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, Andrés M. Jaramillo, Ann Mertens, Arshad Majid, Bart Verkuil, Bashar W. Badran, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Charly Gaul, Christian Beste, Christopher M. Warren, Daniel S. Quintana, Dorothea Hämmerer, Elena Freri, Eleni Frangos, Eleonora Tobaldini, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Felix Rosenow, Fioravante Capone, Fivos Panetsos, Gareth L. Ackland, Gaurav Kaithwas, Georgia H. O'Leary, Hannah Genheimer, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Ilse Van Diest, Jean Schoenen, Jessica Redgrave, Jiliang Fang, Jim Deuchars, Jozsef C. Széles, Julian F. Thayer, Kaushik More, Kristl Vonck, Laura Steenbergen, Lauro C. Vianna, Lisa M. McTeague, Mareike Ludwig, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Marijke De Couck, Marina Casazza, Marius Keute, Marom Bikson, Marta Andreatta, Martina D'Agostini, Mathias Weymar, Matthew Betts, Matthias Prigge, Michael Kaess, Michael Roden, Michelle Thai, Nathaniel M. Schuster & Nico Montano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between (...)
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  4.  31
    International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation.Adam D. Farmer, Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, Alexander V. Gourine, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, Andrés M. Jaramillo, Ann Mertens, Arshad Majid, Bart Verkuil, Bashar W. Badran, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Charly Gaul, Christian Beste, Christopher M. Warren, Daniel S. Quintana, Dorothea Hämmerer, Elena Freri, Eleni Frangos, Eleonora Tobaldini, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Felix Rosenow, Fioravante Capone, Fivos Panetsos, Gareth L. Ackland, Gaurav Kaithwas, Georgia H. O'Leary, Hannah Genheimer, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Ilse Van Diest, Jean Schoenen, Jessica Redgrave, Jiliang Fang, Jim Deuchars, Jozsef C. Széles, Julian F. Thayer, Kaushik More, Kristl Vonck, Laura Steenbergen, Lauro C. Vianna, Lisa M. McTeague, Mareike Ludwig, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Marijke De Couck, Marina Casazza, Marius Keute, Marom Bikson, Marta Andreatta, Martina D'Agostini, Mathias Weymar, Matthew Betts, Matthias Prigge, Michael Kaess, Michael Roden, Michelle Thai, Nathaniel M. Schuster & Nico Montano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between (...)
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  5.  20
    Josiah Royce for the Twenty-First Century: Historical, Ethical, and Religious Interpretations.Zbigniew Ambrozewicz, Marc M. Anderson, Randall E. Auxier, Thomas O. Buford, Gary L. Cesarz, Rossella Fabbrichesi, Matthew Caleb Flamm, Richard A. S. Hall, Jacquelyn Ann K. Kegley, Wojciech Malecki, Bette J. Manter, Ludwig Nagl, Ignas K. Skrupskelis & Claudio Marcelo Viale (eds.) - 2012 - Lexington Books.
    The collection presents a variety of promising new directions in Royce scholarship from an international group of scholars, including historical reinterpretations, explorations of Royce's ethics of loyalty and religious philosophy, and contemporary applications of his ideas in psychology, the problem of reference, neo-pragmatism, and literary aesthetics.
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  6.  25
    Learning rapid and precise skills.John R. Anderson, Shawn Betts, Daniel Bothell, Ryan Hope & Christian Lebiere - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (5):727-760.
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  7. Experiences of Depression: A Study in Phenomenology.Matthew Ratcliffe - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Experiences of Depression is a philosophical exploration of what it is like to be depressed. In this important new book, Matthew Ratcliffe develops a detailed account of depression experiences by drawing on work in phenomenology, philosophy of mind and psychology, and several other disciplines.
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  8.  15
    Rationality and Happiness: From the Ancients to the Early Medievals.Jiyuan Yu & Jorge J. E. Gracia - 2003 - Boydell & Brewer.
    This volume explores the relationship between rationality and happiness from ancient Greek philosophy to early Latin medieval philosophy. What connection is there between human rationality and happiness? This issue was uppermost in the minds of the Ancient Greek philosophers and continued to be of importance during the entire early medieval period. Starting with theSocrates of Plato's early dialogues, who is regarded as having initiated the eudaimonistic ethical tradition, the present volume looks at Plato, Aristotle, the Skeptics, Seneca [Stoicism], Epicurus, Plotinus (...)
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  9. Attributionist Theories of Moral Responsibility.Matthew Talbert - 2022 - In Dana Kay Nelkin & Derk Pereboom (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Responsibility. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 50-70.
    This chapter describes the attributionist approach to moral responsibility. Works by Pamela Hieronymi, T.M. Scanlon, Angela Smith, and Matthew Talbert are taken to representative of this approach. On the interpretation given here, attributionism is committed to the following: assessments of moral responsibility are, and ought to be, centrally concerned with the morally significant features of an agent’s orientation toward others that are attributable to her, and an agent is eligible for moral praise or blame solely on the basis of (...)
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  10.  29
    The environmental basis of memory.John R. Anderson, Shawn Betts, Michael D. Byrne, Lael J. Schooler & Clayton Stanley - 2023 - Psychological Review 130 (5):1137-1166.
    Memory should make more available things that are more likely to be needed. Across multiple environmental domains, it has been shown that such a system would match qualitatively the memory effects involving repetition, delay, and spacing (Schooler & Anderson, 2017). To obtain data of sufficient size to study how detailed patterns of past appearance predict probability of being needed again, we examined the patterns with which words appear in large two data sets: tweets from popular sources and comments on popular (...)
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  11.  42
    Real Hallucinations: psychiatric illness, intentionality, and the interpersonal world.Matthew Ratcliffe - 2017 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    In Real Hallucinations, Matthew Ratcliffe offers a philosophical examination of the structure of human experience, its vulnerability to disruption, and how it is shaped by relations with other people. He focuses on the seemingly simple question of how we manage to distinguish among our experiences of perceiving, remembering, imagining, and thinking. To answer this question, he first develops a detailed analysis of auditory verbal hallucinations (usually defined as hearing a voice in the absence of a speaker) and thought insertion (...)
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  12. Well-being, Disability, and Choosing Children.Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):305-328.
    The view that it is better for life to be created free of disability is pervasive in both common sense and philosophy. We cast doubt on this view by focusing on an influential line of thinking that manifests it. That thinking begins with a widely-discussed principle, Procreative Beneficence, and draws conclusions about parental choice and disability. After reconstructing two versions of this argument, we critique the first by exploring the relationship between different understandings of well-being and disability, and the second (...)
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  13. Spinoza on Human Freedom: Reason, Autonomy and the Good Life.Matthew J. Kisner - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza was one of the most influential figures of the Enlightenment, but his often obscure metaphysics makes it difficult to understand the ultimate message of his philosophy. Although he regarded freedom as the fundamental goal of his ethics and politics, his theory of freedom has not received sustained, comprehensive treatment. Spinoza holds that we attain freedom by governing ourselves according to practical principles, which express many of our deepest moral commitments. Matthew J. Kisner focuses on this theory and presents (...)
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  14. A new look at the new look: Perceptual defense and vigilance.Matthew H. Erdelyi - 1974 - Psychological Review 81 (1):1-25.
  15.  13
    The Harra and the Hamad: Excavations and Surveys in Eastern Jordan, Volume 1.E. B. Banning & A. V. G. Betts - 2004 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (4):782.
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  16.  93
    The Influence of Business Ethics Education on Moral Efficacy, Moral Meaningfulness, and Moral Courage: A Quasi-experimental Study.Douglas R. May, Matthew T. Luth & Catherine E. Schwoerer - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (1):67-80.
    The research described here contributes to the extant empirical research on business ethics education by examining outcomes drawn from the literature on positive organizational scholarship (POS). The general research question explored is whether a course on ethical decision-making in business could positively influence students’ confidence in their abilities to handle ethical problems at work (i.e., moral efficacy), boost the relative importance of ethics in their work lives (i.e., moral meaningfulness), and encourage them to be more courageous in raising ethical problems (...)
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  17.  74
    War Crimes: Causes, Excuses, and Blame.Matthew Talbert & Jessica Wolfendale - 2019 - New York, USA: OUP USA.
    Why do war crimes occur? Are perpetrators of war crimes always blameworthy? In an original and challenging thesis, this book argues that war crimes are often explained by perpetrators' beliefs, goals, and values, and in these cases perpetrators may be blameworthy even if they sincerely believed that they were doing the right thing.
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  18.  59
    Moral Responsibility: An Introduction.Matthew Talbert - 2016 - Malden, MA: Polity.
    Most people would agree that a small child, or a cognitively impaired adult, is less responsible for their actions, good or bad, than an unimpaired adult. But how do we explain that difference, and how far can anyone be praised or blamed for what they have done? In this fascinating introduction, Matthew Talbert explores some of the key questions shaping current debates about moral responsibility, including: What is free will, and is it required for moral responsibility? Are we responsible (...)
  19.  28
    Experimental indeterminacies in the dissociation paradigm of subliminal perception.Matthew Hugh Erdelyi - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):30-31.
  20. Are all conversational implicatures cancellable.Matthew Weiner - 2006 - Analysis 66 (2):127-130.
  21. Beauty Is Not Simplicity: An Analysis of Mathematicians' Proof Appraisals.Matthew Inglis & Andrew Aberdein - 2015 - Philosophia Mathematica 23 (1):87-109.
    What do mathematicians mean when they use terms such as ‘deep’, ‘elegant’, and ‘beautiful’? By applying empirical methods developed by social psychologists, we demonstrate that mathematicians' appraisals of proofs vary on four dimensions: aesthetics, intricacy, utility, and precision. We pay particular attention to mathematical beauty and show that, contrary to the classical view, beauty and simplicity are almost entirely unrelated in mathematics.
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  22. How Causal Probabilities Might Fit into Our Objectively Indeterministic World.Matthew Weiner & Nuel Belnap - 2006 - Synthese 149 (1):1-36.
    We suggest a rigorous theory of how objective single-case transition probabilities fit into our world. The theory combines indeterminism and relativity in the “branching space–times” pattern, and relies on the existing theory of causae causantes (originating causes). Its fundamental suggestion is that (at least in simple cases) the probabilities of all transitions can be computed from the basic probabilities attributed individually to their originating causes. The theory explains when and how one can reasonably infer from the probabilities of one “chance (...)
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  23. Anti-exceptionalism and the justification of basic logical principles.Matthew Carlson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-19.
    Anti-exceptionalism about logic is the thesis that logic is not special. In this paper, I consider, and reject, a challenge to this thesis. According to this challenge, there are basic logical principles, and part of what makes such principles basic is that they are epistemically exceptional. Thus, according to this challenge, the existence of basic logical principles provides reason to reject anti-exceptionalism about logic. I argue that this challenge fails, and that the exceptionalist positions motivated by it are thus unfounded. (...)
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  24. Biological Individuals.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2024 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The impressive variation amongst biological individuals generates many complexities in addressing the simple-sounding question what is a biological individual? A distinction between evolutionary and physiological individuals is useful in thinking about biological individuals, as is attention to the kinds of groups, such as superorganisms and species, that have sometimes been thought of as biological individuals. More fully understanding the conceptual space that biological individuals occupy also involves considering a range of other concepts, such as life, reproduction, and agency. There has (...)
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  25. Ethical Intuitions: What They Are, What They Are Not, and How They Justify.Matthew S. Bedke - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):253-270.
    There are ways that ethical intuitions might be, and the various possibilities have epistemic ramifications. This paper criticizes some extant accounts of what ethical intuitions are and how they justify, and it offers an alternative account. Roughly, an ethical intuition that p is a kind of seeming state constituted by a consideration whether p, attended by positive phenomenological qualities that count as evidence for p, and so a reason to believe that p. They are distinguished from other kinds of seemings, (...)
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  26. On the Meaning of 'Ought'.Matthew Chrisman - 2012 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, vol. 7. Oxford University Press. pp. 304.
    Discussions about the meaning of the word “ought” are pulled in two apparently competing directions. First, in ethical theory this word is used in the paradigmatic statement of ethical principles and conclusions about what some agent is obligated to do. This leads some ethical theorists to claim that the word “ought” describes a real relation, roughly, of being obligated to (realism) or expresses some non-cognitive attitude toward agents acting in certain ways (expressivism). Second, in theoretical linguistics this word is classified (...)
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  27.  21
    Camus, Philosophe: To Return to Our Beginnings.Matthew Sharpe - 2015 - Boston: Brill.
    In _Camus, Philosophe: To Return to our Beginnings_ Matthew Sharpe reads Camus as a _philosophe_ in the classical and enlightenment lineages, arguing that his defense of _mesure_ singles him out amidst 20th century French thought and makes him of renewed relevance today.
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  28. 10. Charles Taylor, Modern Social Imaginaries Charles Taylor, Modern Social Imaginaries (pp. 629-633).Matthew Hanser, Eamonn Callan, John Corvino, John Sabini, Maury Silver & Simon Keller - 2005 - Ethics 115 (3).
     
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  29.  67
    Functional explanation in mathematics.Matthew Inglis & Juan Pablo Mejía Ramos - 2019 - Synthese 198 (26):6369-6392.
    Mathematical explanations are poorly understood. Although mathematicians seem to regularly suggest that some proofs are explanatory whereas others are not, none of the philosophical accounts of what such claims mean has become widely accepted. In this paper we explore Wilkenfeld’s suggestion that explanations are those sorts of things that generate understanding. By considering a basic model of human cognitive architecture, we suggest that existing accounts of mathematical explanation are all derivable consequences of Wilkenfeld’s ‘functional explanation’ proposal. We therefore argue that (...)
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  30.  18
    Coding modality vs. input modality in hypermnesia: Is a rose a rose a rose?Matthew Hugh Erdelyi, Shira Finkelstein, Nadeanne Herrel, Bruce Miller & Jane Thomas - 1976 - Cognition 4 (4):311-319.
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  31. Diversity in proof appraisal.Matthew Inglis & Andrew Aberdein - 2016 - In Brendan Larvor (ed.), Mathematical Cultures: The London Meetings 2012-2014. Springer International Publishing. pp. 163-179.
    We investigated whether mathematicians typically agree about the qualities of mathematical proofs. Between-mathematician consensus in proof appraisals is an implicit assumption of many arguments made by philosophers of mathematics, but to our knowledge the issue has not previously been empirically investigated. We asked a group of mathematicians to assess a specific proof on four dimensions, using the framework identified by Inglis and Aberdein (2015). We found widespread disagreement between our participants about the aesthetics, intricacy, precision and utility of the proof, (...)
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  32. Mental agency and metaethics.Matthew Evans & Nishi Shah - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:80-109.
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  33. Drone Warfare, Civilian Deaths, and the Narrative of Honest Mistakes.Matthew Talbert & Jessica Wolfendale - 2023 - In Nobuo Hayashi & Carola Lingaas (eds.), Honest Errors? Combat Decision-Making 75 Years After the Hostage Case. T.M.C. Asser Press. pp. 261-288.
    In this chapter, we consider the plausibility and consequences of the use of the term “honest errors” to describe the accidental killings of civilians resulting from the US military’s drone campaigns in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. We argue that the narrative of “honest errors” unjustifiably excuses those involved in these killings from moral culpability, and reinforces long-standing, pernicious assumptions about the moral superiority of the US military and the inevitability of civilian deaths in combat. Furthermore, we maintain that, given (...)
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  34. Moral status of the fetus and the permissibility of abortion: a contractarian response to Thomson’s violinist thought experiment.Matthew John Minehan - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (6):407-410.
    Judith Jarvis Thomson famously argued that abortion is permissible even if we accept that a fetus qualifies as a person and possesses a right to life. The current paper presents two arguments that undermine Thomson’s position. First, the paper sketches a contractarian argument that explores Thomson’s violinist thought experiment from behind a veil of ignorance, which suggests that if we had an equal likelihood of being an unwanted fetus and a pregnant woman, it would be rational for us to oppose (...)
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  35. Expressivism, Inferentialism, and the Theory of Meaning.Matthew Chrisman - 2010 - In Michael Brady (ed.), New Waves in Metaethics. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    One’s account of the meaning of ethical sentences should fit – roughly, as part to whole – with one’s account of the meaning of sentences in general. When we ask, though, where one widely discussed account of the meaning of ethical sentences fits with more general accounts of meaning, the answer is frustratingly unclear. The account I have in mind is the sort of metaethical expressivism inspired by Ayer, Stevenson, and Hare, and defended and worked out in more detail recently (...)
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  36.  74
    The Ideal of Equality.Matthew Clayton & Andrew Williams (eds.) - 2000 - Macmillan.
    One of the central debates within contemporary Anglo-American political philosophy concerns how to formulate an egalitarian theory of distributive justice which gives coherent expression to egalitarian convictions and withstands the most powerful anti-egalitarian objections. This book brings together many of the key contributions to that debate by some of the world’s leading political philosophers: Richard Arneson, G.A. Cohen, Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Derek Parfit, John Rawls, T.M. Scanlon, and Larry Temkin.
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  37.  82
    Nature and the machines.Huw Price & Matthew Connolly - manuscript
    Does artificial intelligence (AI) pose existential risks to humanity? Some critics feel this question is getting too much attention, and want to push it aside in favour of conversations about the immediate risks of AI. These critics now include the journal Nature, where a recent editorial urges us to 'stop talking about tomorrow's AI doomsday when AI poses risks today.' We argue that this is a serious failure of judgement, on Nature's part. In science, as in everyday life, we expect (...)
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  38.  90
    Subliminal perception and its cognates: Theory, indeterminacy, and time.Matthew Hugh Erdelyi - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91.
    Unconscious processes, by whatever name they may be known , are invariably operationalized by the dissociation paradigm, any situation involving the dissociation between two indicators , one of availability and the other, of accessibility , such that, ε>α. Subliminal perception has been traditionally defined by a special case of the dissociation paradigm in which availability exceeds accessibility when accessibility is null . Construct validity issues bedevil all dissociation paradigms since it is not clear what might constitute appropriate indicators that, moreover, (...)
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  39. Conceptual Role Accounts of Meaning in Metaethics.Matthew Chrisman - 2017 - In Tristram Colin McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 260-274.
    This paper explains three ways to develop a conceptual role view of meaning in metaethics. First, it suggests that there’s a way to combine inspiration from noncognitivism with a particular form of the conceptual role view to form a noncognitivist view with distinctive advantages over other noncognitivist views. Second, it suggests that there’s also a way to combine a strong commitment to cognitivism with a different form of the conceptual role view to form a version of cognitivism with distinctive advantages (...)
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  40.  13
    An Integrated Model of Collaborative Skill Acquisition: Anticipation, Control Tuning, and Role Adoption.Cvetomir M. Dimov, John R. Anderson, Shawn A. Betts & Dan Bothell - 2023 - Cognitive Science 47 (7):e13303.
    We studied collaborative skill acquisition in a dynamic setting with the game Co-op Space Fortress. While gaining expertise, the majority of subjects became increasingly consistent in the role they adopted without being able to communicate. Moreover, they acted in anticipation of the future task state. We constructed a collaborative skill acquisition model in the cognitive architecture ACT-R that reproduced subject skill acquisition trajectory. It modeled role adoption through reinforcement learning and predictive processes through motion extrapolation and learned relevant control parameters (...)
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  41.  57
    Heidegger’s appropriation of Aristotle: Phronesis, conscience, and seeing through the one.Matthew C. Weidenfeld - 2011 - European Journal of Political Theory 10 (2):254-276.
    This article attempts to show that Heidegger’s phenomenology may shed light on political phenomena. It pursues this project by arguing that Heidegger’s phenomenology is an appropriation of Aristotle’s practical philosophy and his conceptualization of phronesis. I argue that, in Being and Time, Heidegger’s ‘circumspection’, which is a capacity for making sense of practical situations, is a translation of phronesis. Heidegger argues, though, that the sight of circumspection is foreshortened by the rules and norms of ‘the one’. In division 2, ‘conscience’ (...)
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  42. Ethical Expressivism.Matthew Chrisman - 2011 - In Christian Miller (ed.), Continuum Companion to Ethics. Continuum. pp. 29.
    This is an advanced overview of ethical expressivism, which discuss some of the history of the research program and recent developments in the work of Michael Ridge and Mark Schroeder.
     
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  43.  13
    Effects on Inter-Personal Memory of Dancing in Time with Others.Matthew H. Woolhouse, Dan Tidhar & Ian Cross - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  44. Plato on the Possibility of Hedonic Mistakes.Matthew Evans - 2008 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 35:89-124.
  45. A Partisan's Guide to Socratic Intellectualism.Matthew Evans - 2010 - In Sergio Tenenbaum (ed.), Desire, Practical Reason, and the Good. Oxford University Press. pp. 6.
  46. Textual Economy Through Close Coupling of Syntax and Semantics.Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber - unknown
    We focus on the production of efficient descriptions of objects, actions and events. We define a type of efficiency, textual economy, that exploits the hearer’s recognition of inferential links to material elsewhere within a sentence. Textual economy leads to efficient descriptions because the material that supports such inferences has been included to satisfy independent communicative goals, and is therefore overloaded in the sense of Pollack [18]. We argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning used (...)
     
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  47. Rawls and Natural Aristocracy.Matthew Clayton - 2001 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):239-259.
    The author discusses Rawls’s conception of socioeconomic justice, Democratic Equality. He contrasts Rawls’s account, which includes the difference principle constrained by the principle of fair equality of opportunity, with Natural Aristocracy, which constrains the difference principle only by the principle of careers open to talents. According to the author, many of Rawls’s own arguments support NaturalAristocracy over Democratic Equality. In particular, Natural Aristocracy appears well placed to avoid a challenge that naturally arises in consideration of Democratic Equality, with respect to (...)
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  48. On Mathematicians' Different Standards When Evaluating Elementary Proofs.Matthew Inglis, Juan Pablo Mejia-Ramos, Keith Weber & Lara Alcock - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):270-282.
    In this article, we report a study in which 109 research-active mathematicians were asked to judge the validity of a purported proof in undergraduate calculus. Significant results from our study were as follows: (a) there was substantial disagreement among mathematicians regarding whether the argument was a valid proof, (b) applied mathematicians were more likely than pure mathematicians to judge the argument valid, (c) participants who judged the argument invalid were more confident in their judgments than those who judged it valid, (...)
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  49. From Epistemic Expressivism to Epistemic Inferentialism.Matthew Chrisman - 2008 - In Duncan Pritchard, Alan Millar & Adrian Haddock (eds.), Social Epistemology. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Recent philosophical debate about the meaning of knowledge claims has largely centered on the question of whether epistemic claims are plausibly thought to be context sensitive. The default assumption has been that sentences that attribute knowledge or justification have stable truth-conditions across different contexts of utterance, once any non-epistemic context sensitivity has been fixed. The contrary view is the contextualist view that such sentences do not have stable truth-conditions but can vary depending on the context of utterance. This debate manifestly (...)
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  50. Can Epicureans Be Friends?Matthew Evans - 2004 - Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):407-424.
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