Results for 'Maureen O'

993 found
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  1.  40
    The Roles of Integration in Molecular Systems Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Orkun S. Soyer - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):58-68.
  2.  70
    Fundamental Issues in Systems Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley & John Dupré - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (12):1270-1276.
  3.  78
    Size Doesn’T Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):155-191.
    Philosophers of biology, along with everyone else, generally perceive life to fall into two broad categories, the microbes and macrobes, and then pay most of their attention to the latter. ‘Macrobe’ is the word we propose for larger life forms, and we use it as part of an argument for microbial equality. We suggest that taking more notice of microbes – the dominant life form on the planet, both now and throughout evolutionary history – will transform some of the philosophy (...)
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  4.  31
    Knowledge-Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology.Maureen O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan Davies & Jane Calvert - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions tie into (...)
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  5.  22
    Methodological Strategies in Microbiome Research and Their Explanatory Implications.Maureen A. O’Malley & Derek J. Skillings - 2018 - Perspectives on Science 26 (2):239-265.
    Microbiome research is the analysis of the aggregated molecular components of a defined microbial community.1 Our examination of this field will focus on how causality is assigned in microbiome analyses, and what methodological strategies are used to identify communities or components of those communities as causal contributors to host states. Earlier microbiome research was conducted at a broad scale via bio informatic analyses of environmental samples, then backed up by whole community transfer experiments. These "top-down" findings, in which the whole (...)
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  6.  31
    When Integration Fails: Prokaryote Phylogeny and the Tree of Life.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4a):551-562.
    Much is being written these days about integration, its desirability and even its necessity when complex research problems are to be addressed. Seldom, however, do we hear much about the failure of such efforts. Because integration is an ongoing activity rather than a final achievement, and because today’s literature about integration consists mostly of manifesto statements rather than precise descriptions, an examination of unsuccessful integration could be illuminating to understand better how it works. This paper will examine the case of (...)
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  7.  36
    Making Knowledge in Synthetic Biology: Design Meets Kludge.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (4):378-389.
    Synthetic biology is an umbrella term that covers a range of aims, approaches, and techniques. They are all brought together by common practices of analogizing, synthesizing, mechanicizing, and kludging. With a focus on kludging as the connection point between biology, engineering, and evolution, I show how synthetic biology’s successes depend on custom-built kludges and a creative, “make-it-work” attitude to the construction of biological systems. Such practices do not fit neatly, however, into synthetic biology’s celebration of rational design. Nor do they (...)
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  8.  12
    Language, Counter-Memory, Practice.Maureen F. O'Meara - 1978 - Substance 6 (21):160.
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  9.  72
    Knowledge‐Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
  10.  15
    The Roles of Integration in Molecular Systems Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Orkun S. Soyer - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):58-68.
  11. Multilevel Research Strategies and Biological Systems.Maureen A. O'Malley, Ingo Brigandt, Alan C. Love, John W. Crawford, Jack A. Gilbert, Rob Knight, Sandra D. Mitchell & Forest Rohwer - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):811-828.
    Multilevel research strategies characterize contemporary molecular inquiry into biological systems. We outline conceptual, methodological, and explanatory dimensions of these multilevel strategies in microbial ecology, systems biology, protein research, and developmental biology. This review of emerging lines of inquiry in these fields suggests that multilevel research in molecular life sciences has significant implications for philosophical understandings of explanation, modeling, and representation.
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  12.  56
    Exploratory Experimentation and Scientific Practice: Metagenomics and the Proteorhodopsin Case.Maureen O'Malley - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):337 - 360.
    Exploratory experimentation and high-throughput molecular biology appear to have considerable affinity for each other. Included in the latter category is metagenomics, which is the DNA-based study of diverse microbial communities from a vast range of non-laboratory environments. Metagenomics has already made numerous discoveries and these have led to reinterpretations of fundamental concepts of microbial organization, evolution, and ecology. The most outstanding success story of metagenomics to date involves the discovery of a rhodopsin gene, named proteorhodopsin, in marine bacteria that were (...)
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  13.  7
    Reproduction Expanded: Multifenerational and Multilineal Units of Evoultion.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):835-847.
    Reproduction is central to biology and evolution. Standard concepts of reproduction are drawn from animals. Nonstandard examples of reproduction can be found in unicellular eukaryotes that distribute their reproductive strategies across multiple generations, and in mutualistic systems that combine different modes of reproduction across multiple lineages. Examining multigenerational and multilineal reproducers and how they align fitness has implications for conceptualizing units of evolution.
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  14.  37
    The First Eukaryote Cell: An Unfinished History of Contestation.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):212-224.
    The eukaryote cell is one of the most radical innovations in the history of life, and the circumstances of its emergence are still deeply contested. This paper will outline the recent history of attempts to reveal these origins, with special attention to the argumentative strategies used to support claims about the first eukaryote cell. I will focus on two general models of eukaryogenesis: the phagotrophy model and the syntrophy model. As their labels indicate, they are based on claims about metabolic (...)
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  15.  89
    The Tree of Life: Introduction to an Evolutionary Debate. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley, William Martin & John Dupré - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):441-453.
    The ‘Tree of Life’ is intended to represent the pattern of evolutionary processes that result in bifurcating species lineages. Often justified in reference to Darwin’s discussions of trees, the Tree of Life has run up against numerous challenges especially in regard to prokaryote evolution. This special issue examines scientific, historical and philosophical aspects of debates about the Tree of Life, with the aim of turning these criticisms towards a reconstruction of prokaryote phylogeny and even some aspects of the standard evolutionary (...)
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  16.  15
    Histories of Molecules: Reconciling the Past.Maureen A. O'Malley - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:69-83.
  17.  30
    The Experimental Study of Bacterial Evolution and Its Implications for the Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology.Maureen O’Malley - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):319-354.
    Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain of new functions, (...)
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  18.  17
    Major Problems in Evolutionary Transitions: How a Metabolic Perspective Can Enrich Our Understanding of Macroevolution.Maureen A. O’Malley & Russell Powell - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):159-189.
    The model of major transitions in evolution devised by Maynard Smith and Szathmáry has exerted tremendous influence over evolutionary theorists. Although MTE has been criticized for inconsistently combining different types of event, its ongoing appeal lies in depicting hierarchical increases in complexity by means of evolutionary transitions in individuality. In this paper, we consider the implications of major evolutionary events overlooked by MTE and its ETI-oriented successors, specifically the biological oxygenation of Earth, and the acquisitions of mitochondria and plastids. By (...)
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  19.  16
    The Emotional Attentional Blink: What We Know so Far.Maureen McHugo, Bunmi O. Olatunji & David H. Zald - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  20.  43
    The Study of Socioethical Issues in Systems Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (4):67-78.
    Systems biology is the rapidly growing and heavily funded successor science to genomics. Its mission is to integrate extensive bodies of molecular data into a detailed mathematical understanding of all life processes, with an ultimate view to their prediction and control. Despite its high profile and widespread practice, there has so far been almost no bioethical attention paid to systems biology and its potential social consequences. We outline some of systems biology's most important socioethical issues by contrasting the concept of (...)
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  21.  46
    Intervention, Integration and Translation in Obesity Research: Genetic, Developmental and Metaorganismal Approaches.Maureen O'Malley & Karola Stotz - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:2.
    Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic (...)
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  22.  57
    From Genetic to Genomic Regulation: Iterativity in microRNA Research.Maureen A. O’Malley, Kevin C. Elliott & Richard M. Burian - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):407-417.
    The discovery and ongoing investigation of microRNAs suggest important conceptual and methodological lessons for philosophers and historians of biology. This paper provides an account of miRNA research and the shift from viewing these tiny regulatory entities as minor curiosities to seeing them as major players in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Conceptually, the study of miRNAs is part of a broader change in understandings of genetic regulation, in which simple switch-like mechanisms were reinterpreted as aspects of complex cellular and genome-wide (...)
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  23.  32
    Paradigm Change in Evolutionary Microbiology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Yan Boucher - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):183-208.
    Thomas Kuhn had little to say about scientific change in biological science, and biologists are ambivalent about how applicable his framework is for their disciplines. We apply Kuhn’s account of paradigm change to evolutionary microbiology, where key Darwinian tenets are being challenged by two decades of findings from molecular phylogenetics. The chief culprit is lateral gene transfer, which undermines the role of vertical descent and the representation of evolutionary history as a tree of life. To assess Kuhn’s relevance to this (...)
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  24.  20
    The Ecological Virus.Maureen A. O'Malley - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 59:71-79.
    Ecology is usually described as the study of organisms interacting with one another and their environments. From this view of ecology, viruses – not usually considered to be organisms – would merely be part of the environment. Since the late 1980s, however, a growing stream of micrographic, experimental, molecular, and model-based (theoretical) research has been investigating how and why viruses should be understood as ecological actors of the most important sort. Viruses, especially phage, have been revealed as participants in the (...)
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  25.  52
    Ernst Mayr, the Tree of Life, and Philosophy of Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):529-552.
    Ernst Mayr’s influence on philosophy of biology has given the field a particular perspective on evolution, phylogeny and life in general. Using debates about the tree of life as a guide, I show how Mayrian evolutionary biology excludes numerous forms of life and many important evolutionary processes. Hybridization and lateral gene transfer are two of these processes, and they occur frequently, with important outcomes in all domains of life. Eukaryotes appear to have a more tree-like history because successful lateral events (...)
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  26.  24
    Microbes, Mathematics, and Models.Maureen A. O'Malley & Emily C. Parke - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 72:1-10.
    Microbial model systems have a long history of fruitful use in fields that include evolution and ecology. In order to develop further insight into modelling practice, we examine how the competitive exclusion and coexistence of competing species have been modelled mathematically and materially over the course of a long research history. In particular, we investigate how microbial models of these dynamics interact with mathematical or computational models of the same phenomena. Our cases illuminate the ways in which microbial systems and (...)
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  27.  4
    The First Eukaryote Cell: An Unfinished History of Contestation.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):212-224.
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  28.  36
    Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology.Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):775-779.
  29.  31
    Philosophy and the Microbe: A Balancing Act. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):153-159.
  30.  48
    Evolutionary Systems Biology: What It is and Why It Matters.Orkun S. Soyer & Maureen A. O'Malley - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (8):696-705.
  31.  15
    The Other Eukaryotes in Light of Evolutionary Protistology.Maureen A. O’Malley, Alastair G. B. Simpson & Andrew J. Roger - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):299-330.
    In order to introduce protists to philosophers, we outline the diversity, classification, and evolutionary importance of these eukaryotic microorganisms. We argue that an evolutionary understanding of protists is crucial for understanding eukaryotes in general. More specifically, evolutionary protistology shows how the emphasis on understanding evolutionary phenomena through a phylogeny-based comparative approach constrains and underpins any more abstract account of why certain organismal features evolved in the early history of eukaryotes. We focus on three crucial episodes of this history: the origins (...)
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  32.  98
    Varieties of Living Things: Life at the Intersection of Lineage and Metabolism.John Dupré & Maureen A. O'Malley - 2009 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 1 (20130604).
    We address three fundamental questions: What does it mean for an entity to be living? What is the role of inter-organismic collaboration in evolution? What is a biological individual? Our central argument is that life arises when lineage-forming entities collaborate in metabolism. By conceiving of metabolism as a collaborative process performed by functional wholes, which are associations of a variety of lineage-forming entities, we avoid the standard tension between reproduction and metabolism in discussions of life – a tension particularly evident (...)
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  33.  6
    Paradigm Change in Evolutionary Microbiology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Yan Boucher - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):183-208.
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  34.  70
    Systems Biology and Mechanistic Explanation.Ingo Brigandt, Sara Green & Maureen O'Malley - 2018 - In Stuart Glennan & Phyllis McKay Illari (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 362–374.
    We address the question of whether and to what extent explanatory and modelling strategies in systems biology are mechanistic. After showing how dynamic mathematical models are actually required for mechanistic explanations of complex systems, we caution readers against expecting all systems biology to be about mechanistic explanations. Instead, the aim may be to generate topological explanations that are not standardly mechanistic, or to arrive at design principles that explain system organization and behaviour in general, but not specific mechanisms. These abstraction (...)
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  35.  98
    ‘Everything is Everywhere: But the Environment Selects’: Ubiquitous Distribution and Ecological Determinism in Microbial Biogeography.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):314-325.
    Recent discoveries of geographical patterns in microbial distribution are undermining microbiology’s exclusively ecological explanations of biogeography and their fundamental assumption that ‘everything is everywhere: but the environment selects’. This statement was generally promulgated by Dutch microbiologist Martinus Wilhelm Beijerinck early in the twentieth century and specifically articulated in 1934 by his compatriot, Lourens G. M. Baas Becking. The persistence of this precept throughout twentieth-century microbiology raises a number of issues in relation to its formulation and widespread acceptance. This paper will (...)
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  36.  18
    The Cell as Nexus: Connections Between the History, Philosophy and Science of Cell Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Staffan Müller-Wille - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):169-171.
    Although the cell is commonly addressed as the unit of life, historians and philosophers have devoted relatively little attention to this concept in comparison to other fundamental concepts of biology such as the gene or species. As a partial remedy to this neglect, we introduce the cell as a major point of connection between various disciplinary approaches, epistemic strategies, technological vectors and overarching biological processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction and evolution. We suggest that the role of the cell as (...)
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  37.  9
    Life Through A Microbial Lens.Susan Spath, Maureen O’Malley, Jesse Zaneveld, Rob Knight & Carl Zimmer - 2009 - Metascience 18 (2):179-205.
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  38. Metagenomics and Biological Ontology.John Dupré & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):834-846.
    Metagenomics is an emerging microbial systems science that is based on the large-scale analysis of the DNA of microbial communities in their natural environments. Studies of metagenomes are revealing the vast scope of biodiversity in a wide range of environments, as well as new functional capacities of individual cells and communities, and the complex evolutionary relationships between them. Our examination of this science focuses on the ontological implications of these studies of metagenomes and metaorganisms, and what they mean for common (...)
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  39.  9
    ‘Everything is Everywhere: But the Environment Selects’: Ubiquitous Distribution and Ecological Determinism in Microbial Biogeography.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):314-325.
  40. Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, and Systems Biology.Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O. Malley, Staffan Muller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5.
     
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  41.  25
    Review of 'Philosophy of Biology' (Garvey, 2007). [REVIEW]Maureen A. O'Malley & Daniel J. Nicholson - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (10).
  42.  33
    Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology.Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in which the processes (...)
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  43. Compassion: Loving Our Neighbor in an Age of Globalization.Maureen H. O'Connell - 2009
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  44.  16
    Metagenomics and Biological Ontology.John Dupré & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):834-846.
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  45. Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person–Organization Fit on Job Attitudes. [REVIEW]Maureen L. Ambrose, Anke Arnaud & Marshall Schminke - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):323 - 333.
    This research examines how the fit between employees moral development and the ethical work climate of their organization affects employee attitudes. Person-organization fit was assessed by matching individuals' level of cognitive moral development with the ethical climate of their organization. The influence of P-O fit on employee attitudes was assessed using a sample of 304 individuals from 73 organizations. In general, the findings support our predictions that fit between personal and organizational ethics is related to higher levels of commitment and (...)
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  46.  17
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Maureen Mccormack, John F. Gallagher, Frances O'neill, Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon, Gunilla Holm, Joseph L. Devitis, Barbara K. Townsend, Donald Vandenberg & Phillip B. Palmer - 1996 - Educational Studies 27 (4):344-387.
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  47.  12
    Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person–Organization Fit on Job Attitudes.Maureen L. Ambrose, Anke Arnaud & Marshall Schminke - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):323-333.
    This research examines how the fit between employees moral development and the ethical work climate of their organization affects employee attitudes. Person-organization fit was assessed by matching individuals' level of cognitive moral development with the ethical climate of their organization. The influence of P-O fit on employee attitudes was assessed using a sample of 304 individuals from 73 organizations. In general, the findings support our predictions that fit between personal and organizational ethics is related to higher levels of commitment and (...)
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  48.  23
    Memory for Emotional Faces in Major Depression Following Judgement of Physical Facial Characteristics at Encoding.Nathan Ridout, Barbara Dritschel, Keith Matthews, Maureen McVicar, Ian C. Reid & Ronan E. O'Carroll - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (4):739-752.
  49.  37
    How Causal Are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter Pylori Explanation of Ulcers.Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):62.
    Human microbiome research makes causal connections between entire microbial communities and a wide array of traits that range from physiological diseases to psychological states. To evaluate these causal claims, we first examine a well-known single-microbe causal explanation: of Helicobacter pylori causing ulcers. This apparently straightforward causal explanation is not so simple, however. It does not achieve a key explanatory standard in microbiology, of Koch’s postulates, which rely on manipulations of single-microorganism cultures to infer causal relationships to disease. When Koch’s postulates (...)
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  50.  5
    How Causal Are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter Pylori Explanation of Ulcers.Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):62.
    Human microbiome research makes causal connections between entire microbial communities and a wide array of traits that range from physiological diseases to psychological states. To evaluate these causal claims, we first examine a well-known single-microbe causal explanation: of Helicobacter pylori causing ulcers. This apparently straightforward causal explanation is not so simple, however. It does not achieve a key explanatory standard in microbiology, of Koch’s postulates, which rely on manipulations of single-microorganism cultures to infer causal relationships to disease. When Koch’s postulates (...)
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