Results for 'Matthew D. Schoolfield'

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  1.  27
    Review of Matthew H. Kramer (Ed.), Rights, Wrongs and Responsibilities[REVIEW]Matthew D. Adler - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (9).
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  2.  7
    Prioritarianism in Practice.Matthew D. Adler & Ole F. Norheim (eds.) - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Prioritarianism is an ethical theory that gives extra weight to the well-being of the worse off. In contrast, dominant policy-evaluation methodologies, such as benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and utilitarianism, ignore or downplay issues of fair distribution. Based on a research group founded by the editors, this important book is the first to show how prioritarianism can be used to assess governmental policies and evaluate societal conditions. This book uses prioritarianism as a methodology to evaluate governmental policy across a variety of (...)
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  3.  18
    Cost-Benefit Analysis: Legal, Economic, and Philosophical Perspectives.Matthew D. Adler & Eric A. Posner (eds.) - 2001 - University of Chicago Press.
    Cost-benefit analysis is a widely used governmental evaluation tool, though academics remain skeptical. This volume gathers prominent contributors from law, economics, and philosophy for discussion of cost-benefit analysis, specifically its moral foundations, applications and limitations. This new scholarly debate includes not only economists, but also contributors from philosophy, cognitive psychology, legal studies, and public policy who can further illuminate the justification and moral implications of this method and specify alternative measures. These articles originally appeared in the Journal of Legal Studies. (...)
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  4. Matthew D. Mendham.Michael P. Zuckert - 2002 - International Philosophical Quarterly 42:285-86.
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  5.  21
    Finding Feature Representations of Stimuli: Combining Feature Generation and Similarity Judgment Tasks.Matthew D. Zeigenfuse & Michael D. Lee - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1825--1830.
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  6.  15
    Heuristics for Choosing Features to Represent Stimuli.Matthew D. Zeigenfuse & Michael D. Lee - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1565--1570.
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  7. Happiness Surveys and Public Policy: What's the Use?Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    This Article provides a comprehensive, critical overview of proposals to use happiness surveys for steering public policy. Happiness or “subjective well-being” surveys ask individuals to rate their present happiness, life-satisfaction, affective state, etc. A massive literature now engages in such surveys or correlates survey responses with individual attributes. And, increasingly, scholars argue for the policy relevance of happiness data: in particular, as a basis for calculating aggregates such as “gross national happiness,” or for calculating monetary equivalents for non-market goods based (...)
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  8.  21
    Matthew D, Bacchetta, MBA, MA, is a Member of the Class of 1998, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York. Solomon R. Benatar, MB, Ch. B., FRCP, is Professor and Head of the Depart-Ment of Medicine and Director of the Bioethics Centre at the University of Cape Town, and Physician-in-Chief at Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa. [REVIEW]Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6:370-371.
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  9. Aristotle on the Uses of Contemplation.Matthew D. Walker - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Traditionally, Aristotle is held to believe that philosophical contemplation is valuable for its own sake, but ultimately useless. In this volume, Matthew D. Walker offers a fresh, systematic account of Aristotle's views on contemplation's place in the human good. The book situates Aristotle's views against the background of his wider philosophy, and examines the complete range of available textual evidence. On this basis, Walker argues that contemplation also benefits humans as perishable living organisms by actively guiding human life activity, (...)
  10.  61
    Prioritarianism: A Response to Critics.Matthew D. Adler & Nils Holtug - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (2):101-144.
    Prioritarianism is a moral view that ranks outcomes according to the sum of a strictly increasing and strictly concave transformation of individual well-being. Prioritarianism is ‘welfarist’ (namel...
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  11.  43
    The Rule of Recognition and the U.S. Constitution.Matthew D. Adler & Kenneth Einar Himma - unknown
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  12.  27
    Boo! The Consciousness Problem in Emotion.Matthew D. Lieberman - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (1):24-30.
  13. Or and Anaphora.Matthew D. Stone - unknown
    The meanings of donkey sentences cannot be captured using a procedure which, like Montague’s, uses the existential quantifiers of classical logic to translate indefinites and the variables to translate pronouns. The treatment of these examples requires meanings which depend on the context in which sentences appear, and thus necessitates a logic which models this context to some extent. If context is represented as the information conveyed in discourse, and the meanings of pronouns are enriched to depend on this information, the (...)
     
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  14. Assessing the Wellbeing Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Three Policy Types: Suppression, Control, and Uncontrolled Spread.Matthew D. Adler, Richard Bradley, Maddalena Ferranna, Marc Fleurbaey, James Hammitt & Alex Voorhoeve - 2020 - Thinktank 20 Policy Briefs for the G20 Meeting in Saudi Arabia 2020.
    The COVID-19 crisis has forced a difficult trade-off between limiting the health impacts of the virus and maintaining economic activity. Welfare economics offers tools to conceptualize this trade-off so that policy-makers and the public can see clearly what is at stake. We review four such tools: the Value of Statistical Life (VSL); the Value of Statistical Life Years (VSLYs); Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs); and social welfare analysis, and argue that the latter are superior. We also discuss how to choose policies that (...)
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  15.  80
    Aristotle on Wittiness.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - In Pierre Destrée & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford, UK: pp. 103-121.
    This chapter offers a complete account of Aristotle’s underexplored treatment of the virtue of wittiness (eutrapelia) in Nicomachean Ethics IV.8. It addresses the following questions: (1) What, according to Aristotle, is this virtue and what is its structure? (2) How do Aristotle’s moral psychological views inform Aristotle’s account, and how might Aristotle’s discussions of other, more familiar virtues, enable us to understand wittiness better? In particular, what passions does the virtue of wittiness concern, and how might the virtue (and its (...)
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  16.  41
    Would You Choose to Be Happy? Tradeoffs Between Happiness and the Other Dimensions of Life in a Large Population Survey.Matthew D. Adler, Paula Dolan & Georgios Kavetsos - unknown
    A large literature documents the correlates and causes of subjective well-being, or happiness. But few studies have investigated whether people choose happiness. Is happiness all that people want from life, or are they willing to sacrifice it for other attributes, such as income and health? Tackling this question has largely been the preserve of philosophers. In this article, we find out just how much happiness matters to ordinary citizens. Our sample consists of nearly 13,000 members of the UK and US (...)
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  17. Justice, Claims and Prioritarianism: Room for Desert?Matthew D. Adler - 2016
    Does individual desert matter for distributive justice? Is it relevant, for purposes of justice, that the pattern of distribution of justice’s “currency” (be it well-being, resources, preference-satisfaction, capabilities, or something else) is aligned in one or another way with the pattern of individual desert? -/- This paper examines the nexus between desert and distributive justice through the lens of individual claims. The concept of claims (specifically “claims across outcomes”) is a fruitful way to flesh out the content of distributive justice (...)
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  18. The Functions of Apollodorus.Matthew D. Walker - 2016 - In Mauro Tulli & Michael Erler (eds.), The Selected Papers of the Tenth Symposium Platonicum. 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany: pp. 110-116.
    In Plato’s Symposium, the mysterious Apollodorus recounts to an unnamed comrade, and to us, Aristodemus’ story of just what happened at Agathon’s drinking party. Since Apollodorus did not attend the party, however, it is unclear what relevance he could have to our understanding of Socrates’ speech, or to the Alcibiadean “satyr and silenic drama” (222d) that follows. The strangeness of Apollodorus is accentuated by his recession into the background after only two Stephanus pages. What difference—if any—does Apollodorus make to the (...)
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  19.  44
    Structured Inclusivism About Human Flourishing: A Mengzian Formulation.Matthew D. Walker - 2013 - In Stephen C. Angle & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics and Confucianism. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 94-102.
    I briefly defend the philosophical cogency of inclusivism about human flourishing, the view that intrinsic goods are valuable for the sake of flourishing by somehow composing flourishing. In particular, I consider the stuctured inclusivist view that intrinsic goods are components of flourishing as body parts are components of a body. As a test case, I examine the conception of human flourishing offered by the early Confucian philosopher Mengzi (Mencius). I argue that by appealing to Mengzi’s account, one can respond to (...)
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  20.  60
    Prioritarianism: Room for Desert?Matthew D. Adler - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (2):172-197.
  21. What Zombies Can't Do: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to the Irreducibility of Reflective Consciousness.Matthew D. Lieberman - 2009 - In Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.), In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford University Press. pp. 293--316.
     
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  22. THE RULE OF RECOGNITION AND THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION.Matthew D. Adler & Kenneth E. Himma (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  23.  35
    Introduction to, Preferences and Rational Choice: New Perspectives and Legal Implications.Matthew D. Adler, Claire Finkelstein & Peter Huang - unknown
  24.  58
    Bounded Rationality and Legal Scholarship.Matthew D. Adler - manuscript
    Decision theory seems to offer a very attractive normative framework for individual and social choice under uncertainty. The decisionmaker should think of her choice situation, at any given moment, in terms of a set of possible outcomes, that is, specifications of the possible consequences of choice, described in light of the decisionmaker's goals; a set of possible actions; and a "state set" consisting of possible prior "states of the world." It is this framework for choice which provides the foundation for (...)
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  25.  54
    Social Facts, Constitutional Interpretation, and the Rule of Recognition.Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    This chapter is an essay in a volume that examines constitutional law in the United States through the lens of H.L.A. Hart's "rule of recognition" model of a legal system. My chapter focuses on a feature of constitutional practice that has been rarely examined: how jurists and scholars argue about interpretive methods. Although a vast body of scholarship provides arguments for or against various interpretive methods -- such as textualism, originalism, "living constitutionalism," structure-and-relationship reasoning, representation reinforcement, minimalism, and so forth (...)
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  26.  24
    Harsanyi 2.0.Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    How should we make interpersonal comparisons of well-being levels and differences? One branch of welfare economics eschews such comparisons, which are seen as impossible or unknowable; normative evaluation is based upon criteria such as Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks efficiency that require no interpersonal comparability. A different branch of welfare economics, for example optimal tax theory, uses “social welfare functions” to compare social states and governmental policies. Interpersonally comparable utility numbers provide the input for SWFs. But this scholarly tradition has never adequately (...)
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  27. Dimensions and Classification of Genetic Interventions in the Human Genome.Matthew D. Bacchetta & Gerd Richter - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (3):450-457.
     
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  28.  50
    Aggregating Moral Preferences.Matthew D. Adler - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (2):283-321.
    :Preference-aggregation problems arise in various contexts. One such context, little explored by social choice theorists, is metaethical. ‘Ideal-advisor’ accounts, which have played a major role in metaethics, propose that moral facts are constituted by the idealized preferences of a community of advisors. Such accounts give rise to a preference-aggregation problem: namely, aggregating the advisors’ moral preferences. Do we have reason to believe that the advisors, albeit idealized, can still diverge in their rankings of a given set of alternatives? If so, (...)
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  29. Ruth Chang, Ed., Incommensurability, Incomparability and Practical Reason Reviewed By.Matthew D. Adler - 1999 - Philosophy in Review 19 (3):168-171.
     
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  30.  21
    Rights and Rules.Matthew D. Adler & Michael C. Dorf - 2000 - Legal Theory 6 (3):241-251.
    Prior to recent decades, the United States Supreme Court often invoked the political question doctrine to avoid deciding controversial questions of individual rights. 1 By the 1970s and 1980s, standing limits traced to Article IIIs arsenal of threshold decision making, 3 in the last decade the Court has turned with increasing frequency to the distinction between facial and as-applied challenges to perform the gatekeeping function. However, although there is a considerable body of scholarship concerning the conventional justiciability doctrines, scholars have (...)
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  31.  18
    Modeling Habits as Self-Sustaining Patterns of Sensorimotor Behavior.Matthew D. Egbert & Xabier E. Barandiaran - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  32.  19
    On (Moral) Philosophy and American Legal Scholarship.Matthew D. Adler - 2009 - In Francis J. Mootz (ed.), On Philosophy in American Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114.
  33. Punishment and Ethical Self-Cultivation in Confucius and Aristotle.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - Law and Literature 31 (2):259-275.
    Confucius and Aristotle both put a primacy on the task of ethical self-cultivation. Unlike Aristotle, who emphasizes the instrumental value of legal punishment for cultivation’s sake, Confucius raises worries about the practice of punishment. Punishment, and the threat of punishment, Confucius suggests, actually threatens to warp human motivation and impede our ethical development. In this paper, I examine Confucius’ worries about legal punishment, and consider how a dialogue on punishment between Confucius and Aristotle might proceed. I explore how far apart (...)
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  34. A Vindication of Politics: On the Common Good and Human Flourishing.Matthew D. Wright - 2019 - Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    Natural law political theory grounds the authority of law in the law's capacity to advance the common good, but questions about what this common good is and how it relates to political life remain highly contested. The influential new natural law theory of John Finnis reduces political association to the operation of government and makes it a merely instrumental good that serves to secure and facilitate individual and social goods. Political community, on this account, does not realize any further human (...)
     
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  35. Timing (Not Just Amount) of Sleep Makes the Difference: Event-Related Potential Correlates of Delayed Sleep Phase in Adolescent Female Students.Matthew Kirby & Amedeo D'Angiulli - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  36.  34
    Aristotle's Eudemus and the Propaedeutic Use of the Dialogue Form.Matthew D. Walker - 2021 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 59 (3):399-427.
    By scholarly consensus, extant fragments from, and testimony about, Aristotle’s lost dialogue Eudemus provide strong evidence for thinking that Aristotle at some point defended the human soul’s unqualified immortality (either in whole or in part). I reject this consensus and develop an alternative, deflationary, speculative, but textually supported proposal to explain why Aristotle might have written a dialogue featuring arguments for the soul’s unqualified immortality. Instead of defending unqualified immortality as a doctrine, I argue, the Eudemus was most likely offering (...)
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  37. Confucian Worries About the Aristotelian Sophos.Matthew D. Walker - 2016 - In Michael Slote Chienkuo Mi (ed.), Moral and Intellectual Virtues in Western and Chinese Philosophy: The Virtue Turn. New York, NY, USA: pp. 196-213.
    This chapter examines key Confucian worries about the Aristotelian sophos as a model of human flourishing. How strong are these worries? Do Aristotelians have good replies to them? Could the Aristotelian sophos, and this figure's distinguishing feature, sophia, be more appealing to the Confucian than they initially appear?
     
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  38.  38
    Extended Preferences and Interpersonal Comparisons: A New Account.Matthew D. Adler - 2014 - Economics and Philosophy 30 (2):123-162.
  39.  22
    Popular Constitutionalism and the Rule of Recognition: Whose Practices Ground U.Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    The law within each legal system is a function of the practices of some social group. In short, law is a kind of socially grounded norm. H.L.A Hart famously developed this view in his book, The Concept of Law, by arguing that law derives from a social rule, the so-called “rule of recognition.” But the proposition that social facts play a foundational role in producing law is a point of consensus for all modern jurisprudents in the Anglo-American tradition: not just (...)
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  40. Non-Impositional Rule in Confucius and Aristotle.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - In Alexus McLeod (ed.), The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Early Chinese Ethics and Political Philosophy. London, UK: pp. 187-204.
    I examine and compare Confucian wu-wei rule and Aristotelian non-imperative rule as two models of non-impositional rule. How exactly do non-impositional rulers, according to these thinkers, generate order? And how might a Confucian/Aristotelian dialogue concerning non-impositional rule in distinctively political contexts proceed? Are Confucians and Aristotelians in deep disagreement, or do they actually have more in common than they initially seem?
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  41.  3
    Contributors and Selected Bibliography.Matthew D. Adler - 2009 - In Francis J. Mootz (ed.), On Philosophy in American Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 28--295.
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  42. The “Logic” of Faith Seeking Understanding: A Propaedeutic for Anselm's Proslogion.Matthew D. Walz - 2010 - Dionysius 28.
    In the Preface of his 'Proslogion', Anselm narrates its origin in a particular event in his life and delineates the argument of the work as a whole. In chapter 1, Anselm enacts a meditation that attempts to resolve the puzzle of his fallen-but-striving human existence. This paper argues that these opening sections of the 'Proslogion' are an indispensable preparation for understanding Anselm’s famous argument in chapters 2-4 as well as the remainder of the work, especially insofar as these sections establish (...)
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  43. Positive Psychology and Luck Experiences.Matthew D. Smith & Piers Worth - 2019 - In Ian M. Church & Robert J. Hartman (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck. Routledge.
     
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  44.  72
    Socrates' Lesson to Hippothales in Plato's Lysis.Matthew D. Walker - 2020 - Classical Philology 115 (3):551-566.
    In the opening of Plato’s Lysis, Socrates criticizes the love-besotted Hippothales’ way of speaking to, and about, Hippothales’ yearned-for Lysis. Socrates subsequently proceeds to demonstrate (ἐπιδεῖξαι) how Hippothales should converse with Lysis (206c5–6). But how should we assess Socrates’ criticisms of, and demonstration to, Hippothales? Are they defensible by Socrates’ own standards, as well as independent criteria? In this note, I first articulate and assess Socrates’ criticisms of Hippothales. Second, I identify, examine, and respond to puzzles to which Socrates’ demonstration (...)
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  45. Contemplation and Self–Awareness in the Nicomachean Ethics.Matthew D. Walker - 2010 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 7:221-238.
    I explore Aristotle’s account in the Nicomachean Ethics of how agents attain self-awareness through contemplation. I argue that Aristotle sets up an account of self-awareness through contemplating friends in Books VIII-IX that completes itself in Book X’s remarks on theoretical contemplation. I go on to provide an account of how contemplating the divine, on Aristotle’s view, elicits self-awareness.
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  46. Aristotle on the Utility and Choiceworthiness of Friends.Matthew D. Walker - 2014 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 96 (2):151-182.
    Aristotle’s views on the choiceworthiness of friends might seem both internally inconsistent and objectionably instrumentalizing. On the one hand, Aristotle maintains that perfect friends or virtue friends are choiceworthy and lovable for their own sake, and not merely for the sake of further ends. On the other hand, in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9, Aristotle appears somehow to account for the choiceworthiness of such friends by reference to their utility as sources of a virtuous agent’s robust self-awareness. I examine Aristotle’s views on (...)
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  47.  97
    What is a Power of the Soul?: Aquinas' Answer.Matthew D. Walz - 2005 - Sapientia 60 (218):319-348.
    Does the soul have powers? If so, what general account can philosophy give of powers of the soul? One can broach some of Thomas Aquinas’s more obscure teachings concerning the soul and its powers, such as that the soul alone is the subject of some powers and that powers flow from the soul, by asking these broad questions. Many commentators have preferred, however, to focus on specific powers of the soul, which has resulted in detailed studies of, for example, the (...)
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  48.  29
    Review of Wm. Theodore de Bary, The Great Civilized Conversation. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Walker - 2015 - Journal of Asian Studies 74:455-456.
  49.  18
    Proslogion: Including Gaunilo Objections and Anselm's Replies.Matthew D. Walz - 2013 - South Bend, IN, USA: St. Augustine's Press.
  50.  9
    Review of Erick Raphael Jiménez, Aristotle's Concept of Mind. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Walker - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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