Results for 'Matthew W. Hahn'

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  1. The life and death of gene families.Jeffery P. Demuth & Matthew W. Hahn - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (1):29-39.
    One of the unique insights provided by the growing number of fully sequenced genomes is the pervasiveness of gene duplication and gene loss. Indeed, several metrics now suggest that rates of gene birth and death per gene are only 10–40% lower than nucleotide substitutions per site, and that per nucleotide, the consequent lineage‐specific expansion and contraction of gene families may play at least as large a role in adaptation as changes in orthologous sequences. While gene family evolution is pervasive, it (...)
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  2.  57
    How reticulated are species?James Mallet, Nora Besansky & Matthew W. Hahn - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (2):140-149.
    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree‐like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and (...)
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  3. Symmetry arguments against regular probability: A reply to recent objections.Matthew W. Parker - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (1):1-21.
    A probability distribution is regular if it does not assign probability zero to any possible event. While some hold that probabilities should always be regular, three counter-arguments have been posed based on examples where, if regularity holds, then perfectly similar events must have different probabilities. Howson and Benci et al. have raised technical objections to these symmetry arguments, but we see here that their objections fail. Howson says that Williamson’s “isomorphic” events are not in fact isomorphic, but Howson is speaking (...)
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  4.  46
    Cost-benefit analysis: legal, economic, and philosophical perspectives.Matthew D. Adler & Eric A. Posner (eds.) - 2001 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cost-benefit analysis is a widely used governmental evaluation tool, though academics remain skeptical. This volume gathers prominent contributors from law, economics, and philosophy for discussion of cost-benefit analysis, specifically its moral foundations, applications and limitations. This new scholarly debate includes not only economists, but also contributors from philosophy, cognitive psychology, legal studies, and public policy who can further illuminate the justification and moral implications of this method and specify alternative measures. These articles originally appeared in the Journal of Legal Studies. (...)
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  5. Set Size and the Part–Whole Principle.Matthew W. Parker - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic (4):1-24.
    Recent work has defended “Euclidean” theories of set size, in which Cantor’s Principle (two sets have equally many elements if and only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between them) is abandoned in favor of the Part-Whole Principle (if A is a proper subset of B then A is smaller than B). It has also been suggested that Gödel’s argument for the unique correctness of Cantor’s Principle is inadequate. Here we see from simple examples, not that Euclidean theories of set (...)
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  6.  4
    In Defense of a Normative Concept of Argument.Matthew W. McKeon - forthcoming - Argumentation:1-18.
    Blair articulates a concept of argument that suggests, as he puts it, that argument is a normative concept (Blair, Informal Logic 24:137–151, 2004, p. 190). Put roughly, the idea is that a collection of propositions doesn’t constitute an argument unless some taken together constitute a reason for the remaining proposition and thereby support it enough to provide at least prima facie justification for it (Blair, in: Blair, Johnson, Hansen, Tindale (eds) Informal Logic at 25, Proceedings of the 25th anniversary conference, (...)
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  7.  31
    The Cambridge history of philosophy in the nineteenth century (1790-1870).Allen W. Wood & Songsuk Susan Hahn (eds.) - 2011 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The latest volume in the Cambridge Histories of Philosophy series, The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century brings together twenty-nine leading experts in the field and covers the years 1790-1870. Their twenty-seven chapters provide a comprehensive survey of the period, organizing the material topically. After a brief editor's introduction, it begins with three chapters surveying the background of nineteenth century philosophy: followed by two on logic and mathematics, two on nature and natural science, five on mind and language, (...)
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  8. Symmetry arguments against regular probability: A reply to recent objections.Matthew W. Parker - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (1):8.
    A probability distribution is regular if no possible event is assigned probability zero. While some hold that probabilities should always be regular, three counter-arguments have been posed based on examples where, if regularity holds, then perfectly similar events must have different probabilities. Howson (2017) and Benci et al. (2016) have raised technical objections to these symmetry arguments, but we see here that their objections fail. Howson says that Williamson’s (2007) “isomorphic” events are not in fact isomorphic, but Howson is speaking (...)
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  9.  14
    Risks, Costs, and Lives Saved: Getting Better Results From Regulation.Robert W. Hahn (ed.) - 1996 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The debate over environmental, health, and safety regulation has reached a new crescendo in the 104th Congress. So impassioned is the debate on occasion, and so high the feelings, that even the tools of regulatory analysis have become part of the combat.To some, the term cost-benefit analysis, for example, is virtually a swearword, a nefarious tool used by big business to undermine regulations aimed at benefiting the people at large. To others, it is the mechanism for achieving more effective regulation (...)
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  10. Three concepts of decidability for general subsets of uncountable spaces.Matthew W. Parker - 2003 - Theoretical Computer Science 351 (1):2-13.
    There is no uniquely standard concept of an effectively decidable set of real numbers or real n-tuples. Here we consider three notions: decidability up to measure zero [M.W. Parker, Undecidability in Rn: Riddled basins, the KAM tori, and the stability of the solar system, Phil. Sci. 70(2) (2003) 359–382], which we abbreviate d.m.z.; recursive approximability [or r.a.; K.-I. Ko, Complexity Theory of Real Functions, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1991]; and decidability ignoring boundaries [d.i.b.; W.C. Myrvold, The decision problem for entanglement, in: R.S. (...)
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  11.  22
    Grammatical licensing and relative clause parsing in a flexible word-order language.Matthew W. Wagers, Manuel F. Borja & Sandra Chung - 2018 - Cognition 178 (C):207-221.
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  12. Philosophical method and Galileo's paradox of infinity.Matthew W. Parker - 2008 - In Bart Van Kerkhove (ed.), New Perspectives on Mathematical Practices: Essays in Philosophy and History of Mathematics : Brussels, Belgium, 26-28 March 2007. World Scientfic.
    We consider an approach to some philosophical problems that I call the Method of Conceptual Articulation: to recognize that a question may lack any determinate answer, and to re-engineer concepts so that the question acquires a definite answer in such a way as to serve the epistemic motivations behind the question. As a case study we examine “Galileo’s Paradox”, that the perfect square numbers seem to be at once as numerous as the whole numbers, by one-to-one correspondence, and yet less (...)
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  13.  51
    Comparative infinite lottery logic.Matthew W. Parker - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:28-36.
    As an application of his Material Theory of Induction, Norton (2018; manuscript) argues that the correct inductive logic for a fair infinite lottery, and also for evaluating eternal inflation multiverse models, is radically different from standard probability theory. This is due to a requirement of label independence. It follows, Norton argues, that finite additivity fails, and any two sets of outcomes with the same cardinality and co-cardinality have the same chance. This makes the logic useless for evaluating multiverse models based (...)
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  14.  30
    The Importance of Formative Assessment in Science and Engineering Ethics Education: Some Evidence and Practical Advice.Matthew W. Keefer, Sara E. Wilson, Harry Dankowicz & Michael C. Loui - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):249-260.
    Recent research in ethics education shows a potentially problematic variation in content, curricular materials, and instruction. While ethics instruction is now widespread, studies have identified significant variation in both the goals and methods of ethics education, leaving researchers to conclude that many approaches may be inappropriately paired with goals that are unachievable. This paper speaks to these concerns by demonstrating the importance of aligning classroom-based assessments to clear ethical learning objectives in order to help students and instructors track their progress (...)
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  15. More trouble for regular probabilitites.Matthew W. Parker - 2012
    In standard probability theory, probability zero is not the same as impossibility. But many have suggested that only impossible events should have probability zero. This can be arranged if we allow infinitesimal probabilities, but infinitesimals do not solve all of the problems. We will see that regular probabilities are not invariant over rigid transformations, even for simple, bounded, countable, constructive, and disjoint sets. Hence, regular chances cannot be determined by space-time invariant physical laws, and regular credences cannot satisfy seemingly reasonable (...)
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  16.  41
    “You have to teach the judge what to do”: Semiotic gaps between unrepresented litigants and the common law.Matthew W. L. Yeung & Janny H. C. Leung - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (216):363-381.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2017 Heft: 216 Seiten: 363-381.
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  17.  21
    Progressing from “Whether to” to “How to” Conduct Pragmatic Trials.Matthew W. Semler, Todd W. Rice & Jonathan D. Casey - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (8):33-36.
    In this issue of the American Journal of Bioethics, manuscripts focus on the obligations of clinicians and researchers in pragmatic clinical trials (Garland, Morain, and Sugarman 2023; Morain and L...
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  18.  30
    Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects of Surprisal and Entropy Reduction.Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira & John M. Henderson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1166-1183.
    What are the effects of word-by-word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large-scale cumulative cloze task to collect word-by-word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal (...)
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  19. Undecidability in Rn: Riddled basins, the KAM tori, and the stability of the solar system.Matthew W. Parker - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):359-382.
    Some have suggested that certain classical physical systems have undecidable long-term behavior, without specifying an appropriate notion of decidability over the reals. We introduce such a notion, decidability in (or d- ) for any measure , which is particularly appropriate for physics and in some ways more intuitive than Ko's (1991) recursive approximability (r.a.). For Lebesgue measure , d- implies r.a. Sets with positive -measure that are sufficiently "riddled" with holes are never d- but are often r.a. This explicates Sommerer (...)
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  20.  10
    Big Data, social physics, and spatial analysis: The early years.Matthew W. Wilson & Trevor J. Barnes - 2014 - Big Data and Society 1 (1).
    This paper examines one of the historical antecedents of Big Data, the social physics movement. Its origins are in the scientific revolution of the 17th century in Western Europe. But it is not named as such until the middle of the 19th century, and not formally institutionalized until another hundred years later when it is associated with work by George Zipf and John Stewart. Social physics is marked by the belief that large-scale statistical measurement of social variables reveals underlying relational (...)
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  21.  23
    Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory.Matthew W. Prull, Courtney Lawless, Helen M. Marshall & Annabella T. K. Sherman - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  22.  37
    Undecidable long-term behavior in classical physics: Foundations, results, and interpretation.Matthew W. Parker - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Chicago
    The behavior of some systems is non-computable in a precise new sense. One infamous problem is that of the stability of the solar system: Given the initial positions and velocities of several mutually gravitating bodies, will any eventually collide or be thrown off to infinity? Many have made vague suggestions that this and similar problems are undecidable: no finite procedure can reliably determine whether a given configuration will eventually prove unstable. But taken in the most natural way, this is trivial. (...)
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  23. Computing the uncomputable; or, The discrete charm of second-order simulacra.Matthew W. Parker - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):447-463.
    We examine a case in which non-computable behavior in a model is revealed by computer simulation. This is possible due to differing notions of computability for sets in a continuous space. The argument originally given for the validity of the simulation involves a simpler simulation of the simulation, still further simulations thereof, and a universality conjecture. There are difficulties with that argument, but there are other, heuristic arguments supporting the qualitative results. It is urged, using this example, that absolute validation, (...)
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  24.  16
    Editorial: The Sensation-Cognition Interface: Impact of Early Sensory Experiences on Cognition.W. G. Dye Matthew & Pascalis Olivier - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  25.  6
    The Philosophy of Religion.W. R. Matthews - 1914 - International Journal of Ethics 25 (1):116-119.
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  26.  16
    Editorial: The Role of the Distinctions between Identification/Production and Perceptual/Conceptual Processes in Implicit Memory: Findings from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology.Matthew W. Prull & Pietro Spataro - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  27.  14
    Natural forces as agents: Reconceptualizing the animate–inanimate distinction.Matthew W. Lowder & Peter C. Gordon - 2015 - Cognition 136:85-90.
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  28.  62
    Curricular Design And Assessment In Professional Ethics Education.Matthew W. Keefer & Michael Davis - 2012 - Teaching Ethics 13 (1):81-90.
  29. What is it like to write philosophy?Matthew W. Parker - 2016 - Lse Philosophy Blog:1-1.
    With essay deadlines looming for many of our students, Matt Parker relives some of the angst involved in writing philosophy. You’re not alone.
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  30.  53
    Weintraub’s response to Williamson’s coin flip argument.Matthew W. Parker - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-21.
    A probability distribution is regular if it does not assign probability zero to any possible event. Williamson argued that we should not require probabilities to be regular, for if we do, certain “isomorphic” physical events must have different probabilities, which is implausible. His remarks suggest an assumption that chances are determined by intrinsic, qualitative circumstances. Weintraub responds that Williamson’s coin flip events differ in their inclusion relations to each other, or the inclusion relations between their times, and this can account (...)
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  31. Gödel's Argument for Cantorian Cardinality.Matthew W. Parker - 2017 - Noûs 53 (2):375-393.
    On the first page of “What is Cantor's Continuum Problem?”, Gödel argues that Cantor's theory of cardinality, where a bijection implies equal number, is in some sense uniquely determined. The argument, involving a thought experiment with sets of physical objects, is initially persuasive, but recent authors have developed alternative theories of cardinality that are consistent with the standard set theory ZFC and have appealing algebraic features that Cantor's powers lack, as well as some promise for applications. Here we diagnose Gödel's (...)
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  32.  7
    “Black people don’t love nature”: white environmentalist imaginations of cause, calling, and capacity.Matthew W. Hughey - forthcoming - Theory and Society:1-33.
    I examine how white British members of a London-area environmental group conceptualize race in relation to ecological disasters. Based on a five-year (2018–2022) ethnographic study, members employed racialized narratives and symbolic boundaries to construct who was the cause of disasters, who had the moral responsibility or calling to remediate disasters, and who possessed the adequate resources and capacity to fix disasters. Together, these narratives formed a tripartite racial imaginary which functioned to demarcate the symbolic boundaries of an ideal, white racial (...)
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  33.  32
    Testing Public Health Ethics: Why the CDC's HIV Screening Recommendations May Violate the Least Infringement Principle.Matthew W. Pierce, Suzanne Maman, Allison K. Groves, Elizabeth J. King & Sarah C. Wyckoff - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):263-271.
    The least infringement principle has been widely endorsed by public health scholars. According to this principle, public health policies may infringe upon “general moral considerations” in order to achieve a public health goal, but if two policies provide the same public health benefit, then policymakers should choose the one that infringes least upon “general moral considerations.” General moral considerations can encompass a wide variety of goals, including fair distribution of burdens and benefits, protection of privacy and confidentiality, and respect for (...)
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  34.  12
    John Campbell’s Present State of Europe : Toryism and balance of power.Matthew W. Binney - 2018 - History of European Ideas 44 (5):543-558.
    ABSTRACTJohn Campbell’s Present State of Europe has been viewed, particularly by Guido Abbattista, as a change in Campbell’s view on British intervention on the continent. Campbell certainly alters his position from a conventional ‘Country’ and ‘Tory’ critique of British interventionism to acceptance, but this shift aligns him more closely with the Bolingbrokean political philosophy that undergirds much of his early thought as he accommodates this political philosophy to the dominant theory of foreign policy of his day, ‘balance of power’. Campbell (...)
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  35. Hermeias on Plato Phaedrus 238d and Synesius Dion 14.2.Matthew W. Dickie - 1993 - American Journal of Philology 114 (3):421-440.
     
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  36.  14
    The Greek Concept of Justice: From its Shadow in Homer to its Substance in Plato (review).Matthew W. Dickie - 1980 - Philosophy and Literature 4 (1):135-137.
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  37.  31
    Sacred Communication in the Writings of Georges Bataille.Matthew W. Sanderson - 2004 - International Studies in Philosophy 36 (2):79-94.
  38.  16
    Ethical issues in corporate speechwriting.Matthew W. Seeger - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (7):501 - 504.
    Executive speechwriting is a common practice in most large organizations. This activity, however, raises a number of ethical questions about responsibility and about audience deception. This essay explores the ethics of speechwriting from three perspectives and offers some general guidelines for maintaining ethical standards when using speechwriters.
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  39.  5
    Teʾumman in the Neo-Assyrian Correspondence.Matthew W. Waters - 1999 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (3):473.
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  40.  8
    More (of the right strategies) is better: disaggregating the naturalistic between- and within-person structure and effects of emotion regulation strategies.Matthew W. Southward & Jennifer S. Cheavens - 2020 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (8):1729-1736.
    Although people often use multiple strategies to regulate their emotions, it is unclear if using more strategies effectively changes emotional outcomes. This may be because there is no clear, data-...
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  41.  27
    The Surplus of the Machine: Trope and History in The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.Matthew W. Bost & Matthew S. May - 2016 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 49 (1):1-25.
    This article stages a new encounter between rhetoric and the philosophy of Karl Marx. We argue that the configuration of two major tropes in Marx’s 1852 pamphlet The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte renders explicit the operative but implicit logics of Marxian historical materialism. Our reading therefore makes available a novel and untimely dimension of Marx’s conceptual labor where we least expect to find it: in a text that has been largely, but not exclusively, understood as a history of counterrevolution (...)
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  42. On the Rationale for Distinguishing Arguments from Explanations.Matthew W. McKeon - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (3):283-303.
    Even with the lack of consensus on the nature of an argument, the thesis that explanations and arguments are distinct is near orthodoxy in well-known critical thinking texts and in the more advanced argumentation literature. In this paper, I reconstruct two rationales for distinguishing arguments from explanations. According to one, arguments and explanations are essentially different things because they have different structures. According to the other, while some explanations and arguments may have the same structure, they are different things because (...)
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  43.  23
    Understanding Morality from an Evolutionary Perspective: Challenges and Opportunities.Matthew W. Keefer - 2013 - Educational Theory 63 (2):113-132.
    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of new research on moral thinking informed by evolutionary theory. The new findings have emanated from a wide variety of fields. While there is no shortage of theoretical models that attempt to account for specific research findings, Matthew Keefer's goals in this essay are more general. First, he examines the strength of the evolutionary approach to understanding morality and moral emotions as adaptations to cooperation. Second, he considers the importance of unconscious (...)
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  44.  65
    Virtuous responses to organizational crisis: Aaron Feuerstein and milt colt. [REVIEW]Matthew W. Seeger & Robert R. Ulmer - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (4):369 - 376.
    This study examines two recent cases of ethical responses to crisis management; the 1995 fire at Malden Mills and Aaron Feuerstein''s response, and a 1998 fire at Cole Hardwoods, followed by the response of CEO Milt Cole. The authors describe these crises, the responses of Feuerstein and Cole, their motivations and the impact on crisis stakeholders using the principles of virtue ethics and effective crisis management. What emerges is set of post-crisis virtues grounded in values of corporate social responsibility and (...)
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  45.  6
    A road to nowhere: the idea of progress and its critics.Matthew W. Slaboch - 2017 - Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Matthew W. Slaboch examines the work of German philosophers Arthur Schopenhauer and Oswald Spengler, Russian novelists Leo Tolstoy and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and American historians Henry Adams and Christopher Lasch—rare skeptics of the idea of progress who have much to offer political theory, a field dominated by historical optimists.
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  46. The Concept of Logical Consequence: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic.Matthew W. McKeon - 2010 - Peter Lang.
    Introduction -- The concept of logical consequence -- Tarski's characterization of the common concept of logical consequence -- The logical consequence relation has a modal element -- The logical consequence relation is formal -- The logical consequence relation is A priori -- Logical and non-logical terminology -- The meanings of logical terms explained in terms of their semantic properties -- The meanings of logical terms explained in terms of their inferential properties -- Model-theoretic and deductive-theoretic conceptions of logic -- Linguistic (...)
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  47.  21
    Arguments and Reason-Giving.Matthew W. McKeon - 2022 - Argumentation 36 (2):229-247.
    Arguments figure prominently in our practices of reason-giving. For example, we use them to advance reasons for their conclusions in order to justify believing something, to explain why we believe something, and to persuade others to believe something. Intuitively, using arguments in these ways requires a certain degree of self-reflection. In this paper, I ask: what cognitive requirements are there for using an argument to advance reasons for its conclusion? Towards a partial response, the paper’s central thesis is that in (...)
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  48.  13
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Fundamental Political Writings.Matthew W. Maguire & David Lay Williams (eds.) - 2018 - Peterborough, Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press.
    This classroom edition includes _On the Social Contract_, the _Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts_, the _Discourse on the Origins of Inequality_, and the Preface to _Narcissus_. Each text has been newly translated and includes a full complement of explanatory notes. The editors’ introduction offers students diverse points of entry into some of the distinctive possibilities and challenges of each of these fundamental texts, as well as an introduction to Rousseau’s life and historical situation. The volume also includes annotated (...)
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  49.  15
    Spaces of consumption in environmental history.Matthew W. Klingle - 2003 - History and Theory 42 (4):94–110.
    Consumption has emerged as an important historical subject, with most scholars explaining it as a vehicle for therapeutic regeneration, community formation, or economic policy. This work all but ignores how consumption begins with changes to the material world, to physical nature. While environmental historians have something important, even unique, to say about consumption, the split between materialist and cultural analyses within the field has dulled its ability to study consumption as a process and phenomenon that unfolds over space and time. (...)
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  50.  21
    You Show Me Yours, I’ll Show You Mine.Matthew W. Knotts - 2017 - Philosophy and Theology 29 (1):83-100.
    The task of this article is to propose an alternative method for adjudicating truth claims between various paradigms. Informed by sources such as Augustine, Aquinas, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Kuhn, I argue for a form of reasoning which aspires to credibility, plausibility, and explanatory capacity, rather than absolute proof. Instead of representing a flight from scientific standards, I argue that such an approach ultimately represents the best hope of safeguarding the essence of science and rationality as such.
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