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Matthew Sharpe [85]Matthew Joel Sharpe [3]
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Matthew Sharpe
Deakin University
  1.  2
    Camus, Philosophe: To Return to Our Beginnings.Matthew Sharpe - 2015 - Brill.
    In _Camus, Philosophe: To Return to our Beginnings_ Matthew Sharpe reads Camus as a _philosophe_ in the classical and enlightenment lineages, arguing that his defense of _mesure_ singles him out amidst 20th century French thought and makes him of renewed relevance today.
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  2.  16
    In the Crosshairs of the Fourfold: Critical Thoughts on Aleksandr Dugin’s Heidegger.Matthew Sharpe - 2020 - Critical Horizons 21 (2):167-187.
  3. Zizek and Politics: A Critical Introduction.Matthew Sharpe & Geoff M. Boucher - 2010 - Edinburgh University Press.
    In Zizek and Politics, Geoff Boucher and Matthew Sharpe go beyond standard introductions to spell out a new approach to reading Zizek, one that can be highly critical as well as deeply appreciative. They show that Zizek has a raft of fundamental positions that enable his theoretical positions to be put to work on practical problems. Explaining these positions with clear examples, they outline why Zizek's confrontation with thinkers such as Derrida, Foucault and Deleuze has so radically changed how we (...)
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  4.  19
    TOWARDS A PHENOMENOLOGY OF SAGESSE: Uncovering the Unique Philosophical Problematic of Pierre Hadot.Matthew Sharpe - 2018 - Angelaki 23 (2):125-138.
    This paper starts from the contention that Pierre Hadot’s unusually divided reception reflects the different dimensions of Hadot’s own scholarly profile. Hadot’s largely favourable reception amongst historians of ideas responds to the philological dimension of his work, but misses the implicit normativity involved in his recovery of the sense of ancient philosophy as a way of life. Analytic critics have registered but contested this normativity in ways that arguably also misrepresent his work. This paper contends that both receptions of Hadot (...)
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  5.  19
    On Reading Heidegger—After the “Heidegger Case”?Matthew Sharpe - 2018 - Critical Horizons 19 (4):334-360.
    ABSTRACTThis paper looks at the state of the literature surrounding Heidegger and Nazism today. Part 1 focusses on Hassan Givsan’s remarkable work, Une histoire consternante: pourquoi les philosophes se laissent corrompre par le “cas Heidegger”, which looks at the different, mutually inconsistent forms of “apologetics” denying that Heidegger had been a Nazi, or that this commitment could have been shaped by his philosophy. Part 2 looks at five themes that emerge from the 2014 French-language collection Heidegger, le sol, la communauté, (...)
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  6.  24
    How It's Not the Chrisippus You Read: On Cooper, Hadot, Epictetus, and Stoicism as a Way of Life.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - Philosophy Today 58 (3):367-392.
    This article challenges John M. Cooper’s reading of ancient Stoicism as a way of life, one which sets its back against Pierre Hadot’s notion that Stoicism could have philosophically advocated regimens of non-cognitive practices of the kind documented by Hadot. Part 1 examines Arrian’s Discourses, following A. A. Long in seeing in this text Arrian’s portrait of Epictetus as a philosophical persona: one bringing together the different virtues of Socrates, Diogenes, and Zeno. Part 2 then examines Epictetus’s Handbook , seeing (...)
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  7.  17
    On a Neglected Argument in French Philosophy: Sceptical Humanism in Montaigne, Voltaire and Camus.Matthew Sharpe - 2015 - Critical Horizons 16 (1):1-26.
    This paper wants to draw out a common argument in three great philosophers and littérateurs in modern French thought: Michel de Montaigne, Voltaire, and Albert Camus. The argument makes metaphysical and theological scepticism the first premise for a universalistic political ethics, as per Voltaire's: “it is clearer still that we ought to be tolerant of one another, because we are all weak, inconsistent, liable to fickleness and error.” The argument, it seems to me, presents an interestingly overlooked, deeply important and (...)
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  8.  28
    From Amy Allen to Abbé Raynal: Critical Theory, the Enlightenment and Colonialism.Matthew Sharpe - 2019 - Critical Horizons 20 (2):178-199.
    ABSTRACTThis paper is a critical response to Amy Allen’s The End of Progress: Decolonising the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory. We take up her book’s call for a “problematizing” history which challenges “taken-for-granted” preconceptions in order to contest Allen’s own representation of the thought of the enlightenment. Allen accepts that all the enlighteners agreed upon a stadial, progressive account of history, which she critiques epistemically and normatively. But we show in Part 2, drawing on the work of Henri Vyverberg and (...)
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  9.  24
    Socratic Ironies: Reading Hadot, Reading Kierkegaard.Matthew Sharpe - 2016 - Sophia 55 (3):409-435.
    This paper examines the seemingly unlikely rapport between the ‘Christian existentialist’, radically Protestant thinker, Søren Kierkegaard and French classicist and historian of philosophy, Pierre Hadot, famous for advocating a return to the ancient pagan sense of philosophy as a way of life. Despite decisive differences we stress in our concluding remarks, we argue that the conception of philosophy in Hadot as a way of life shares decisive features with Kierkegaard’s understanding of the true ‘religious’ life: as something demanding existential engagement (...)
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  10.  80
    The Invincible Summer: On Albert Camus' Philosophical Neoclassicism.Matthew Joel Sharpe - 2011 - Sophia 50 (4):577-592.
    What follows is a work of critical reconstruction of Camus' thought. It aims to answer to the wish Camus expressed in his later notebooks, that he at least be read closely. Specifically, I hope to do three things. In Part I, we will show how Camus' famous philosophy of the absurd represents a systematic scepticism whose closest philosophical predecessor is Descartes' method of doubt, and whose consequence, as in Descartes, is the discovery of a single, orienting certainty, on the basis (...)
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  11.  87
    Critique as Technology of the Self.Matthew Sharpe - 2005 - Foucault Studies 2:97-116.
    This inquiry is situated at the intersection of two enigmas. The first is the enigma of the status of Kant's practice of critique, which has been the subject of heated debate since shortly after the publication of the first edition of The Critique of Pure Reason. The second enigma is that of Foucault's apparent later 'turn' to Kant, and the label of 'critique', to describe his own theoretical practice. I argue that Kant's practice of 'critique' should be read, after Foucault, (...)
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  12.  23
    Camus and the Virtues.Matthew Sharpe - 2017 - Philosophy Today 61 (3):679-708.
    Albert Camus can be meaningfully read as an agent-focussed virtue ethicist, as David Sherman has suggested. Yet moving far beyond Sherman’s version of this claim, we show here how Camus accepts what are four definitive parameters of the classical authors’ conception of the virtues—the last of which takes him beyond today’s recognised “virtue ethicists.” Firstly, he understands the virtues as lasting, beneficent dispositions to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Secondly, he conceives the virtues as mastering the untethered passions: (...)
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  13. Understanding Psychoanalysis.Matthew Sharpe & Joanne Faulkner - 2008 - Routledge.
    "Understanding Psychoanalysis" presents a broad introduction to the key concepts and developments in psychoanalysis and its impact on modern thought. Charting pivotal moments in the theorization and reception of psychoanalysis, the book provides a comprehensive account of the concerns and development of Freud's work, as well as his most prominent successors, Melanie Klein and Jacques Lacan.The work of these leading psychoanalytic theorists has greatly influenced thinking across other disciplines, notably feminism, film studies, poststructuralism, social and cultural theory, the philosophy of (...)
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  14.  31
    The Plague and the Panopticon: Camus, with and Against the Total Critiques of Modernity.Matthew Sharpe - 2016 - Thesis Eleven 133 (1):59-79.
    Albert Camus’s 1947 novel La Peste and 1948 drama L’État de Siège, allegories of totalitarian power using the figure of the plague, remarkably anticipate Foucault’s celebrated genealogical analyses of modern power. Indeed, reading Foucault after Camus highlights a fact little-remarked in Discipline and Punish: namely, that the famous chapter on the ‘Panopticon’ begins by analysing the measures taken in early modern Vincennes following the advent of plague. Part III argues that, although Camus was cited as an inspiration by the nouveaux (...)
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  15.  6
    Of Cartesianism and Spiritual Exercises.Matteo J. Stettler & Matthew Sharpe - 2022 - Philosophy Today 66 (3):471-489.
    This article challenges the recurrent critique that Pierre Hadot’s identification of ancient philosophy with the practice of spiritual exercises introduces a non- or irrational dimension into metaphilosophy. The occasion to do this is provided by Kerem Eksen’s recent reading of Descartes’s Meditations as consisting of solely intellectual, rather than spiritual, exercises—since the latter, Eksen claims, involve extrarational means and ends. Part 2 presents an alternative account of the role of cognition in the ancient meditatio at issue in understanding Descartes’s antecedents. (...)
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  16.  34
    Traversing the Fantasy: Critical Responses to Slavoj Žižek.Geoff M. Boucher, Jason Glynos & Matthew Sharpe - 2005 - Routledge.
    Slavoj Zizek is one of the most provocative and important thinkers writing in contemporary philosophy. This book is an engaged debate with Zizek. It contains a series of specially commissioned critical essays from an impressive collection of contributors covering the full extent of his oeuvre. Essays examine Zizek on cultural theory, film studies, ethics, political theory, social theory, Kant and Lacanian psychoanalysis. In the spirit of Zizek‘s own interventions, these essays critically interrogate his ideas, challenging him to respond directly which (...)
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  17.  38
    The Aesthetics of Ideology, or ‘The Critique of Ideological Judgment’ in Eagleton and Zizek.Matthew Sharpe - 2006 - Political Theory 34 (1):95-120.
    The notions of ‘ideology’ and ‘critique of ideology’ have been criticised in manyways. This essay examines theworks of two contemporary theorists who defend this theoretical category. Interestingly, both do this through pivotal recourse to categories drawn from modern aesthetic theory, and in particular Kant's third Critique. In thisway, they reanimate a theoretical concern with the intersection of politics and aesthetics that goes as far back as Plato. The essay's conclusion reflects on this “aesthetic turn” in the theory of ideology: what (...)
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  18.  21
    Between Too Intellectualist and Not Intellectualist Enough: Hadot’s Spiritual Exercises and Annas’ Virtues as Skills.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry 55 (2):269-287.
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  19. Stoic Virtue Ethics.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - In Stan van Hooft & Nafsika Athanassoulis (eds.), The Handbook of Virtue Ethics. Acumen Publishing.
     
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  20.  17
    Drafted Into a Foreign War?: On the Very Idea of Ancient Philosophy as a Way of Life.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Rhizomata 8 (2):183-217.
    This paper examines the central criticisms that come, broadly, from the modern, ‘analytic’ tradition, of Pierre Hadot’s idea of ancient philosophy as a way of life.: Firstly, ancient philosophy just did not or could not have involved anything like the ‘spiritual practices’ or ‘technologies of the self’, aiming at curing subjects’ unnecessary desires or bettering their lives, contra Hadot and Foucault et al. Secondly, any such metaphilosophical account of putative ‘philosophy’ must unacceptably downplay the role of ‘serious philosophical reasoning’ or (...)
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  21.  26
    Camus' Askesis : Reading Camus in Light of the Carnets (and His L'Impromptu des Philosophes).Matthew Sharpe - 2013 - Philosophical Practice 8 (1):1149-1164.
  22.  4
    “Bringin’ Sexy Back” (and With It, Women): Shusterman Beyond Foucault on the Greeks.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 5 (4):138-146.
    Richard Shusterman, Ars Erotica: Sex and Somaesthetics in the Classical Arts of Love (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021), 436 pages./ Like other contributors, I would like to begin by expressing my respect and admiration for the scale and scope of Richard Shusterman’s achievement in Ars Erotica. The Preface acknowledges “the vast amount of material” involved in this project of charting “the history of erotic theory in the world’s most influential premodern cultures,” with each chapter on a different cultural tradition potentially (...)
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  23.  4
    Simplicius the Neoplatonist in Light of Contemporary Research. A Critical Review, Written by Ilsetraut Hadot and With Contributions by Philippe Vallat. Translated From the French by Ian Drummond.Matthew Sharpe - 2022 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 16 (1):98-100.
  24.  30
    Restoring Camus as Philosophe: On Ronald Srigley’s Camus’ Critique of Modernity.Matthew Sharpe - 2012 - Critical Horizons 13 (3):400 - 424.
  25. Jacques Lacan.Matthew Sharpe - 2002 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
     
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  26.  10
    A Good Person for a Crisis? On the Wisdom of the Stoic Sage.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 5 (1):32-49.
    Is the Stoic sage a possible or desirable ideal for contemporary men and women, as we enter into difficult times? Is he, as Seneca presents him, the very best person for a crisis? In order to examine these questions, Part 1 begins from what Irene Liu calls the “standard” modern conceptions of the sage as either a kind of epistemically perfect, omniscient agent, or else someone in possession of a specific arsenal of theoretical knowledge, especially concerning the physical world. We (...)
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  27.  37
    From Amy Allen to Abbé Raynal: Critical Theory, the Enlightenment and Colonialism.Matthew Sharpe - forthcoming - Tandf: Critical Horizons:1-22.
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  28.  49
    Is Neoliberalism a Liberalism, or a Strange Kind of Bird? On Hayek and Our Discontents.Matthew Sharpe - 2009 - Critical Horizons 10 (1):76-98.
    This paper examines the theoretical ideas of Friedrich von Hayek, arguably the key progenitor of the global economic orthodoxy of the past two decades. It assesses Hayek's thought as he presents it: namely as a form of liberalism. Section I argues that Hayek's thought, if liberal, is hostile to participatory democracy. Section II then argues the more radical thesis that neoliberalism is also in truth an illiberal doctrine. Founded not in any social contract doctrine, but a form of constructivism, neoliberal (...)
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  29.  25
    Autonomy, Reflexivity, Tragedy: Notions of Democracy in Camus and Castoriadis.Matthew Sharpe - 2002 - Critical Horizons 3 (1):103-129.
    This paper looks at two 20th century theories of tragedy: those of Cornelius Castoriadis and Albert Camus. The theories that each proffer of this ancient cultural form are striking. Against more standard views, both theorists stress that tragedy is a cultural form that has only arisen historically in cultures whose forms of religious thought have been laid open to question. In this way, both argue that tragedy is an important democratic cultural form, which stages the confrontation between a no longer (...)
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  30.  24
    The Descent of the Doves: Camus’s Fall, Derrida’s Ethics?Matthew Sharpe - 2002 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (2):173-189.
    This essay is a critique of Derrida's ethical works, using Camus's last novella The Fall as a critical sounding board. It argues that a danger pertains to any such highly self-reflexive position as Derrida's: a danger that Camus identified in The Fall, and staged in his character, Jean-Baptiste Clamence. Clamence is a successful Parisian lawyer, on top of his personal and professional life, whose equanimity is troubled after he is the unwitting passer-by as a young woman suicides one night on (...)
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  31.  16
    Pierre Hadot, Albert Camus and the Orphic View of Nature.Matthew Sharpe - 2020 - Continental Philosophy Review 54 (1):17-39.
    Albert Camus repeatedly denied the label “existentialist,” and pointed to his formative experiences of natural beauty and his early introduction to classical Greek thought and culture as determinative of his philosophy. Pierre Hadot, famous for his post-1970 work on philosophy as a way of life in classical antiquity, continued throughout his life to work on the history of Western conceptions of nature. In Le voile d’Isis, Hadot excavated a second strain of Western attitudes towards nature, alongside the instrumental or “Promethean” (...)
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  32.  55
    Philosophy, Violence, Metaphor.Jack Reynolds, Leesa Davis & Matthew Sharpe - 2016 - Sophia 55 (1):1-4.
    In this paper, I explore the complex ethical dynamics of violence and nonviolence in Mahāyāna Buddhism by considering some of the historical precedents and scriptural prescriptions that inform modern and contemporary Buddhist acts of self-immolation. Through considering these scripturally sanctioned Mahāyāna ‘case studies,’ the paper traces the tension that exists in Buddhist thought between violence and nonviolence, outlines the interplay of key Mahāyāna ideas of transcendence and altruism, and comments on the mimetic status and influence of spiritually charged texts. It (...)
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  33.  5
    Georgics of the Mind and the Architecture of Fortune: Francis Bacon's Therapeutic Ethics.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - Philosophical Papers 43 (1):89-121.
  34.  56
    Changing Aristotle's Mind and World : Critical Notes on McDowell's Aristotle.Matthew Sharpe - 2012 - Philosophy Study 2 (11):804-821.
    Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is central to John McDowell’s classic Mind and World. In Lectures IV and V of that work, McDowell makes three claims concerning Aristotle’s ethics: first, that Aristotle did not base his ethics on an externalist, naturalistic basis (including a theory of human nature); second, that attempts to read him as an ethical naturalist are a modern anachronism, generated by the supposed need to ground all viable philosophical claims on claims analogous to the natural sciences; and third, that (...)
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  35.  38
    Reading Camus “With,” or After, Levinas: Rebellion and the Primacy of Ethics.Matthew Sharpe - 2011 - Philosophy Today 55 (1):82-95.
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  36.  15
    Into the Heart of Darkness Or: Alt-Stoicism? Actually, No….Matthew Sharpe - 2018 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 2 (4):106-113.
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  37.  35
    Publicizing the Essentially Private: Leo Strauss’s Platonic Aristophanes.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - Symposium 18 (2):3-32.
    Political philosopher Leo Strauss’s extensive engagements with Aristophanes’s comedies represent a remarkable perspective in debates concerning the political and wider meaning of Aristophanes’s plays. Yet they have attracted nearly no critical response. This paper argues that for Strauss, Aristophanes was a very serious, philosophically-minded author who wrote esoterically, using the comic form to convey his conception of man, and his answer to the Socraticquestion of the best form of life. Part I addresses Strauss’s central reading of the Clouds, which positions (...)
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  38.  20
    100 Years of European Philosophy Since the Great War: Crisis and Reconfigurations.Matthew Sharpe, Rory Jeffs & Jack Reynolds (eds.) - 2017 - Springer.
    This book is a collection of specifically commissioned articles on the key continental European philosophical movements since 1914. It shows how each of these bodies of thought has been shaped by their responses to the horrors set in train by World War I, and considers whether we are yet ‘post-post-war’. The outbreak of World War I in August 1914,set in chain a series of crises and re-configurations, which have continued to shape the world for a century: industrialized slaughter, the end (...)
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  39. Aesthetics: On Levinas’ Shadow.Matthew Sharpe - 2005 - Colloquy 9:29-46.
    Emmanuel Levinas’ aesthetics has been critically discussed much less than other components of his philosophy. In one way, this is not surprising, given Levinas’ wider post-war project. Nevertheless, in the late 1940s, the very time his influential later philosophy was taking shape, Levinas published a series of papers on literary criticism, and on the nature of art. istents and Existence, the text where Levinas first announces his project of “leaving the climate” of Heidegger’s thought, contains in its heart a remarkable (...)
     
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  40.  4
    Brill's Companion to Camus: Camus Among the Philosophers.Matthew Sharpe, Maciej Kałuża & Peter Francev (eds.) - 2020 - Brill.
    This book is the first English-language collection of essays by leading Camus scholars around the world to focus on Albert Camus’ place and status as a philosopher amongst philosophers, engaging with leading Western thinkers, and considering themes of enduring interest.
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  41. Crisis and Reconfigurations: 100 Years of European Thinking After World War 1.Matthew Sharpe & Rory Jeffs (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
     
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  42. Introduction: European Thought, After the Deluge.Matthew Sharpe & Rory Jeffs - 2017 - In Matthew Sharpe, Rory Jeffs & Jack Reynolds (eds.), 100 Years of European Philosophy Since the Great War: Crisis and Reconfigurations. Springer.
    The Great War, as it was known until 1939, set in chain a series of catastrophes and crises that have largely defined the long twentieth century: economic, political, cultural, and metaphysical. Philosophy was not unaffected, either within academe, or more widely. Nearly each of the major philosophical movements, from analytic philosophy through to post-structuralism, was directly or indirectly formed in response to the civilizational crisis the Great War inaugurated, and different perceptions of its causes and significance. This chapter surveys the (...)
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  43. On Roland Boer’s Marxism and Theology.Matthew Sharpe - 2016 - Critical Research on Religion 4 (2):171-178.
    This piece aims to provide a synoptic introduction to Boer’s claims in the five volumes of Marxism and Theology. Obviously, such an account must miss many important nuances across the host of critical readings Boer assembles, guided by his broadly Jamesonian manner of reading the texts with a view to their biblical and theological claims. Nevertheless, by aiming at a synoptic view of a truly compendious contribution to scholarship, it is hoped that the piece will provide assistance to readers, and (...)
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  44. Slavoj Žižek: A Little Piece of the Real.Matthew Sharpe - 2004 - Routledge.
    Slavoj Zizek has emerged as the pre-eminent European cultural theorist of the last decade and has been described as the ultimate Marxist/Lacanian cultural studies scholar. His large and growing body of work has generated considerable controversy, yet his texts are not structured as standard academic tomes. In Slavoj Zizek: A Little Piece of the Real, Matthew Sharpe undertakes the difficult task of drawing out an evolving argument from all of Zizek's texts from 1989 to 2001, and reads them as the (...)
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  45. “Then We Will Fight Them In The Shadows!”: Seven Parataxic Views, On Žižek’s Style.Matthew Sharpe - 2010 - International Journal of Žižek Studies 4 (2).
     
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  46.  54
    ‘In the Court of a Great King’: Some Remarks on Leo Strauss’ Introduction to the Guide for the Perplexed.Matthew Joel Sharpe - 2011 - Sophia 50 (1):141-158.
    This essay, which will be divided between two SOPHIA editions, proposes to test the consensus in Maimonidean scholarship on the alleged intellectualism of Leo Strauss’ Maimonides by making a close interpretive study of Strauss’ 1963 essay ‘How to Begin to Study the Guide for the Perplexed’. While the importance of this essay, which is Strauss’ last extended piece on the Guide, is established in Maimonidean scholarship, its recognised esotericism has been matched by a dearth of detailed studies of the piece. (...)
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  47.  22
    Hunting Plato's Agalmata.Matthew Sharpe - 2009 - The European Legacy 14 (5):535-547.
    In this essay I argue that to understand Plato's philosophy, we must understand why Plato presented this philosophy as dialogues: namely, works of literature. Plato's writing of philosophy corresponds to his understanding of philosophy as a transformative way of life, which must nevertheless present itself politically, to different types of people. As a model, I examine Lacan's famous reading of Plato's Symposium in his seminar of transference love in psychoanalysis. Unlike many other readings, Lacan focuses on Alcibiades’ famous description of (...)
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  48.  4
    Pressing Questions for the Philosophical Life in a Time of Crisis.Matthew Sharpe, Eli Kramer & Michael Chase - 2021 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 5 (2):1-6.
    Preview: 2020, the year the coronavirus pandemic spread globally, marked the twenty-fifth year since the publication of Pierre Hadot’s work Philosophy as a Way of Life. In that time, what began as the research specialization of just a few scholars has become a growing area of philosophical and metaphilosophical inquiry, bringing together researchers from around the globe. Hadot’s key ideas of spiritual exercises, and the very idea of PWL, have been applied to a host of individual thinkers from across the (...)
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  49.  7
    Golden Calf: Deleuze’s Nietzsche in the Time of Trump.Matthew Sharpe - 2021 - Thesis Eleven 163 (1):71-88.
    This paper examines how Gilles Deleuze addresses, and fail to address, the darker strata in Nietzsche’s work which has enabled his work to be claimed by almost every far-right European political movement since the 1890s to the Alt-Right today. Part I argues that four rhetorical strategies are present which serve to domesticate Nietzsche’s ideas concerning class and caste, race and sexuality, and his opposition to forms of liberalism, democracy, feminism and socialism: avoiding directly political subjects which Nietzsche returned to; catachrestic (...)
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  50.  10
    Do Not Forget to Live.Matthew Sharpe - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 22:93-99.
    Pierre Hadot is famous for his work on ancient philosophy, and the notion that ancient philosophia was conceived in the Greek schools as a way of life, including existential practices to reshape students’ beliefs, desires, and actions. Yet his last published book before his death in 2010 was the study N’Oublie Pas de Vivre, on the oeuvre of the modern German thinker and litterateur, Goethe. Hadot’s work throughout refuses to make a sharp distinction between ancients and moderns, interested rather, as (...)
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