Ben prima di Heidegger è Scheler a scoprire e valorizzare la portata filosofica di Uexküll. In questo lavoro dimostro che le prime tracce di una conoscenza di Uexküll vanno fatte risalire al 1909. Ma è nel Formalismus che Scheler rilegge l'Estetica trascendentale di Kant attraverso Uexküll.
Disjunctivism has triggered an intense discussion about the nature of perceptual experience. A question in its own right concerns possible historical antecedents of the position. So far, Frege and Husserl are the most prominent names that have been mentioned in this regard. In my paper I shall argue that Max Scheler deserves a particularly relevant place in the genealogy of disjunctivism for three main reasons. First, Scheler’s view of perceptual experience is distinctively disjunctivist, as he explicitly argues that perceptions and (...) hallucinations differ in nature. Second, his version of the position is philosophically interesting in its own right. This is so primarily, though not exclusively, in virtue of the positive story he tells us about perceptual content. Third, Scheler’s case proves particularly instructive to the question of whether intentionalism and disjunctivism constitute a fundamental, unbridgeable divide. (shrink)
There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton’s footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a (...) reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. (shrink)
This is a translation of the obituary that Nicolai Hartmann wrote for his colleague and friend, Max Scheler, after the latter's premature death in 1928. In this eulogy, after emphasizing the unfortunate incompleteness of Scheler's lifework, his keeping abreast with the development of the various sciences, his power of intuition, and the fact that he was a philosopher of life without for that matter having a Lebensphilosophie, Hartmann chronologically recapitulates Scheler's life achievements, beginning with his career in Jena, his interest (...) for ethical principles, his relation to the phenomenological movement in Munich, his theory of values, wartime in Berlin, his work on the sociology of knowledge, he gives us glimpses into Scheler's unwritten and still fluctuating metaphysical views, his ever-growing interest in ontological questions, which was guided by his continued interest in the problem of man, his power of relearning, and the apparent contradictions in his thought, which, Hartmann says, was primarily the thought of a "problemthinker." The original German text was first published in Kant-Studien: Philosophische Zeitschrift der Kant-Gesellschaft, vol. 33, n. 1/2, 1928, pp. ix‒xvi. The original pagination is indicated in angle brackets. (shrink)
The prominent Russian philosopher Nikolai Lossky and his ex-student Nicolai Hartmann shared many metaphysical and epistemological views, and Lossky is likely to have influenced Hartmann in adopting several of them. But, in the case of axiological issues, it appears that Lossky also borrowed from the axiologies of Hartmann and the latter's Cologne colleague, Max Scheler. The links between the theories of values of Scheler and Hartmann have been studied abundantly, but never in relation to Lossky. In this paper, I examine (...) the manifold relationships – similarities, differences, borrowings, criticisms, and possible influences – between Lossky's axiology and those of Scheler and Hartmann on four key interweaving issues: (1) their ontological realism with regards to the objectivity of values, (2) their epistemological theories of the intuition of values, (3) their ontological definitions of "value", i.e., whether values are relations, qualities, essences, powers, meanings, etc., and (4) their theories of the stratification of values. (shrink)
In this article I develop two arguments, taking Max Scheler’s phenomenology as a starting point. The first one is that emotions are not private and internal states of consciousness, but what makes us come into contact with the expressive dimension of reality, by orienting our placement in the world and our interaction with others. The second thesis is that some emotions have an “anthropogenetic” nature that is at the roots of the ontology of a person and of social ontology: it (...) is through practices of “sharing” certain emotions that the humanity has been born and that the various forms of social realities are established. In accordance with one of María Zambrano’s phrases, I propose to trace these anthropogenetic emotions back to the «hambre de nacer del todo» («hunger for being fully born») of a being that never stops being born again. (shrink)
Max Weber and Michael Foucault are among the most controversial and fascinating thinkers of our century. This book is the first to jointly analyse them in detail, and to make effective links between their lives and work; it coincides with a substantial resurgence of interest in their writings. The author's exciting interpretative approach reveals a new dimension in reading the work of Foucault and Weber; it will be invaluable to students and those researching in sociology and philosophy.
In Max Scheler il concetto di spirito (Geist) è particolarmente instabile: come il pennino di un sismografo è capace di registrare ogni minimo mutamento del suo pensiero. L'oscillazione più spettacolare avviene nel 1923. Il problema è che invece le diverse interpretazioni su Scheler, ancora oggi, procedono come se avessero a che fare con un termine univocamente definito. Ancora nel 1922, nella seconda edizione di Vom Ewigen, Scheler esprimeva la tesi che «lo spirito è infinitamente più potente (mächtiger) di tutta la (...) natura insieme», già nel 1924, in Probleme einer Soziologie des Wissens, scrive esattamente il contrario: «originariamente lo spirito non ha in sé una qualsiasi traccia di forza o di efficacia». Inoltre mentre nel periodo intermedio i termini "persona" e "spirito" risultano rigorosamente correlati-nel Formalismus si arriverà a sostenere che «l'idea di uno spirito impersonale è insensata» - dopo il 1923 il concetto di "spirito" viene gradualmente riferito a tutta la natura, per cui la persona diventa una delle tante espressioni dello spirito. Che cosa succede nel 1923 per spiegare un rovesciamento di posizioni di tale portata? (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag widmet sich dem Zusammenhang zwischen dem deutschen Idealismus und Max Müllers Religionswissenschaft, die als erstes und maßgebendes religionswissenschaftliches Projekt betrachtet werden kann. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass die Entwicklung der Lehre Müllers erst durch Kants Kritizismus, Schleiermachers Gefühlsphilosophie und durch die idealistische Religionsphilosophie von F. Schelling und Chr. Weisse ermöglicht wurde. Es kann auch der Einfluss der Philosophie von J. Fries aufgespürt werden. Müllers Blick auf das religiöse Leben der Menschheit hat einen philosophischen Charakter und wird wesentlich durch (...) die Methodologie des deutschen Idealismus geprägt. Es gibt dennoch zwei Hauptunterschiede zwischen Müllers Religionswissenschaft und der früheren Religionsphilosophie. Zum einen benutzt Müller systematisch Originalquellen in östlichen Sprachen. Zum anderen geht Müller dadurch über die europäische Denktradition hinaus und versucht, in nichteuropäische Traditionen einzudringen und diese zu verstehen. Der deutsche Idealismus eben ermöglicht einen solchen bedeutenden Zug der Religionswissenschaft wie die Anerkennung der Diskrepanz zwischen dem, was in einem Gespräch über die Religion gesagt wird, und dem persönlichen Verhältnis des Gelehrten dazu. (shrink)
Max Weber's distinction in "Politics as a Vocation" between the ethic of conviction and the ethic of responsibility is best understood as a distinction between mutually exclusive ethical worldviews. Interpretations that correlate the two ethics with Weber's distinction between value-rational social action and instrumental-rational social action are misleading since Weber assumes that both types of rational social action are present in both ethics. The ethic of conviction recognizes a given hierarchy of values as the context for moral endeavor. The ethic (...) of responsibility acknowledges value obligations, but assumes the absence of any given hierarchy of values and the inevitability of value conflict as the context for moral endeavor. When interpreted in the context of his multilayered understanding of value conflict, Weber's ethic of responsibility emerges as a coherent ethical perspective. (shrink)
The Falsification of Statistical Hypotheses. It is widely held that falsification of statistical hypotheses is impossible. This view is supported by an analysis of the most important theories of statistical testing: these theories are not compatible with falsificationism. On the other hand, falsificationism yields a basically viable solution to the problems of explanation, prediction and theory testing in a deterministic context. The present paper shows how to introduce the falsificationist solution into the realm of statistics. This is done mainly by (...) applying the concept of empirical content to statistical hypotheses. It is shown that empirical content is a substitute for 'power' as defined by Neyman and Pearson. Since the empirical content of a hypothesis is independent of alternative hypotheses, the proposed theory of statistical testing allows for tests of isolated hypotheses. (shrink)
O artigo constitui-se de uma apresentação sucinta dos elementos principais do sistema ético de Max Scheler. Utilizando-se do método fenomenológico, Scheler afirma que a ética deve basear-se na experiência, pois o valor não é algo que se atribui, mas que é experimentado. O fenomenólogo alemão defende que o homem está rodeado por um cosmos de valores que não necessita ser produzido, apenas reconhecido através do perceber sentimental, possibilitando, inclusive, uma organização hierárquica dos valores. No entanto, este perceber se encontra afetado (...) pelo ressentimento, o que implica em uma negação dos valores através da inversão valorativa. (shrink)
Questo saggio mette in discussione l'interpretazione predominante sull'ultimo Scheler e basata sulla tesi di un dualismo sostanziale fra Geist e Leben riconducibile a quello cartesiano. Questa interpretazione non tiene conto che Scheler in Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos critica espressamente il dualismo cartesiano. In secondo luogo, attraverso una precisa analisi dei testi, si mette in luce come dopo il 1924, il termine Geist assuma nel testo scheleriano un significato molto diverso da quello del periodo intermedio, e venga caratterizzato come (...) un attributo completamente impotente. Il problema delle interpretazioni dualistiche è quello di sovrapporre questi due concetti di Geist e in particolare di continuare ad applicare al concetto di Geist sviluppato dopo il 1924 le stesse caratteristiche che Scheler attribuiva al Geist nel periodo intermedio, quando lo identificava ancora con la persona, cioè con un centro dotato di forza. A causa di questa indistinzione le interpretazioni dualistiche non riescono a rispondere alla domanda fondamentale: con quali forze uno spirito originariamente impotente e senza forze potrebbe contrapporsi dualisticamente alla vita? Scheler stesso anticipa possibili obiezioni in questo senso e afferma che «non lo spirito, ma solo l'intelletto ipersublimato, che Klages confonde con lo spirito, è in un certo senso ostile alla vita» (Max Scheler, GW IX, 150). In realtà il vero punto debole della relazione fra Geist e Drang non è il dualismo, tanto che Scheler stesso interpreta il rapporto nel senso di una compenetrazione (Durchdringung), un termine ripreso da Schelling, ma piuttosto il fatto che questa compenetrazione sfocia in una metafisica astratta che non ha più il suo fulcro nel concetto di persona ma in quello di Geist. (shrink)
Early in his career, Max Deutscher he started to explore questions in the philosophy of mind, which continue to interest him. His early reading of Jean-Paul Sartre, and the work of Gilbert Ryle, informs all his work. My paper traces the theme of genre in philosophy as it is exemplified and discussed throughout Deutscher’s work, including Judgment After Arendt (2007).
Recientemente se ha avanzado en algunas variaciones a la interpretación estándar de la obras de Max Weber. De entre estas variaciones hay una visión no-sociológia del corpus weberiano. Aquí trato de mostrar algunas implicaciones de esta nueva posición para la metodología de las ciencias sociales, y ofrezco un panorama bibliográfico del asunto.
In his book on P max , Woodin presents a collection of partial orders whose extensions satisfy strong club guessing principles on ω | . In this paper we employ one of the techniques from this book to produce P max variations which separate various club guessing principles. The principle (+) and its variants are weak guessing principles which were first considered by the second author  while studying games of length ω | . It was shown in  that (...) the Continuum Hypothesis does not imply (+) and that (+) does not imply the existence of a club guessing sequence on ω | . In this paper we give an alternate proof of the second of these results, using Woodin's P max technology, showing that a strengthening of (+) does not imply a weakening of club guessing known as the Interval Hitting Principle. The main technique in this paper, in addition to the standard P m a x machinery, is the use of condensation principles to build suitable iterations. (shrink)
This paper aims at revealing the originality of Max Weber’s conception of the logical category of “historicity”, suggesting that in his writings on the methodology of the social sciences we can find a stimulating and forerunner contribution to the analysis of some logical and formal problems concerning the relationship between human knowledge and the chaos of reality (what we might call, ante-litteram, “science of chaos”). In particular, considering that in Weber’s conception scientific knowledge finds no facts “to grasp” in the (...) natural world, but rather a chaos of unique and infinitely divisible events, the analysis will be focused on the following aspects: (a) Weber’s separation of causal imputation from the notion of necessary (natural) law; (b) the importance attached to “probability judgments” with different degrees of certainty; (c) the proclaimed irreducibility of individual events to scientific models, laws, and (ideal)-types; (d) the effects imputed to the differentiation of the point of view of a scientific observer. (shrink)
Virtue as Value: A Comparison between Christoph Halbig and Max Scheler The aim of the following contribution is to compare the virtue conceptions of Christoph Halbig and Max Scheler in order to scrutinize their common positions and differences and thus to answer two questions: Firstly, is it true that Scheler's approach is based on the basic assumptions of the recursive theory of virtues, as Halbig asserts this? Secondly, can the virtues be defined as attitudes, or should they be conceived as (...) qualities of the person? In addition, the author examines the connection of virtues and emotions more closely and shows that virtues can be regarded as a kind of transformers from the negative to the positive, because they fix the right way of dealing with negative emotions and because they switch over the negative basic mood into a positive and joyful one. The reflection of these questions is embedded in a constant reference to Aristotle's understanding of virtues. (shrink)
In this essay I elaborate on the theoretical framework – that of Millian liberalism – that Max Charlesworth brought to many public issues, including that of the relation between education and religion. I will then apply this framework to a debate in which I have been recently involved myself: a debate around the provision of religious instruction in public schools. In the first section I expound Charlesworth’s rejection of secularism in education in a liberal pluralist state and his defence of (...) faith-based schooling. In the second section I uncover the religious motivations behind the Victorian government’s 1950 amendments to the apparently secularist Victorian Education Act of 1872. In section three, I explore the notion of secularism more fully and suggest that the struggle between those who espouse religious instruction in state schools and those who oppose it while advocating a more general form of education about religion is a symptom of a deeper tension between liberalism and communitarianism within the culture of modernist, liberal states. (shrink)
This paper examines Max Adler's philosophical thought, in order to elucidate how he was able to spot a religious meaning in the materialistic conception of history and to understand his connection to Judaism. The first part expounds on how the prominence of religious issues was perceived in the Marxist milieu; the second part analyzes Adler's particular position, above all in harmony with Kantian philosophy; and the third part brings out the essential differences between Adler's and Kant's ideas on religion. Finally (...) the paper shows how Adler's hope in an ultramundane salvation of mankind separates his interpretation from Jewish messianism. (shrink)
Apresentamos Max Weber como um dos sociólogos e historiadores mais importantes dentre aqueles que se dedicaram ao estudo do fenômeno religioso. Na verdade, é possível afirmar que a análise da religião compreende um dos aspectos mais fundamentais de sua obra sócio-histórica. De modo geral, esse tema aparece em seus textos de duas maneiras diferentes, quais sejam: enquanto um objeto analisado em sua singularidade e enquanto uma manifestação social que influencia de maneira significativa os demais aspectos da vida comunitária. Aqui, observamos (...) como ele muniu-se de um método particular e o utilizou como parâmetro para compreender historicamente a religião. Ao se debruçar sobre as religiões mundiais (confucionismo-taoísmo, judaísmo-cristianismo e hinduísmo-budismo), Weber estuda a racionalização cultural de suas cosmovisões. Todavia, para ele, a influência da religião sobre a vida prática varia muito segundo o caminho da salvação/libertação que é prescrito e segundo a qualidade psíquica (ou imaginada) da salvação que se pretende alcançar. Palavras-chave : Max Weber; Religião; Religiões Mundiais; Racionalização.We present Max Weber as one of the most important sociologists and historians among those who dedicated themselves to the study of the religious phenomenon. Actually, it is possible to say that the analysis of religion involves one of the most fundamental aspects of his socio-historical work. As a whole, this subject appears in his texts in two different forms, i.e., as an analyzed object in its particularities, and as a social manifestation which influences, in a significant way, the other aspects of communitarian life. Here, we observe how he equipped himself with a particular method, rescued Kantian rationality and applied it as a parameter to historically understand religion. While he dedicated himself to study world religions (Confucianism-Taoism, Judaism-Christianity, and Hinduism-Buddhism), Weber analyzes the cultural rationalization of his cosmovisions. However, for him, the influence of religion over practical life varies a lot according to the path of salvation/liberation which is prescribed in terms of the psychological (imagined) quality of the salvation which is intended to be reached. Key words : Max Weber; Religion; World Religions; Rationalization. (shrink)
It is widely held that falsification of statistical hypotheses is impossible. This view is supported by an analysis of the most important theories of statistical testing: these theories are not compatible with falsificationism. On the other hand, falsificationism yields a basically viable solution to the problems of explanation, prediction and theory testing in a deterministic context. The present paper shows how to introduce the falsificationist solution into the realm of statistics. This is done mainly by applying the concept of empirical (...) content to statistical hypotheses. It is shown that empirical content is a substitute for ‘power’ as defined by Neyman and Pearson. Since the empirical content of a hypothesis is independent of alternative hypotheses, the proposed theory of statistical testing allows for tests of isolated hypotheses. (shrink)
In his social theory, Max Weber (1864 – 1920) attempts to identify patterns that have distinguished Western rationality. Music, he argues, is one of the domains that exhibit such structures. As a specific instance, Weber cites counterpoint as developed in 15th century Europe and – so he claims – culminating in Bach’s music. “No other epoch and culture possesses it”, Weber asserts. Counterpoint’s rationality is meant to manifest itself in rules; yet Weber’s approach lacks an analysis of such rules. Remarkably, (...) 18th century music theory brought the social meaning of counterpoint to the fore more sharply than did Weber’s sociology of music. (shrink)
First published in 1965, this collection of three essays by influential German philosopher Karl Jaspers deals with the response of the philosophical mind to the world of reality, with the search for truth. In Leonardo, this search is shown in the thinking and the works of a supreme artist whose means of apperception are the senses. The essay on Max Weber commemorates a man Jaspers knew personally and ardently admired. The main essay in the collection is an exhaustive, three part (...) study of Descartes: analysing Descartes’ new philosophical operation, Descartes’ Method, and the position of his philosophy within the wider historical context of philosophical thought. (shrink)
The State of the Political challenges traditional interpretations of the political thought of Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, and Franz Neumann. Focusing on their adaptation of a German tradition of state-legal theory, the book offers a scholarly, contextualized account of the interrelationship between their political thought and practical political criticism. Dr Kelly criticizes the typical separation of these writers, and offers a substantial reinterpretation of modern German political thought in a period of profound transition, in particular the relationship between political theory (...) and conceptual change. Alongside its focus on German political and juridical thought, the book contributes significantly to the history of European ideas, discussing parliamentarism and democracy, academic freedom and cultural criticism, political economy, patriotism, sovereignty and rationality, and the inter-relationships between law, the constitution and political representation. (shrink)
Scheler, like Jaspers, gives a key importance to the relations with alterity and grounds both the individual formation and social ontology on the practices of “sharing emotions”. My work attempts to interpret the impairments related to the capacities of communication – that Jaspers places at the roots of psychopathology and that the Japanese psychiatrist Bin Kimura has more recently argued to be the core of schizophrenia – as impairment of what Scheler calls ordo amoris, that is the “order of feeling” (...) of a person: like a "Psychopathology of the Ordo Amoris". (shrink)
While several studies have explored the interactional dynamics of charismatic power, most have neglected the role of what Weber termed the charismatic aristocracy. This article revives the classical concept to respond to contemporary calls for performative, followercentric approaches to charisma. Specifically, the charismatic aristocracy is placed at the center of an analysis of a reiterative moment in charismatization: when influential followers generate content for the emerging charismatic persona. In these germinal moments, the dialogical nature of charisma is most clear, precisely (...) because it is then that charismatic leaders often are not themselves confident in their status and can be found responding to instructional cues—indeed following the lead—of those positioning themselves as obsequious followers. Drawing on 10 years of observations, multistage interviews, and media collections, I provide an interactionist account of the charismatic emergence of John de Ruiter, leader of a successful new religious movement. I conclude by tabling a model that conceives of the charismatic aristocracy as an important fulcrum for expectation, affectation, and recognition in charismatic interactions. (shrink)
Was ist Wert? Des Öfteren hat man bei der Beantwortung dieser Frage den Wert als etwas einer Qualität oder einem Attribut Ähnliches konzipiert. Meines Erachtens muss die Antwort hingegen in der Verbindung des Wertes mit der Erfahrung gesucht werden. Der Wert ist nichts, was dem Phänomen von außen zugeschrieben würde, sondern etwas, was dem Phänomen die Möglichkeit gibt, sich zu offenbaren und sich zu konstituieren. In dieser Richtung behauptet Scheler, dass der Wert keine „Eigenschaft“ eines Dinges neben seinen anderen Eigenschaften (...) sei. Der Wert gehört demnach einem Teilbereich der Erfahrung an, jedoch nicht als einfaches Phänomen, sondern vielmehr als Urphänomen. Daraus folgt, dass der Wert nicht – wie eine Wertqualität oder ein Attribut – auf die Gegebenheit eines Phänomens zurückgeführt werden kann, da er der Erscheinung des Phänomens selbst vorangeht. Als Urphänomen ist der Wert Element der Vorgegebenheit, nicht der faktischen Gegebenheit. (shrink)
Max Stirner has often been considered a Young Hegelian, or even the 'last Hegelian'. Such a reading implies that Stirner drew the logical conclusions of Hegel’s philosophy, thereby ignoring the way his thought marks a fundamental break with the philosophical tradition as a whole. Stirner’s notions of 'egoism', 'ownness' and 'Der Einzige' ('the ego') were not philosophical concepts but, in a Foucauldian sense, tools to dismantle the subject-object dichotomy and its social and political bearings in the wake of modernity. It (...) is argued, furthermore, that his ideas cannot be reduced to a traditional philosophy of the subject (existentialism). This chapter analyses both Stirner’s quest to 'dissolve' philosophy, as well as its radical implications for political theory as a whole. Stirner’s notion of Der Einzige not only questions the revolutionary subject in a strictly Marxist sense, but eventually any form of (political) subjectivity. Stirner’s radical criticism of the emancipatory claims of his contemporaries allows us to question and rethink the concepts of contemporary social and political theory, not only by criticizing the way political power is commonly conceived and by refraining from positing essentialist guarantees, but also by laying bare the problem of political subjectivity. (shrink)