Results for 'Matti Estola'

520 found
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  1.  33
    Matti Sintonen, Review of Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge by Deborah Mayo. [REVIEW]Matti Sintonen - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):370-372.
  2. Children Prioritize Humans Over Animals Less Than Adults Do.Matti Wilks, Lucius Caviola, Guy Kahane & Paul Bloom - 2021 - Psychological Science 1 (32):27-38.
    Is the tendency to morally prioritize humans over animals weaker in children than adults? In two pre-registered studies (N = 622), 5- to 9-year-old children and adults were presented with moral dilemmas pitting varying numbers of humans against varying numbers of either dogs or pigs and were asked who should be saved. In both studies, children had a weaker tendency to prioritize humans over animals than adults. They often chose to save multiple dogs over one human, and many valued the (...)
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  3.  58
    Choosing Normative Concepts.Matti Eklund - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    The concepts we use to value and prescribe are historically contingent, and we could have found ourselves with others. But what does it mean to say that some concepts are better than others for purposes of action-guiding and deliberation? What is it to choose between different normative conceptual frameworks?
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  4. Computing as a Science: A Survey of Competing Viewpoints. [REVIEW]Matti Tedre - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (3):361-387.
    Since the birth of computing as an academic discipline, the disciplinary identity of computing has been debated fiercely. The most heated question has concerned the scientific status of computing. Some consider computing to be a natural science and some consider it to be an experimental science. Others argue that computing is bad science, whereas some say that computing is not a science at all. This survey article presents viewpoints for and against computing as a science. Those viewpoints are analyzed against (...)
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  5. Metaontology.Matti Eklund - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (3):317-334.
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  6.  56
    Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics.Matti Hayry - 1994 - Routledge.
    _Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics_ explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that by combining (...)
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  7.  5
    Thin Entities.Matti Eklund - forthcoming - Theoria.
    Oystein Linnebo's book Thin Objects is partly devoted to defending the view that some objects are “thin” in that their existence does not impose any substantive demands on the world. In this paper, I discuss the concern that the defense relies on there being entities that serve as the referents of predicates. Linnebo thus seems to assume the thinness of those entities. In the course of my discussion, I also discuss what Linnebo says about the role of criteria of identity (...)
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  8.  40
    Matti Eklund, Choosing Normative Concepts.Krister Bykvist & Jonas Olson - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (3):343-347.
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  9. Philosophical Arguments for and Against Human Reproductive Cloning.Matti Hayry - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (5-6):447-460.
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  10. Intuitions, Conceptual Engineering, and Conceptual Fixed Points.Matti Eklund - 2015 - In Christopher Daly (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophical Methods.
  11. Making Sense of Logical Pluralism.Matti Eklund - 2020 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 63 (3-4):433-454.
    The article is centered on the question of how best to understand the logical pluralism/logical monism debate. A number of suggestions are brought up and rejected on the ground that they re...
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  12. Inconsistent Languages.Matti Eklund - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):251-275.
    The main thesis of this paper is that we sometimes are disposed to accept false and even jointly inconsistent claims by virtue of our semantic competence, and that this comes to light in the sorites and liar paradoxes. Among the subsidiary theses are that this is an important source of indeterminacy in truth conditions, that we must revise basic assumptions about semantic competence, and that classical logic and bivalence can be upheld in the face of the sorites paradox.
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  13.  1
    Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience.Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (eds.) - 1994 - Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Consciousness seems to be an enigmatic phenomenon: it is difficult to imagine how our perceptions of the world and our inner thoughts, sensations and feelings could be related to the immensely complicated biological organ we call the brain. This volume presents the thoughts of some of the leading philosophers and cognitive scientists who have recently participated in the discussion of the status of consciousness in science. The focus of inquiry is the question: "Is it possible to incorporate consciousness into science?" (...)
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  14.  4
    Ultimate Relativism.Matti Kamppinen & Antti Revonsuo - 1993 - In Consciousness, Cognitive Schemata, and Relativism. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 229--242.
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  15.  7
    The Relation Between the Sense of Agency and the Experience of Flow.Matti Vuorre & Janet Metcalfe - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 43:133-142.
  16. Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics.Matti Hayry - 1994 - Routledge.
    _Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics_ explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that by combining (...)
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  17. Carnap and Ontological Pluralism.Matti Eklund - 2009 - In David Chalmers, David Manley & Ryan Wasserman (eds.), Metametaphysics: New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology. Oxford University Press. pp. 130--56.
    My focus here will be Rudolf Carnap’s views on ontology, as these are presented in the seminal “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology” (1950). I will first describe how I think Carnap’s distinction between external and internal questions is best understood. Then I will turn to broader issues regarding Carnap’s views on ontology. With certain reservations, I will ascribe to Carnap an ontological pluralist position roughly similar to the positions of Eli Hirsch and the later Hilary Putnam. Then I turn to some (...)
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  18.  52
    Rationality and the Genetic Challenge: Making People Better?Matti Häyry - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Seven ways of making people better; 2. Rational approaches to the genetic challenge; 3. The best babies and parental responsibility; 4. Deaf embryos, morality, and the law; 5. Saviour siblings and treating people as a means; 6. Reproductive cloning and designing human beings; 7. Embryonic stem cells, vulnerability, and sanctity; 8. Gene therapies, hopes, and fears; 9. Considerable life extension and the meaning of life; 10. Taking the genetic challenge rationally.
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  19.  10
    Integration of Multiple Speech Segmentation Cues: A Hierarchical Framework.Sven L. Mattys, Laurence White & James F. Melhorn - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (4):477-500.
  20.  9
    Well-Being Narratives and Young Children.Eila Estola, Sandy Farquhar & Anna-Maija Puroila - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (8):1-13.
    Whereas research on children’s well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children’s understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children’s experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children’s stories centre stage as we explore a philosophy of well-being for early childhood in two distant but similar countries, Finland and Aotearoa New Zealand. The article reports on two independent narrative studies in which children tell about their own (...)
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  21.  8
    Phonotactic Cues for Segmentation of Fluent Speech by Infants.Sven L. Mattys & Peter W. Jusczyk - 2001 - Cognition 78 (2):91-121.
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  22.  19
    “What’s That?” “What Went Wrong?” Positive and Negative Surprise and the Rostral–Ventral to Caudal–Dorsal Functional Gradient in the Brain.Mattie Tops & Maarten A. S. Boksem - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  23.  4
    The Pragmatics of Scientific Explanation.Matti Sintonen - 1984 - Academic Bookstore [Distributor].
  24.  25
    Precaution and Solidarity.Matti Häyry - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):199-206.
    Health care services are constantly assessed by their ability to accommodate values popular in contemporary societies. Autonomy, justice, and human dignity have for some time been among such values in the affluent West. Relative newcomers in the field are the notions of and which seem to attract, in particular, Continental European ethicists. a.
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  25. Neo-Fregean Ontology.Matti Eklund - 2006 - Philosophical Perspectives 20 (1):95-121.
    Neo-Fregeanism in the philosophy of mathematics consists of two main parts: the logicist thesis, that mathematics (or at least branches thereof, like arithmetic) all but reduce to logic, and the platonist thesis, that there are abstract, mathematical objects. I will here focus on the ontological thesis, platonism. Neo-Fregeanism has been widely discussed in recent years. Mostly the discussion has focused on issues specific to mathematics. I will here single out for special attention the view on ontology which underlies the neo-Fregeans’ (...)
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  26. The Picture of Reality as an Amorphous Lump.Matti Eklund - 2008 - In Theodore Sider, John Hawthorne & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics. Blackwell. pp. 382--96.
    (1) Abstract objects. The nominalist (as the label is used today) denies that there exist abstract objects. The platonist holds that there are abstract objects. One example is numbers. The nominalist denies that there are numbers; the platonist typically affirms it.
     
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  27.  2
    Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics.Matti Hayry - 1994 - Routledge.
    _Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics_ explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that by combining (...)
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  28. Regress, Unity, Facts, and Propositions.Matti Eklund - 2019 - Synthese 196 (4):1225-1247.
    The problem, or cluster of problems, of the unity of the proposition, along with the cluster of problems that tend to go under the name of Bradley’s regress, has recently again become a going concern for philosophers, after having for some time been regarded as primarily of historical interest. In this paper, I distinguish between the different problems that tend to be brought up under the heading of the unity of the proposition, and between different related regress arguments. I present (...)
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  29.  22
    Another Look at Dignity.Matti Häyry - 2004 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (1):7-14.
    With the considerable attention given to UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, the time has come to take another look at the concept of dignity, on which this document is morally founded. The term “dignity” now appears in many national constitutions and international bioethical statements. It has also become popular among Continental European ethicists, many of whom wish to challenge the particularly American and overtly individualistic principles of “autonomy,” “justice,” “beneficence,” and “nonmaleficence.” a.
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  30. Fictionalism.Matti Eklund - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  31. Conceptual Engineering in Philosophy.Matti Eklund - 2021 - In Justin Khoo & Rachel Sterken (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social and Political Philosophy of Language.
  32. Carnap's Metaontology.Matti Eklund - 2013 - Noûs 47 (2):229-249.
  33. What Vagueness Consists In.Matti Eklund - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 125 (1):27-60.
    The main question of the paper is that ofwhat vagueness consists in. This question must be distinguished from other questions about vagueness discussed in the literature. It is argued that familiar accounts of vagueness for general reasons failto answer the question ofwhat vagueness consists in. A positive view is defended, according to which, roughly, the vagueness of an expression consists in it being part ofsemantic competence to accept a tolerance principle for the expression. Since tolerance principles are inconsistent, this is (...)
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  34. Replacing Truth?Matti Eklund - 2014 - In Brett Sherman & Alexis Burgess (eds.), Metasemantics.
  35. Variance Theses in Ontology and Metaethics.Matti Eklund - 2020 - In Alexis Burgess, Herman Cappelen & David Plunkett (eds.), Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics.
  36.  45
    The Normative Pluriverse.Matti Eklund - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 18 (2).
    According to a certain pluralist view in philosophy of mathematics, there are as many mathematical objects as there can coherently be. Recently, Justin Clarke-Doane has explored what consequences the analogous view on normative properties would have. What if there is a normative pluriverse? Here I address this same question. The challenge is best seen as a challenge to an important form of normative realism. I criticize the way Clarke-Doane presents the challenge. An improved challenge is presented, and the role of (...)
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  37. A Defense of Ethical Relativism.Matti Häyry - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (1):7-12.
    Relativism is usually a derogatory word in philosophical bioethics in the West. If people make the mistake of trying to understand radically “different” points of view, an accusation of relativism is quickly forthcoming. But why should this be an accusation? My aim in this paper is to demonstrate that it should not.
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  38.  15
    Doctrines and Dimensions of Justice: Their Historical Backgrounds and Ideological Underpinnings.Matti Häyry - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (2):188-216.
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  39. What Are Thick Concepts?Matti Eklund - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):25-49.
    Many theorists hold that there is, among value concepts, a fundamental distinction between thin ones and thick ones. Among thin ones are concepts like good and right. Among concepts that have been regarded as thick are discretion, caution, enterprise, industry, assiduity, frugality, economy, good sense, prudence, discernment, treachery, promise, brutality, courage, coward, lie, gratitude, lewd, perverted, rude, glorious, graceful, exploited, and, of course, many others. Roughly speaking, thick concepts are value concepts with significant descriptive content. I will discuss a number (...)
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  40.  10
    Causation, Responsibility, and Harm: How the Discursive Shift From Law and Ethics to Social Justice Sealed the Plight of Nonhuman Animals.Matti Häyry - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (2):246-267.
    Moral and political philosophers no longer condemn harm inflicted on nonhuman animals as self-evidently as they did when animal welfare and animal rights advocacy was at the forefront in the 1980s, and sentience, suffering, species-typical behavior, and personhood were the basic concepts of the discussion. The article shows this by comparing the determination with which societies seek responsibility for human harm to the relative indifference with which law and morality react to nonhuman harm. When harm is inflicted on humans, policies (...)
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  41. Being Metaphysically Unsettled: Barnes and Williams on Metaphysical Indeterminacy and Vagueness.Matti Eklund - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 6:6.
    This chapter discusses the defence of metaphysical indeterminacy by Elizabeth Barnes and Robert Williams and discusses a classical and bivalent theory of such indeterminacy. Even if metaphysical indeterminacy arguably is intelligible, Barnes and Williams argue in favour of it being so and this faces important problems. As for classical logic and bivalence, the chapter problematizes what exactly is at issue in this debate. Can reality not be adequately described using different languages, some classical and some not? Moreover, it is argued (...)
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  42. Ethnocomputing: ICT in Cultural and Social Context.Matti Tedre, Erkki Sutinen, Esko Kähkönen & Piet Kommers - 2006 - Communications of the Acm 49 (1):126--130.
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  43.  3
    A Model-Based Approach to Social Ontology.Matti Sarkia - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
    This paper argues for theoretical modeling and model-construction as central types of activities that philosophers of social ontology enga...
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  44. Normitulva: määrällisiä näkökohtia.Matti Wiberg - 2010 - In Kristian Klockars, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Kristina Rolin (eds.), Oikeus. University of Helsinki. pp. 2--177.
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  45. Carnap's Legacy for the Contemporary Metaontological Debate.Matti Eklund - 2016 - In Stephan Blatti & Sandra Lapointe (eds.), Ontology After Carnap.
  46.  41
    The COVID-19 Pandemic: Healthcare Crisis Leadership as Ethics Communication.Matti Häyry - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):42-50.
    Governmental reactions to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic can be seen as ethics communication. Governments can contain the disease and thereby mitigate the detrimental public health impact; allow the virus to spread to reach herd immunity; test, track, isolate, and treat; and suppress the disease regionally. An observation of Sweden and Finland showed a difference in feasible ways to communicate the chosen policy to the citizenry. Sweden assumed the herd immunity strategy and backed it up with health utilitarian arguments. This (...)
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  47. Fiction, Indifference, and Ontology.Matti Eklund - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):557–579.
    In this paper I outline an alternative to hermeneutic fictionalism, an alternative I call indifferentism, with the same advantages as hermeneutic fictionalism with respect to ontological issues but avoiding some of the problems that face fictionalism. The difference between indifferentism and fictionalism is this. The fictionalist about ordinary utterances of a sentence S holds, with more orthodox views, that the speaker in some sense commits herself to the truth of S. It is only that for the fictionalist this is truth (...)
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  48.  16
    Explanation: In Search of the Rationale.Matti Sintonen - 1989 - In Philip Kitcher & Wesley Salmon (eds.), Scientific Explanation. Univ of Minnesota Pr. pp. 13--253.
  49.  14
    Justice and the Possibility of Good Moralism in Bioethics.Matti Häyry - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (2):236-263.
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  50. A Historical Introduction to Phenomenology.Seppo Sajama & Matti Kamppinen - 2013 - Routledge.
    This book offers a concise exposition of the content theory of intentionality, which lies at the root of Husserl’s phenomenology, for student and scholar. Originally published in 1982. The first part traces the history of phenomenology from its beginnings in Aristotle and Aquinas through Hume, Reid and the Brentano school to its first clear formulation in Frege and Husserl. Part two analyses some special problems involved in two important types of mental phenomena – perception and emotion – without abandoning the (...)
     
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