Results for 'Matthew C. Spencer'

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  1.  42
    Zombie Mouse in a Chinese Room.Slawomir J. Nasuto, John Mark Bishop, Etienne B. Roesch & Matthew C. Spencer - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):209-223.
    John Searle’s Chinese Room Argument purports to demonstrate that syntax is not sufficient for semantics, and, hence, because computation cannot yield understanding, the computational theory of mind, which equates the mind to an information processing system based on formal computations, fails. In this paper, we use the CRA, and the debate that emerged from it, to develop a philosophical critique of recent advances in robotics and neuroscience. We describe results from a body of work that contributes to blurring the divide (...)
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  2.  75
    Critical Notice Ecumenicalism and Perennialism Revisited: MATTHEW C. BAGGER.Matthew C. Bagger - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (3):399-411.
    Recently Robert Forman has attempted to muster support for the largely abandoned position that mystical experiences cross-culturally include an unmediated, non-relative core. To reopen the debate he has solicited essays from likeminded scholars for his book, The Problem of Pure Consciousness. Predictably the focus of the volume rests on the refutation of the position most notably expounded by Steven Katz in his influential article of 1978, ‘Language, Epistemology and Mysticism’.
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  3.  26
    The Miracle of Minimal Foundationalism: Religious Experience and Justified Belief: MATTHEW C. BAGGER.Matthew C. Bagger - 1993 - Religious Studies 29 (3):297-312.
    Once we accept anyone's postulates he becomes our professor and our god: for his foundations he will grab territory so ample and so easy that, if he so wishes, he will drag us up to the clouds. Montaigne During the last fifteen years, the community of philosophers interested in religion has evinced a waxing concern with the justificatory value of religious experiences for theism. Two parallel but largely discrete debates have appeared in the literature.
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  4. Philosophical Methodology: The Armchair or the Laboratory?Matthew C. Haug (ed.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    What methodology should philosophers follow? Should they rely on methods that can be conducted from the armchair? Or should they leave the armchair and turn to the methods of the natural sciences, such as experiments in the laboratory? Or is this opposition itself a false one? Arguments about philosophical methodology are raging in the wake of a number of often conflicting currents, such as the growth of experimental philosophy, the resurgence of interest in metaphysical questions, and the use of formal (...)
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  5. Kant on Sex and Marriage: The Implications for the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.Matthew C. Altman - 2010 - Kant-Studien 101 (3):309-330.
    When examined critically, Kant's views on sex and marriage give us the tools to defend same-sex marriage on moral grounds. The sexual objectification of one's partner can only be overcome when two people take responsibility for one another's overall well-being, and this commitment is enforced through legal coercion. Kant's views on the unnaturalness of homosexuality do not stand up to scrutiny, and he cannot (as he often tries to) restrict the purpose of sex to procreation. Kant himself rules out marriage (...)
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  6.  3
    Kant and Applied Ethics: The Uses and Limits of Kant's Practical Philosophy.Matthew C. Altman - 2011 - Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Kant and Applied Ethics_ makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship, illuminating the vital moral parameters of key ethical debates. Offers a critical analysis of Kant’s ethics, interrogating the theoretical bases of his theory and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses Examines the controversies surrounding the most important ethical discussions taking place today, including abortion, the death penalty, and same-sex marriage Joins innovative thinkers in contemporary Kantian scholarship, including Christine Korsgaard, Allen Wood, and Barbara Herman, in taking Kant’s philosophy in new (...)
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  7.  97
    Resolving the Paradox of Common, Harmful, Heritable Mental Disorders: Which Evolutionary Genetic Models Work Best?Matthew C. Keller & Geoffrey Miller - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):385-404.
    Given that natural selection is so powerful at optimizing complex adaptations, why does it seem unable to eliminate genes (susceptibility alleles) that predispose to common, harmful, heritable mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? We assess three leading explanations for this apparent paradox from evolutionary genetic theory: (1) ancestral neutrality (susceptibility alleles were not harmful among ancestors), (2) balancing selection (susceptibility alleles sometimes increased fitness), and (3) polygenic mutation-selection balance (mental disorders reflect the inevitable mutational load on the thousands (...)
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  8. Realization, Determination, and Mechanisms.Matthew C. Haug - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (3):313-330.
    Several philosophers (e.g., Ehring (Nous (Detroit, Mich.) 30:461–480, 1996 ); Funkhouser (Nous (Detroit, Mich.) 40:548–569, 2006 ); Walter (Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37:217–244, 2007 ) have argued that there are metaphysical differences between the determinable-determinate relation and the realization relation between mental and physical properties. Others have challenged this claim (e.g., Wilson (Philosophical Studies, 2009 ). In this paper, I argue that there are indeed such differences and propose a “mechanistic” account of realization that elucidates why these differences hold. This (...)
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  9.  92
    The Decomposition of the Corporate Body: What Kant Cannot Contribute to Business Ethics.Matthew C. Altman - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (3):253-266.
    Kant is gaining popularity in business ethics because the categorical imperative rules out actions such as deceptive advertising and exploitative working conditions, both of which treat people merely as means to an end. However, those who apply Kant in this way often hold businesses themselves morally accountable, and this conception of collective responsibility contradicts the kind of moral agency that underlies Kant's ethics. A business has neither inclinations nor the capacity to reason, so it lacks the conditions necessary for constraint (...)
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  10.  87
    Abstraction and Explanatory Relevance, or Why Do the Special Sciences Exist?Matthew C. Haug - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1143-1155.
    Non-reductive physicalists have long held that the special sciences offer explanations of some phenomena that are objectively superior to physical explanations. This explanatory “autonomy” has largely been based on the multiple realizability argument. Recently, in the face of the local reduction and disjunctive property responses to multiple realizability, some defenders of non-reductive physicalism have suggested that autonomy can be grounded merely in human cognitive limitations. In this paper, I argue that this is mistaken. By distinguishing between two kinds of abstraction (...)
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  11. Two Kinds of Completeness and the Uses (and Abuses) of Exclusion Principles.Matthew C. Haug - 2009 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 47 (4):379-401.
    I argue that the completeness of physics is composed of two distinct claims. The first is the commonly made claim that, roughly, every physical event is completely causally determined by physical events. The second has rarely, if ever, been explicitly stated in the literature and is the claim that microphysics provides a complete inventory of the fundamental categories that constitute both the causal features and intrinsic nature of all the events that causally affect the physical universe. After showing that these (...)
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  12.  23
    Derrida, Stengers, Latour, and Subalternist Cosmopolitics.Matthew C. Watson - 2014 - Theory, Culture and Society 31 (1):75-98.
    Postcolonial science studies entails ostensibly contradictory critical and empirical commitments. Science studies scholars influenced by Bruno Latour and Isabelle Stengers embrace forms of realist, radical empiricism, while postcolonial studies scholars influenced by Jacques Derrida trace the limits of the knowable. This essay takes their common use of the term cosmopolitics as an unexpected point of departure for reconciling Derrida’s program with Stengers’s and Latour’s. I read Derrida’s critique of hospitality and Stengers’s and Latour’s ontological politics as necessary complements for conceiving (...)
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  13.  34
    Heidegger’s Appropriation of Aristotle: Phronesis, Conscience, and Seeing Through the One.Matthew C. Weidenfeld - 2011 - European Journal of Political Theory 10 (2):254-276.
    This article attempts to show that Heidegger’s phenomenology may shed light on political phenomena. It pursues this project by arguing that Heidegger’s phenomenology is an appropriation of Aristotle’s practical philosophy and his conceptualization of phronesis. I argue that, in Being and Time, Heidegger’s ‘circumspection’, which is a capacity for making sense of practical situations, is a translation of phronesis. Heidegger argues, though, that the sight of circumspection is foreshortened by the rules and norms of ‘the one’. In division 2, ‘conscience’ (...)
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  14.  26
    Cosmopolitics and the Subaltern.Matthew C. Watson - 2011 - Theory, Culture and Society 28 (3):55-79.
    This essay traces the ontological and political limits of Bruno Latour’s conceptualization of the ‘common world’. Latour formulates this concept in explicating how modernist scientific and political institutions require a metaphysical foundation that is anti-democratic in rigidly partitioning nature from society. In the stead of nature/society, Latour proposes a ‘cosmopolitics’ in which we recognize our embroilment in systems comprised of heterogeneous human and nonhuman actors, and seek to innovate appropriate procedures for governing such systems and composing a more peaceful common (...)
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  15.  17
    Comportment, Not Cognition: Contributions to a Phenomenology of Judgment.Matthew C. Weidenfeld - 2011 - Contemporary Political Theory 10 (2):232-254.
    Current theoretical account of judgment has a difficult time saying anything positive about the experience of judging and, when they do offer positive accounts, they seem to overlook much that we know about the capacity already in our daily lives. Following the work of Martin Heidegger and Hubert Dreyfus, this article provides a phenomenological consideration of the structure of judging that considers judgment not as an intellectual act, but as a comportment. The article proceeds in two parts. The first offers (...)
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  16.  93
    “Theism, Naturalism, and Meta‐Ethics”.Matthew C. Jordan - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (4):373-380.
    The relationship between God and morality has been a topic of philosophical discussion since Socrates engaged Euthyphro in the agora. In recent years, it has received a lot of attention, as theistic philosophers have attempted to show that divine command theory and other theistic meta‐ethical accounts are defensible. Whether metaphysical naturalism is compatible with moral realism is a related topic. This essay surveys the main issues in these debates.
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  17. Knowing the Standard American Diet By Its Fruits: Is Unrestrained Omnivorism Spiritually Beneficial?Matthew C. Halteman - 2013 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 67 (4):383-395.
    My aim in this article is to challenge the standard North American diet’s (SAD) default status in church and among North American Christians generally. First, I explain what is at stake in my guiding question—“Is unrestrained omnivorism as typified by SAD spiritually beneficial?”—and then I attempt to allay some common skeptical concerns about the suitability of food ethics as a topic for serious Christian discernment. Second, I develop a prima facie case that SAD is not spiritually beneficial, drawing on five (...)
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  18.  78
    Of Mice and Metaphysics: Natural Selection and Realized Population‐Level Properties.Matthew C. Haug - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (4):431-451.
    In this paper, I answer a fundamental question facing any view according to which natural selection is a population‐level causal process—namely, how is the causal process of natural selection related to, yet not preempted by, causal processes that occur at the level of individual organisms? Without an answer to this grounding question, the population‐level causal view appears unstable—collapsing into either an individual‐level causal interpretation or the claim that selection is a purely formal, statistical phenomenon. I argue that a causal account (...)
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  19. "Philosophy as Therapy for Recovering (Unrestrained) Omnivores".Matthew C. Halteman & Megan Halteman Zwart - 2016 - In Andrew Chignell, Terence Cuneo, and Matthew C. Halteman, eds., Philosophy Comes to Dinner: Arguments about the Ethics of Eating, New York: Routledge, 2016.
    Recourse to a variety of well-constructed arguments is undoubtedly a significant strategic asset for cultivating more ethical eating habits and convincing others to follow suit. Nevertheless, common obstacles often prevent even the best arguments from getting traction in our lives. For one thing, many of us enter the discussion hampered by firmly-entrenched but largely uninvestigated assumptions about food that make it difficult to imagine how even well-supported arguments that challenge our familiar frames of culinary reference could actually apply to us. (...)
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  20.  9
    Learning Abstract Visual Concepts Via Probabilistic Program Induction in a Language of Thought.Matthew C. Overlan, Robert A. Jacobs & Steven T. Piantadosi - 2017 - Cognition 168:320-334.
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  21. Varieties of Harm to Animals in Industrial Farming.Matthew C. Halteman - 2011 - Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (2):122-131.
    Skeptics of the moral case against industrial farming often assert that harm to animals in industrial systems is limited to isolated instances of abuse that do not reflect standard practice and thus do not merit criticism of the industry at large. I argue that even if skeptics are correct that abuse is the exception rather than the rule, they must still answer for two additional varieties of serious harm to animals that are pervasive in industrial systems: procedural harm and institutional (...)
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  22. The Exclusion Problem Meets the Problem of Many Causes.Matthew C. Haug - 2010 - Erkenntnis 73 (1):55-65.
    In this paper I develop a novel response to the exclusion problem. I argue that the nature of the events in the causally complete physical domain raises the “problem of many causes”: there will typically be countless simultaneous low-level physical events in that domain that are causally sufficient for any given high-level physical event. This shows that even reductive physicalists must admit that the version of the exclusion principle used to pose the exclusion problem against non-reductive physicalism is too strong. (...)
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  23. Natural Properties and the Special Sciences: Nonreductive Physicalism Without Levels of Reality or Multiple Realizability.Matthew C. Haug - 2011 - The Monist 94 (2):244-266.
    In this paper, I investigate how different views about the vertical and horizontal structure of reality affect the debate between reductive and nonreductive physicalism. This debate is commonly assumed to hinge on whether there are high-level, special-science properties that are distinct from low-level physical properties and whether the alleged multiple realizability of high-level properties establishes this. I defend a metaphysical interpretation of nonreductive physicalismin the absence of both of these assumptions. Adopting an independently motivated, discipline-relative account of natural properties and (...)
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  24.  17
    The Limits of Kant’s Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Practice, and the Crisis in Syria.Matthew C. Altman - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (2):179-204.
    Although Kant defends a cosmopolitan ideal, his philosophy is problematically vague regarding how to achieve it, which lends support to the empty formalism charge. How Kant would respond to the crisis in Syria reveals that judgement plays too central a role, because Kantian principles lead to equally reasonable but opposite conclusions on how to weigh the duty of hospitality to refugees against a state’s duty to its own citizens, the right of prevention towards ISIS against the duty not to harm (...)
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  25.  1
    A Two-Aspects View of Punishment.Matthew C. Altman - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur Und Freiheit. Akten des Xii. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 2275-2282.
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  26. The Misplaced Chapter on Bad Faith, or Reading Being and Nothingness in Reverse.Matthew C. Eshleman - 2008 - Sartre Studies International 14 (2):1-22.
    This essay argues that an adequate account of bad faith cannot be given without taking the second half of Being and Nothingness into consideration. There are two separate but related reasons for this. First, the objectifying gaze of Others provides a necessary condition for the possibility of bad faith. Sartre, however, does not formally introduce analysis of Others until Parts III and IV. Second, upon the introduction of Others, Sartre revises his view of absolute freedom. Sartre's considered view of freedom (...)
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  27. Consumer Support for Corporate Social Responsibility : The Role of Religion and Values.Bala Ramasamy, Matthew C. H. Yeung & Alan K. M. Au - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):61-72.
    Ethical behavior among businesses has gained significant prominence in recent years. Survey evidence shows that Asian consumers demand for greater social responsibility among businesses. Thus, a deeper understanding of the factors that contribute to such a demand is useful. This study examines the influence of religiosity and values on corporate social responsibility (CSR) support among consumers in Hong Kong and Singapore. Primary data collected among consumers in these cities point to a significant direct relationship between religiosity and CSR support. In (...)
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  28.  39
    The Japan Expedition 1852-1854: The Personal Journal of Commodore Matthew C. Perry.Boleslaw B. Szczesniak, Roger Pineau & Matthew C. Perry - 1971 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1):147.
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  29. What is It Like to Be Free?Matthew C. Eshleman - 2010 - In Jonathan Webber (ed.), Reading Sartre: On Phenomenology and Existentialism. Routledge.
  30.  20
    The Misplaced Chapter on Bad Faith, or Reading 'Being and Nothingness' in Reverse.Matthew C. Eshleman - 2008 - Sartre Studies International 14 (2):1-22.
    This essay argues that an adequate account of bad faith cannot be given without taking the second half of Being and Nothingness into consideration. There are two separate but related reasons for this. First, the objectifying gaze of Others provides a necessary condition for the possibility of bad faith. Sartre, however, does not formally introduce analysis of Others until Parts III and IV. Second, upon the introduction of Others, Sartre revises his view of absolute freedom. Sartre's considered view of freedom (...)
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  31.  12
    Anxiety, Depression, and the Suicidal Spectrum: A Latent Class Analysis of Overlapping and Distinctive Features.Matthew C. Podlogar, Megan L. Rogers, Ian H. Stanley, Melanie A. Hom, Bruno Chiurliza & Thomas E. Joiner - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (7):1464-1477.
    ABSTRACTAnxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (...)
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  32.  6
    Bad Faith is Necessarily Social.Matthew C. Eshleman - 2008 - Sartre Studies International 14 (2):40-47.
  33. Emergence in Mind * Edited by Cynthia MacDonald and Graham MacDonald. [REVIEW]Matthew C. Haug - 2011 - Analysis 71 (4):783-785.
  34.  75
    Bad Faith is Necessarily Social.Matthew C. Eshleman - 2008 - Sartre Studies International 14 (2):40-47.
  35. Review of Paul Edwards' Heidegger's Confusions. [REVIEW]Matthew C. Halteman - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (2):310-313.
  36.  68
    What's the Use of Philosophy? Democratic Citizenship and the Direction of Higher Education.Matthew C. Altman - 2004 - Educational Theory 54 (2):143-155.
  37.  19
    Jean-Paul Sartre and Phenomenological Ontology.Matthew C. Eshleman - 20013 - In Lester Embree & Thomas Nenon (eds.), Husserl’s Ideen. Springer. pp. 327--349.
  38. Evolutionary Psychology’s Moral Implications: John Cartwright, Evolution and Human Behavior: Darwinian Perspectives on Human Nature. 2nd Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008.Matthew C. Braddock - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):531-540.
    In this paper, I critically summarize John Cartwrtight’s Evolution and Human Behavior and evaluate what he says about certain moral implications of Darwinian views of human behavior. He takes a Darwinism-doesn’t-rock-the-boat approach and argues that Darwinism, even if it is allied with evolutionary psychology, does not give us reason to be worried about the alterability of our behavior, nor does it give us reason to think that we may have to change our ordinary practices and views concerning free-will and moral (...)
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  39.  25
    Creativity, Probability and Uncertainty.Matthew C. Wilson - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (1):45-56.
    Keynesian concepts of probability and uncertainty emphasize the basis of knowledge available to economic decision makers. Conditions of uncertainty, which involve missing evidence or doubtful arguments, are distinguished from probable risk. Beyond this, on the basis of the claim that the future is yet to be created, some authors argue for further distinctions among different kinds of uncertainty. The paper reviews this particular argument, distinguishing it from Keynesian uncertainty theory generally, and provides a critique of its implication that, due to (...)
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  40. Hume and Miracles.Matthew C. Bagger - 1997 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (2):237 - 251.
    "Hume and Miracles" relates Hume’s essay "Of Miracles" to the Port-Royal ’Logic’ and John Locke. It argues that Hume did not, as is often supposed, intend to suggest that well-attested miracle reports defeat themselves by undermining the laws of nature they defy. Instead, Hume argues that the specifically ’religious’ nature of the testimony relating to miracle claims rules out their acceptance because of the frequency of fraud in religious matters. Hume’s views are too austere because one might wish to reject (...)
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  41.  10
    Heidegger's Confusions.Matthew C. Halteman - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (2):310-313.
  42. The Problem of Transcendence in Heidegger and Derrida.Matthew C. Halteman - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    This dissertation seeks to clarify the import of the transcendence problem in Heidegger and Derrida. The guiding suggestion of my interpretations of both thinkers is that following the development of this problem through their respective projects can help to demonstrate in each an underlying continuity in light of which their seemingly discrepant shifts in emphasis from early to late can be understood as moments of an ongoing hermeneutic task. ;My argument unfolds in four chapters and a brief conclusion. Chapter one (...)
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  43.  41
    The Demanding Community: Politicization of the Individual After Dewey.Matthew C. Flamm - 2006 - Education and Culture 22 (1):35-54.
    : This article argues that conceptions of community after Dewey despair of an institutional means of recovering individuality, which is the central problem of democracy. They so despair, I contend, because of their politicized view of the individual. I first briefly consider the contrast between Dewey and contemporary proceduralists and civic republicans, before turning to my central discussion: C. Wright Mills, whose critique indicates a historical watershed for Dewey's view of community. Ultimately, despair of a Deweyan sense of community issues (...)
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  44.  16
    4 Beauvoir and Sartre on Freedom, Intersubjectivity, and Normative Justification.Matthew C. Eshleman - 2009 - In Christine Daigle & Jacob Golomb (eds.), Beauvoir and Sartre: The Riddle of Influence. Indiana University Press. pp. 65--89.
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  45.  18
    Language and Igbo Philosophy.Matthew C. Chukwuelobe - 1995 - Philosophy Today 39 (1):25-30.
  46.  22
    Evolutionary Theories of Schizophrenia Must Ultimately Explain the Genes That Predispose to It.Matthew C. Keller - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):861-862.
    If alleles that predispose to schizophrenia have reduced Darwinian fitness, their persistence in modern times is puzzling. Burns identifies the evolutionary genetics of schizophrenia as a central issue, but his treatment of it is not clear. Recent advances in evolutionary genetics can help explain the persistence of alleles that predispose to debilitating disorders such as schizophrenia, and can buttress Burns' core argument.
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  47.  19
    The Ethical Dilemma of Television News Sweeps.Matthew C. Ehrlich - 1995 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 10 (1):37 – 48.
    This study compares two local television newsrooms during sweeps ratings periods. Sweeps pose an ethical dilemma for newsworkers and their organizations in that the explicit goal of sweeps is to maximize audiences and profits, which strongly increases the pressure to produce sensationalistic or sleazy news to attract viewers. But sweeps also present the opportunity to produce more ethical and substantive news by giving reporters more time both off and on the air to explore issues. This study examines whether newsworkers and (...)
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  48. "Food Ethics and Religion".Tyler Doggett & Matthew C. Halteman - 2016 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), Food, Ethics, and Society: An Introductory Text with Readings. Oxford University Press.
    How does an engagement with religious traditions (broadly construed) illuminate and complicate the task of thinking through the ethics of eating? In this introduction, we survey some of the many food ethical issues that arise within various religious traditions and also consider some ethical positions that such traditions take on food. To say the least, we do not attempt to address all the ethical issues concerning food that arise in religious contexts, nor do we attempt to cover every tradition’s take (...)
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  49. Religion and the Sublime.Andrew Chignell & Matthew C. Halteman - 2012 - In Timothy M. Costelloe (ed.), The Sublime: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    An effort to lay out a kind of taxomony of conceptual relations between the domains of the sublime and the religious. Warning: includes two somewhat graphic images. -/- .
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  50.  10
    The Church and Gender Equality in Africa: Questioning Culture and the Theological Paradigm on Women Oppression.Ani Casimir, Matthew C. Chukwuelobe & Collins Ugwu - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):166-173.
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