Results for 'Matthew D. Schoolfield'

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  1.  65
    Aristotle on the Uses of Contemplation.Matthew D. Walker - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Traditionally, Aristotle is held to believe that philosophical contemplation is valuable for its own sake, but ultimately useless. In this volume, Matthew D. Walker offers a fresh, systematic account of Aristotle's views on contemplation's place in the human good. The book situates Aristotle's views against the background of his wider philosophy, and examines the complete range of available textual evidence. On this basis, Walker argues that contemplation also benefits humans as perishable living organisms by actively guiding human life activity, (...)
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  2. The Illumination of Consciousness: Approaches to Self-Awareness in the Indian and Western Traditions.Matthew D. MacKenzie - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (1):40-62.
    : Philosophers in the Indian and Western traditions have developed and defended a range of sophisticated accounts of self-awareness. Here, four of these accounts are examined, and the arguments for them are assessed. Theories of self-awareness developed in the two traditions under consideration fall into two broad categories: reflectionist or other-illumination theories and reflexivist or self-illumination theories. Having assessed the main arguments for these theories, it is argued here that while neither reflectionist nor reflexivist theories are adequate as traditionally formulated (...)
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  3.  47
    Prioritarianism: A Response to Critics.Matthew D. Adler & Nils Holtug - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (2):101-144.
    Prioritarianism is a moral view that ranks outcomes according to the sum of a strictly increasing and strictly concave transformation of individual well-being. Prioritarianism is ‘welfarist’ (namel...
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  4.  46
    Prioritarianism: Room for Desert?Matthew D. Adler - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (2):172-197.
  5. Happiness Surveys and Public Policy: What's the Use?Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    This Article provides a comprehensive, critical overview of proposals to use happiness surveys for steering public policy. Happiness or “subjective well-being” surveys ask individuals to rate their present happiness, life-satisfaction, affective state, etc. A massive literature now engages in such surveys or correlates survey responses with individual attributes. And, increasingly, scholars argue for the policy relevance of happiness data: in particular, as a basis for calculating aggregates such as “gross national happiness,” or for calculating monetary equivalents for non-market goods based (...)
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  6.  17
    Modeling Habits as Self-Sustaining Patterns of Sensorimotor Behavior.Matthew D. Egbert & Xabier E. Barandiaran - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  7.  44
    Aggregating Moral Preferences.Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    Preference-aggregation problems arise in various contexts. One such context, little explored by social choice theorists, is metaethical. “Ideal-advisor” accounts, which have played a major role in metaethics, propose that moral facts are constituted by the idealized preferences of a community of advisors. Such accounts give rise to a preference-aggregation problem: namely, aggregating the advisors’ moral preferences. Do we have reason to believe that the advisors, albeit idealized, can still diverge in their rankings of a given set of alternatives? If so, (...)
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  8.  31
    Extended Preferences and Interpersonal Comparisons: A New Account.Matthew D. Adler - 2014 - Economics and Philosophy 30 (2):123-162.
  9.  7
    Cost-Benefit Analysis: Legal, Economic, and Philosophical Perspectives.Matthew D. Adler & Eric A. Posner (eds.) - 2001 - University of Chicago Press.
    Cost-benefit analysis is a widely used governmental evaluation tool, though academics remain skeptical. This volume gathers prominent contributors from law, economics, and philosophy for discussion of cost-benefit analysis, specifically its moral foundations, applications and limitations. This new scholarly debate includes not only economists, but also contributors from philosophy, cognitive psychology, legal studies, and public policy who can further illuminate the justification and moral implications of this method and specify alternative measures. These articles originally appeared in the Journal of Legal Studies. (...)
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  10. Aristotle on the Utility and Choiceworthiness of Friends.Matthew D. Walker - 2014 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 96 (2):151-182.
    Aristotle’s views on the choiceworthiness of friends might seem both internally inconsistent and objectionably instrumentalizing. On the one hand, Aristotle maintains that perfect friends or virtue friends are choiceworthy and lovable for their own sake, and not merely for the sake of further ends. On the other hand, in Nicomachean Ethics IX.9, Aristotle appears somehow to account for the choiceworthiness of such friends by reference to their utility as sources of a virtuous agent’s robust self-awareness. I examine Aristotle’s views on (...)
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  11.  5
    Rapid Decisions From Experience.Matthew D. Zeigenfuse, Timothy J. Pleskac & Taosheng Liu - 2014 - Cognition 131 (2):181-194.
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  12.  29
    Or and Anaphora.Matthew D. Stone - unknown
    The meanings of donkey sentences cannot be captured using a procedure which, like Montague’s, uses the existential quantifiers of classical logic to translate indefinites and the variables to translate pronouns. The treatment of these examples requires meanings which depend on the context in which sentences appear, and thus necessitates a logic which models this context to some extent. If context is represented as the information conveyed in discourse, and the meanings of pronouns are enriched to depend on this information, the (...)
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  13.  24
    Boo! The Consciousness Problem in Emotion.Matthew D. Lieberman - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (1):24-30.
  14.  10
    Investigating the Cognitive Structure of Stereotypes: Generic Beliefs About Groups Predict Social Judgments Better Than Statistical Beliefs.Matthew D. Hammond & Andrei Cimpian - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (5):607-614.
  15.  85
    N. R. Hanson: Observation, Discovery, and Scientific Change.Matthew D. Lund - 2010 - Humanity Books.
    Biographical sketch -- Philosophical context -- Observation -- Logic of discovery -- Philosophy and history of science -- Quantum theory -- Conceptual structure, analogy, and the logic of discovery revisited.
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  16.  41
    The Rule of Recognition and the U.S. Constitution.Matthew D. Adler & Kenneth Einar Himma - unknown
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  17. Structured Inclusivism About Human Flourishing: A Mengzian Formulation.Matthew D. Walker - 2013 - In Stephen C. Angle & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics and Confucianism. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 94-102.
    I briefly defend the philosophical cogency of inclusivism about human flourishing, the view that intrinsic goods are valuable for the sake of flourishing by somehow composing flourishing. In particular, I consider the stuctured inclusivist view that intrinsic goods are components of flourishing as body parts are components of a body. As a test case, I examine the conception of human flourishing offered by the early Confucian philosopher Mengzi (Mencius). I argue that by appealing to Mengzi’s account, one can respond to (...)
     
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  18.  41
    Mindfulness Starts with the Body: Somatosensory Attention and Top-Down Modulation of Cortical Alpha Rhythms in Mindfulness Meditation.Catherine E. Kerr, Matthew D. Sacchet, Sara W. Lazar, Christopher I. Moore & Stephanie R. Jones - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  19.  6
    Confucian Worries About the Aristotelian Sophos.Matthew D. Walker - 2016 - In Michael Slote Chienkuo Mi (ed.), Moral and Intellectual Virtues in Western and Chinese Philosophy: The Virtue Turn. New York, NY, USA: pp. 196-213.
    This chapter examines key Confucian worries about the Aristotelian sophos as a model of human flourishing. How strong are these worries? Do Aristotelians have good replies to them? Could the Aristotelian sophos, and this figure's distinguishing feature, sophia, be more appealing to the Confucian than they initially appear?
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  20.  39
    Would You Choose to Be Happy? Tradeoffs Between Happiness and the Other Dimensions of Life in a Large Population Survey.Matthew D. Adler, Paula Dolan & Georgios Kavetsos - unknown
    A large literature documents the correlates and causes of subjective well-being, or happiness. But few studies have investigated whether people choose happiness. Is happiness all that people want from life, or are they willing to sacrifice it for other attributes, such as income and health? Tackling this question has largely been the preserve of philosophers. In this article, we find out just how much happiness matters to ordinary citizens. Our sample consists of nearly 13,000 members of the UK and US (...)
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  21.  31
    Rawlsian Affirmative Action.D. C. Matthew - 2015 - Critical Philosophy of Race 3 (2):324-343.
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  22.  18
    Putting Feelings Into Words: Affect Labeling as Implicit Emotion Regulation.Jared B. Torre & Matthew D. Lieberman - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (2):116-124.
    Putting feelings into words, or “affect labeling,” can attenuate our emotional experiences. However, unlike explicit emotion regulation techniques, affect labeling may not even feel like a regulatory process as it occurs. Nevertheless, research investigating affect labeling has found it produces a pattern of effects like those seen during explicit emotion regulation, suggesting affect labeling is a form of implicit emotion regulation. In this review, we will outline research on affect labeling, comparing it to reappraisal, a form of explicit emotion regulation, (...)
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  23. What Zombies Can't Do: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to the Irreducibility of Reflective Consciousness.Matthew D. Lieberman - 2009 - In Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.), In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford University Press. pp. 293--316.
     
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  24.  3
    Fitness and Individuality in Complex Life Cycles.Matthew D. Herron - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):828-834.
    Complex life cycles are common in the eukaryotic world, and they complicate the question of how to define individuality. Using a bottom-up, gene-centric approach, I consider the concept of fitness in the context of complex life cycles. I analyze the fitness effects of an allele on different biological units within a complex life history and how these effects drive evolutionary change within populations. Based on these effects, I attempt to construct a concept of fitness that accurately predicts evolutionary change in (...)
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  25.  52
    Rawls and Racial Justice.D. C. Matthew - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (3):235-258.
    This article discusses the adequacy of Rawls’ theory of justice as a tool for racial justice. It is argued that critics like Charles W Mills fail to appreciate both the insights and limits of the Rawlsian framework. The article has two main parts spread out over several different sections. The first is concerned with whether the Rawlsian framework suffices to prevent racial injustice. It is argued that there are reasons to doubt whether it does. The second part is concerned with (...)
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  26.  51
    Rehabilitating Theoretical Wisdom.Matthew D. Walker - 2013 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 10 (6):763-787.
    Given the importance of theoretical wisdom in Aristotle’s account of the human good, it is striking that contemporary virtue ethicists have been virtually silent about this intellectual virtue and what contribution it makes – or could make – toward human flourishing. In this paper, I examine, and respond to, two main worries that account for theoretical wisdom’s current marginality. Along the way, I sketch a neo-Aristotelian conception of theoretical wisdom, and argue that this intellectual virtue is more central to the (...)
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  27.  21
    Finding Feature Representations of Stimuli: Combining Feature Generation and Similarity Judgment Tasks.Matthew D. Zeigenfuse & Michael D. Lee - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1825--1830.
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  28. Why Rejection Hurts: A Common Neural Alarm System for Physical and Social Pain.Naomi I. Eisenberger & Matthew D. Lieberman - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (7):294-300.
  29.  59
    Clinical Pragmatism: A Method of Moral Problem Solving.Joseph J. Fins, Matthew D. Bacchetta & Franklin G. Miller - 1997 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):129-143.
    : This paper presents a method of moral problem solving in clinical practice that is inspired by the philosophy of John Dewey. This method, called "clinical pragmatism," integrates clinical and ethical decision making. Clinical pragmatism focuses on the interpersonal processes of assessment and consensus formation as well as the ethical analysis of relevant moral considerations. The steps in this method are delineated and then illustrated through a detailed case study. The implications of clinical pragmatism for the use of principles in (...)
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  30.  24
    Review of Matthew H. Kramer (Ed.), Rights, Wrongs and Responsibilities[REVIEW]Matthew D. Adler - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (9).
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  31.  34
    The Five Factors of Action and the Decentring of Agency in the Bhagavad Gtā.Matthew D. MacKenzie - 2001 - Asian Philosophy 11 (3):141 – 150.
    I will here analyse the five factors of action given in the Bhagavad Gtā, paying specific attention to the implications of this account for the Gtā's moral and soteriological psychologies. I argue that the Gtā's account of action constitutes a decentring of agency which paves the way for liberation. Further, while the ethics and moral psychology of the Gtā are often seen as similar to Kant's, I will argue that the decentring of agency in the Gtā places the liberated person (...)
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  32.  34
    Logos of a Living Earth: Toward a New Marriage of Science and Myth for Our Planetary Future.Matthew D. Segall - 2012 - World Futures 68 (2):93 - 103.
    The social and ecological crises of the twenty-first century represent a failure of the techno-industrial way of living and knowing. It has become apparent that we need both a new mythos and a new science. In this essay, I draw attention to the important epistemological and cosmological implications of enactivism, a still emerging paradigm within the life sciences. Guided by the insights of the enactive paradigm, I offer a new story of human origins and destiny in an attempt to contribute (...)
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  33.  66
    Cognitivism, Controversy, and Moral Heuristics.Matthew D. Adler - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):542-543.
    Sunstein aims to provide a nonsectarian account of moral heuristics, yet the account rests on a controversial meta-ethical view. Further, moral theorists who reject act consequentialism may deny that Sunstein's examples involve moral mistakes. But so what? Within a theory that counts consequences as a morally weighty feature of actions, the moral judgments that Sunstein points to are indeed mistaken, and the fact that governmental action at odds with these judgments will be controversial doesn't bar such action.
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  34.  14
    Aristotle on the Utility and Choiceworthiness of Friends.D. Matthew - 2014 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 96 (2):151-182.
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  35.  20
    Popular Constitutionalism and the Rule of Recognition: Whose Practices Ground U.Matthew D. Adler - unknown
    The law within each legal system is a function of the practices of some social group. In short, law is a kind of socially grounded norm. H.L.A Hart famously developed this view in his book, The Concept of Law, by arguing that law derives from a social rule, the so-called “rule of recognition.” But the proposition that social facts play a foundational role in producing law is a point of consensus for all modern jurisprudents in the Anglo-American tradition: not just (...)
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  36.  23
    The Economics of Clinical Ethics Programs: A Quantitative Justification.Matthew D. Bacchetta & Joseph J. Fins - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (4):451-.
    The restructuring of the healthcare marketplace has exerted pressure directly and indirectly on clinical ethics programs. The fiscal orientation and emphasis on efficiency, outcome measures, and cost control have made it increasingly difficult to communicate arguments in support of the existence or growth of ethics programs. In the current marketplace, arguments that rely on the claim that ethics programs protect patient rights or assist in the professional formation of practitioners often result in minimal levels of funding and preclude program growth. (...)
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  37.  15
    The Role of Automaticity and Attention in Neural Processes Underlying Empathy for Happiness, Sadness, and Anxiety.Sylvia A. Morelli & Matthew D. Lieberman - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  38.  8
    The Evolution of Sex: A New Hypothesis Based on Mitochondrial Mutational Erosion.Justin C. Havird, Matthew D. Hall & Damian K. Dowling - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (9):951-958.
    The evolution of sex in eukaryotes represents a paradox, given the “twofold” fitness cost it incurs. We hypothesize that the mutational dynamics of the mitochondrial genome would have favored the evolution of sexual reproduction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibits a high‐mutation rate across most eukaryote taxa, and several lines of evidence suggest that this high rate is an ancestral character. This seems inexplicable given that mtDNA‐encoded genes underlie the expression of life's most salient functions, including energy conversion. We propose that negative (...)
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  39.  12
    Courants litteraires grecs des IIe et IIIe siecles apres J.-C. [REVIEW]Matthew D. MacLeod & B. P. Reardon - 1975 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 95:223-225.
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  40. Review of Matthew D. Adler: Well-Being and Fair Distribution. Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis. [REVIEW]Alex Voorhoeve - 2014 - Social Choice and Welfare 42 (1):245-54.
    In this extended book review, I summarize Adler's views and critically analyze his key arguments on the measurement of well-being and the foundations of prioritarianism.
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  41.  35
    A Pain by Any Other Name (Rejection, Exclusion, Ostracism) Still Hurts the Same: The Role of Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Social and Physical Pain.Matthew D. Lieberman & Naomi I. Eisenberger - 2006 - In John T. Cacioppo, Penny S. Visser & Cynthia L. Pickett (eds.), Social Neuroscience: People Thinking About Thinking People. MIT Press.
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  42.  21
    Matthew D, Bacchetta, MBA, MA, is a Member of the Class of 1998, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York. Solomon R. Benatar, MB, Ch. B., FRCP, is Professor and Head of the Depart-Ment of Medicine and Director of the Bioethics Centre at the University of Cape Town, and Physician-in-Chief at Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa. [REVIEW]Joseph C. D'Oronzio - 1997 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6:370-371.
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  43.  28
    Jon Miller, Ed., Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics: A Critical Guide , X + 290 Pp., $85.00. ISBN 9780521514484. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Walker - 2013 - Polis: The Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought 30 (1):176-180.
  44.  10
    Review of Wm. Theodore de Bary, The Great Civilized Conversation. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Walker - 2015 - Journal of Asian Studies 74:455-456.
  45.  55
    Eudaimonia and Agape in Macintyre and Kierkegaard's Works of Love.Matthew D. Mendham - 2007 - Journal of Religious Ethics 35 (4):591-625.
    This essay explores connections and divergences between Alasdair MacIntyre's eudaimonistic ethic and Søren Kierkegaard's agapeistic ethic--perhaps the greatest proponents of these ethical paradigms from the past two centuries. The purpose of the work is threefold. First, to demonstrate an impressive amount of convergence and complementarity in their approaches to the transcendent grounds of an ethic of flourishing, the rigors necessary for a proper self-love, and the other-directed nature of proper social relations. Second, given the inapplicability of common dichotomies, to pinpoint (...)
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  46.  24
    Interventions in the Human Genome: Some Moral and Ethical Considerations.Gerd Richter & Matthew D. Bacchetta - 1998 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (3):303 – 317.
    In the debate regarding the different possibilities for gene therapy, it is presupposed that the manipulations are limited to the nuclear genome (nDNA). Given recent advances in genetics, mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and diseases must be considered as well. In this paper, we propose a three dimensional framework for the ethical debate of gene therapy where we add the genomic type (nDNA vs. mtDNA) as a third dimension to be considered beside the paradigmatic dimensions of target cell (somatic vs. germ-line) and (...)
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  47.  15
    Heuristics for Choosing Features to Represent Stimuli.Matthew D. Zeigenfuse & Michael D. Lee - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1565--1570.
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  48.  5
    Exploring Pragmatics and Aesthetics in Design Education.Matthew D. Ziff - 2000 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 34 (2):27-36.
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  49.  3
    The Problem of the Correct Answer.Matthew D. Ziff - 2017 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 51 (1):45-53.
    If you do not know the correct answer, guess.Design addresses need, of various types. A designer “designs” to address, to propose a possibility, or to meet a need. A great variety of things are designed: shoes, posters, watches, houses, televisions, keyboards, movies, washing machines, toasters, belts, and cars, to mention only some.A designer, be he or she an architect, interior designer, graphic designer, product designer, or industrial designer, nearly always provides drawings, models, written descriptions, and overarching ideas in response to (...)
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  50. Matthew D. Mendham.Michael P. Zuckert - 2002 - International Philosophical Quarterly 42:285-86.
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