Integration of ontologies begins with establishing mappings between their concept entries. We map categories from the largest manually-built ontology, Cyc, onto Wikipedia articles describing corresponding concepts. Our method draws both on Wikipedia’s rich but chaotic hyperlink structure and Cyc’s carefully defined taxonomic and common-sense knowledge. On 9,333 manual alignments by one person, we achieve an F-measure of 90%; on 100 alignments by six human subjects the average agreement of the method with the subject is close to their agreement with each (...) other. We cover 62.8% of Cyc categories relating to common-sense knowledge and discuss what further information might be added to Cyc given this substantial new alignment. (shrink)
In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. (...) We describe methods used to add 35K new concepts mined from Wikipedia to collections in ResearchCyc entirely automatically. Evaluation with 22 human subjects shows high precision both for the new concepts’ categorization, and their assignment as individuals or collections. Most importantly we show how Cyc itself can be leveraged for ontological quality control by ‘feeding’ it assertions one by one, enabling it to reject those that contradict its other knowledge. (shrink)
Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, (...) facts and descriptions found in Wikipedia, and organizes the work into four broad categories: applying Wikipedia to natural language processing; using it to facilitate information retrieval and information extraction; and as a resource for ontology building. The article addresses how Wikipedia is being used as is, how it is being improved and adapted, and how it is being combined with other structures to create entirely new resources. We identify the research groups and individuals involved, and how their work has developed in the last few years. We provide a comprehensive list of the open-source software they have produced. (shrink)
This article compares the ethical attitudes of Ukrainian business professionals with those of United States business professionals. A widely used survey instrument consisting of 16 hypothetical situations involving ethical dilemmas was employed to gather information on ethical attitudes in the two countries. On 13 of 16 vignettes, Ukrainian respondents demonstrated less stringent ethical attitudes than did their United States counterparts. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, with primary emphasis on the transition from one economic system to another that is (...) underway in Ukraine. Comments from Ukrainian respondents are presented so as to give an indication of the thought processes behind the questionnaire responses. (shrink)
Предметом дослідження у статті є концептуальні підходи до формування механізмів антикризової політики держави. Доведено, що в сучасній Україні антикризова політика має ґрунтуватися на використанні податкових механізмів і важелів.
Approaches to global ethics have drawn on a number of diverse theoretical traditions, such as Kantianism and utilitarianism. While emerging frameworks contribute to a growing awareness of and interest in ethics within a global society, the values that they prioritize are not adequate for realizing a just, equitable and fair system of global governance. This article considers the possibilities of an alternative ethic - a feminist ethic of care - and explores how it can bear on present circumstances, including global (...) inequity and injustice. This care ethic has been put forward as a viable normative approach to politics and policy. Little attention, however, has been paid to the potential of a care ethic within the globalization and ethics debate. This article illustrates how the values and corresponding principles of care, grounded in relationships and responsibilities, are essential to responding adequately to the current challenges of globalization. By examining the relevance of care in this context, the article seeks to broaden dominant ethical worldviews and contribute to the articulation of normative tools for examining globalization while at the same time avoiding the trappings of conventional universality - the abstract and a priori thinking typically associated with conceptions of global ethics. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to reconstruct the classical Sāṁkhya view on the relationship between a word and its meaning. The study embraces all the extant texts of classical Sāṁkhya, but it is based mainly on the Yuktidīpikā, since this commentary contains most of the fragments which are directly related to the topic of our research. The textual analysis has led me to the following conclusion. It is possible to reconstruct two different and conflicting views on the relationship between (...) a word and its meaning from the classical Sāṁkhya texts. The first view, the source of which is the Yuktidīpikā, is that all words are conventional in their origin. It resembles the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika theory of the primary linguistic convention and the conventional origin of all words. The second view, which is the implication of the Sāṁkhya idea of the authorless Vedas we can reconstruct on the basis of the majority of the classical Sāṁkhya commentaries, is that the relationship between a word and its meaning is natural. This view is probably influenced by Mīmāṁsā. Both of these views are hardly compatible with the Sāṁkhya teaching. It seems like classical Sāṁkhya, not having created its own detailed theory, oscillated between different conceptions. (shrink)
Interdisciplinarity is one of the features of modern science, defined as blurring the boundaries of disciplines and overcoming their limitations or excessive specialization by borrowing methods from one discipline into another, integrating different theoretical assumptions, and using the same concepts and terms. Often, theoretical knowledge of one discipline and technological advances of another are combined within an interdisciplinary science, and new branches or disciplines may also emerge. Biosemiotics, a field that arose at the crossroads of biology, semiotics, linguistics, and philosophy, (...) enables scientists to borrow theoretical assumptions from semiotics and extend them to different biological theories. The latter applies especially to extended synthesis, wherein culture is viewed as one of the factors influencing evolution. In the present research, the semiotic system of Ukrainian folk ornament is analyzed through the theory of fractals, key features of which are recursion and self-similarity. As a result, an assumption is made about the fractal structure of culture and social life on a conceptual level. What follows is a discussion of how this assumption can contribute to the multilevel selection theory, one of the foundations of extended synthesis, which employs the concept of self-similarity at all levels of the biological hierarchy. (shrink)
In this article, I reconstruct the view of the Yuktidīpikā, the most detailed and profound commentary of classical Sāṃkhya, on the origin of the Vedas. A close reading of the text reveals that its unknown author wavered between at least two different views on this issue. The first view is that the authorless but noneternal Vedas evolve from prakṛti at the beginning of a new cycle of existence of the world and merge into prakṛti during a cosmic dissolution. The Yuktidīpikā (...) is the first text in classical Sāṃkhya to state directly that the Vedas have no author. The second and opposite view is that Kapila is the author of the highest teaching of the Vedas. This view is expressed only indirectly. Besides reconstructing the above-mentioned views, I attempt to answer the question of whether by quoting Nirukta 1.20 the Yuktidīpikā communicates something about the origin of the Vedas. Illustrating Sāṃkhya thought by quoting this passage of the Nirukta, as well as proclaiming the idea that the Vedas are authorless, which became the “official” standpoint of the Sāṃkhya darśana, can be interpreted as elements of the Yuktidīpikā’s pioneering project to show that Sāṃkhya is not in conflict with the Vedas. (shrink)
The aim of this study is to clarify the meaning of the term saṁketa, which is usually translated as ‘ convention’, in the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, the first and the most authoritative commentary to the Yogasūtras. This paper is a contribution to the reconstruction of the classical Yoga view on the relation between word and its meaning, for saṁketa is a key term used by this darśana in discussing this relation. The textual analysis of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya has led me to the conclusion (...) that its author’s understanding of the linguistic convention is different from the notion of the linguistic convention of the Vaiśeṣikas and Naiyāyikas and similar to the notion of the linguistic convention of the Grammarians. These are interpretations of the term saṁketa which reflect Yogasūtrabhāṣya’s understanding of the linguistic convention: the tradition of the usage of words, established usage of words. Saṁketa of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, unlike saṁketa/samaya of the Vaiśeṣikas and Naiyāyikas, is not an agreement established by anyone, but an agreement in the sense of tradition, established practice, or established custom. Unlike the saṁketa/samaya of these philosophers, the saṁketa of the Yogasūtrabhāṣya, having neither beginning nor end, is not re-created, but only made known at the beginning of each cycle of existence of the world. (shrink)
Olena Bortnikova. Religious and political organizations as subjects of national processes in Ukraine In the article the different approaches to defining the essence of religious and political organizations as subjects of national processes and their role in the functioning and development of society. Attempted to characterize the basic methodological provisions for disclosure of the nature of religious and political actors as structural elements of ethnonational system, identifying different levels of accommodation in terms of social change.
Source: Author: Olena Znanetska In the current article the problem of foreign communicative competence of higher school students has been considered. The notion, the main point and the components of higher school students` foreign competence have been analyzed. The scientific works under the problem have been investigated. ]]>.
The question as to whether the Vedas have an author is the topic of vivid polemics in Indian philosophy. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the classical Sāṁkhya view on the authorship of the Vedas. The research is based chiefly on the commentaries to the Sāṁkhyakārikā definition of authoritative verbal testimony given by the classical Sāṁkhya writers, for these fragments provide the main evidence (both direct and indirect) for the reconstruction of this view. The textual analysis presented in (...) this paper leads to the following conclusion. According to most classical Sāṁkhya commentaries, the Vedas have no author. Two commentators state directly that the Vedas have no author, and four commentators allude to the authorlessness of the Vedas. Only one commentator seems to hold the opposite view, stating that all the authoritative utterances are based on perception or inference of imperceptible objects by authoritative persons, from which it follows that the Vedas too have an author or authors. (shrink)
The paper is devoted to the development of fundamental bases of the reputation management of enterprises and elaboration of its methodological and methodical support. There was offered to use “antifragility” conception in the reputation management of an enterprise that allows to activate the cooperation with key stakeholders and to trace the effectiveness of managerial arrangements. At that reputation antifragility that is the ability to its self-support is a criterion of effectiveness of the reputation management of an enterprise. The projection of (...) Taleb’s conception on the reputation management of enterprises provides the management balance and self-management balance at the conceptual level. At that in the aspect of the economic approach, “antifragility of an enterprise reputation” is not equal to the notion “anticrisis enterprise management”, where the last one reproduces the process of counteraction to crisis phenomena. The features of reputation antifragility are considered as: stability as a closest synonym of antifragility; while assessing a reputation, it is necessary to take into account its ability to resist rare destructive events; anticrisis reputation management as a necessary but not enough method of providing antifragility of an enterprise reputation; informational transparency and its necessity to form an antifragile enterprise reputation. The research results demonstrate that the management decentralization, limitation of the direct managerial impact is a necessary condition to provide reputation “antifragility” that is its ability of self-restoration, strengthening and self-increment as a result of the conscious use of stressors. The way of the solution of the methodological problem of the natural “management deficit” in complicated multi-vector systems in the context of the theory of the reputation management is the model of the reputation management decentralization by transferring the part of functions from managers to stakeholders. (shrink)
Olena Panych’s article «Scientific Atheism as a Cultural System» explores scientific atheism as a worldview and cultural system that were artificially constructed in the USSR in 1960s-80s. Panych argues that scientific atheism had its peculiar specific ethics, practices and discourse. Being essentially a propagandist paradigm aimed at negation of religion, scientific atheism also developed a positive program of the formation of integral worldview. The discourse of scientific atheism was focused on the construction of community that would be alternative to (...) the religious one. In its peculiar way, scientific atheism asserted general collectivist values of the Soviet epoch. (shrink)
Actuality of theme. At the end of the XX century, the religious life of Ukraine has undergone significant transformations. With the collapse of the totalitarian regime and the gaining of independence by Ukraine, religious communities were in a new socio-political and socio-cultural environment for themselves. There was a significant increase in the role of religious institutions in the development of civil society.
The basic results of empirical research and trends of theoretical understanding of influence of emotions on weighting of decision aspects, the influence of emotional tone of events on risk-taking, the emotional significance influence on accessibility of thoughts and the influence of emotional priming on process of decision-making were considered. It was shown, that parallel emotional and cognitive information processing paths are functioning during the process of decision-making as a single mechanism. The important role of emotions in risky decision-making was substantiated.
Based on the analysis of theoretical and philosophical orientation of philosophical and educational thought at the end of XIX - beginning of the twentieth century, established mechanisms for determining the socio-cultural and specific historical features of the formation of personality in the educational space of Modernity.
In the article the author tries to analyze the representation of philosophical and anthropological ideas in the works of fraternal schools in the XVI–XVII centuries. It is noted that man was considered in the unity of soul and body as a microcosm and one that was created in the image of God. Self-knowledge was interpreted as a way of liberation from the burdens of the surrounding world, dependence on earthly sensuality. In particular, Stefan Zizaniy had a rationalist vision of the (...) dogmas of orthodox Christianity. The work of Kyrylo Tranquillion-Stavrovetsky shows a neo-Platonist tradition associated with humanism. In accordance with the traditions of the Renaissance, the philosopher turns to the idea of double truth, considering wisdom from the standpoint of theology and practical philosophy of life. K. Tranquillion-Stavrovetsky, according to the Stoic doctrine, regarded man as a dual nature. But the philosopher also emphasized the unity of soul and body, because they are strongly interconnected. It is noteworthy that the scientist reveals the problem of soul and body from the Renaissance-humanistic moral-ethical and epistemological positions. Isaiah Kopynsky emphasizes that self-knowledge and cognition of the surrounding world does not occur through the study of nature and observation of natural phenomena, but, on the contrary, through immersion in your inner spiritual world through “smart deeds”. It contributes to the knowledge of the outside world, self-knowledge and knowledge of God. I. Kopynsky’s views are close to early Hesychast Byzantine theology. The anthropological views of the theologian are focused on the individual who takes an active part in the historical process. In his works, M. Smotrytsky also pays special attention to the transcendent nature of the human spirit, in particular, analyzing the question of the interaction of action and will. The author concludes that the philosophical and anthropological ideas of the fraternal schools were formed in the context of European philosophical culture and were a reflection of the cultural and historical features of the historical period we are studying. (shrink)
This article comprehensively analyses the potential for politicians’ speeches to influence the public, taking into account the main linguistic and pragmatic factors: political, social, and cultural context, the communication occasion, the personality of the politician, and the structural features of the text that determine the psycholinguistic effectiveness of the speech. The purpose of the research is to study the functional and pragmatic opportunities of well-known US presidents’ public speeches as a political tool and as part of a political strategy. It (...) is a socio- and psycholinguistic study; its goal is not only to demonstrate the features of different types of communication strategies and tactics but also to explain how this variety arises, how society contributes to it and what complicates the emergence of productive social communications. Political speeches use both purely lingual and extra-lingual means that determine the conceptual content and ways of verbalising meanings, explicable through specific strategies and tactics. The communication situation includes a chronotope and a format for political public speech The personality of the politician, his or her image and status, social and political experience, and degree of eloquence - all play an important role in the preparation and implementation of the speech. (shrink)
The study of the place and role of religious education in the post-secular world is undoubtedly increasing. First of all, this is due to the loss of religion of its influence on modern society, the growth of globalization processes, and attempts to preserve national and cultural identity. At the same time, we are talking not only about the problems inherent in whole countries and peoples, but also about the right of an individual to his own worldview and moral choice - (...) freedom of conscience, and most importantly - the possibility of realizing this choice. (shrink)
Стаття висвітлює важливий аспект різнобічної діяльності митрополита Андрея Шептицького - охорону природи Галичини. Автор доводить, що природоохоронна діяльність митрополита була спрямована на посилення процесів національного відродження в краї, мала неабияке значення для утвердження власної гідності галичан, вела до неухильного розширення їх духовного світогляду. У статті наведено ряд архівних документів, що засвідчують факти природоохоронної діяльності митрополита на теренах Галичини в 1930-1940 рр.
In the article the author tries to analyze the vision of the path of spiritual formation in the philosophical and religious views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and the early modernism representatives in the context of the doctrine of theosis. It is noted that the doctrine of deification is considered fundamental to the theology of holiness. Theosis, the idea of which is to renew the image and the likeness of God in a person, is the main goal of life from (...) the standpoint of the Eastern Church. After all, the combination of the Divine and human natures opens the way to God for a person. As a state of subjective experience of a human person, theosis is considered in hesychasm, which interprets it as synergy - an interacting combination of energies of man and God. The path to the development of knowledge about God is connected with the ascetic rejection from the worldly life, and the path to the union with Him is connected with the union of the Divine and human natures in a person. Followers of hesychasm believe that theosis is the practice of the subjective experience of a human person; synergy is the interacting combination of the energy of man and God. The main task of austerity is the attainment of divine grace. It dissolves the will of man in the process of a human being transformation. The doctrine of theosis had an impact on the formation of the theocratic idea in the culture of Kiev Rus, in which love of wisdom played an important role in human understanding themselves as the image of God. Analyzing the views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and early modernism representatives on the path of spiritual development of man, the author concludes that they were characterized by the vision of deification as a person’s approach to God through self-exploration and moral improvement. Theosis is the final result on the path of spiritual growth for the representatives of the Middle Ages and early modernism philosophical conception, who attached great importance to gaining inner mystical experience and sought to experience spiritual ecstasy as the ultimate goal in the mystical path to deification. (shrink)
The article considers questions about the role and significance of art education in the context of ensuring sustainable development of society. The features of the development of art education in the postmodern era, its functions and specific features are analyzed. The interdependence of arts education and sustainable development are characterized. The exceptional importance for ensuring sustainable development of an appropriately oriented and updated arts education was emphasized. In particular, it seems possible to ensure a change in stereotypes, ways of thinking (...) and actions of people, the formation of appropriate motivation and public opinion in the context of applied nature through the influence of art. Ways to improve art education with the aim of ensuring sustainable development are proposed: integration of formal and non-formal art education, ensuring innovativeness, interdisciplinarity and multiculturalism of art education, creating an inclusive environment in higher educational institutions. We see prospects for further scientific research in the creation of a model for training specialists with certain properties and substantiation of the features of its implementation in real conditions of the educational process in higher education institutions of the artistic direction. (shrink)
The proposed article provides an overview of European and North American states’ legislation, which regulates the procedure for pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products, as well as responsibility for its violation, analysis of the problems and prospects of adaptation of the national legislation to European legal space, particularly in the field of criminal and legal regulation of relations in the sphere of pre-clinical trials, clinical trials and state registration of medicine. The emphasis is put on the (...) matter that inclusion of Article 321-2 into the Criminal Code of Ukraine leads to a false concurrence with other provisions of the Code. The author proposes to introduce recent EU legislation (Acquis Communautaire) on legal regulation of clinical trials and circulation of medicine into the law of Ukraine, clarify terminology related to Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Health Protection and the Special Part of criminal law, introduce criminal liability for legal entities that will provide effective control over negative effects of research centers’ activity. It is suggested to develop legislative proposals to improve the provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, which provide legal protection of relations arising in connection with pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products. (shrink)
The article highlights the issues of nature protection in Halychyna region that have been arising since ancient times till1939. Inthe 20-30s of the XXth century the solution of this problem was considered in the search of separate valuable objects of nature, their expropriation from the sphere of economic usage and complete protection. In the hard interwar period, the Polish government, scientists and some land owners were doing their best to protect nature. This intense activity had a significant public basis, as (...) the main legislative basis of Poland of that time facilitated development and distribution of nature-protective activity in Halychyna region. Poland had a significant public legislative foundation for environmental protection and isolation of valuable natural areas/objects. First of all, since 1852 Halychyna had the valid Austrian law on forest conservation, according to which all forests, regardless of ownership form, had to be supervised by the State Forest Administration. In 1900 the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture issued the Circular concerning conservation of natural tracts and old trees. Later on, in 1927 the President of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth issued the Decision on the protection of forests that were not owned by the state; in1934 anew public law about monuments of nature was adopted in Halychyna, which greatly simplified and facilitated the procedure of conserving valuable natural objects in the country. In addition, Poland had a number of other valid laws on nature usage with the elements of environmental protection. In the 1920-1930s, nature conservation and isolation of national parks in Halychyna were performed by both the government authorities of Poland and numerous Polish academic-social entities, such as the State Council for Nature Conservation of Poland, Polish Committee for Nature Protection in Lviv city, the Polish League for Nature Protection, Department of Reserves of the Research Institute of State Forests, Nature Conservation Commission of the State Geological Institute. Apart from that, Poland also had various public nature protection societies of local history and natural sciences, such as the Copernicus Society of Naturalists, Society of Tree-Lovers, Society of Planting Local Hylads, Zoological and Botanical Society, Society for Animal Protection, 'Stowarzyszenia c.k. straznikow lasowych i dozorcow skladow', 'Straz Lesna w Kosowie', "Akademickiego kola Przyrodnikow wszechnicy Lwowskiej' and others. A number of protected state reserves have been created. In addition to the public ones, there were a lot of community nature reserves, which were bought by the Polish scientific-cultural societies and organizations, as well as private reserves, created on private lands by some land owners. Thus, in Halychyna region the issue of nature conservation was developing very actively in those years, yet under the auspices of the Austrian environmental organizations. Correspondingly, the new protected objects became Austrian or Polish state property. No Ukrainian natural reserves existed, and no national societies for nature protection. Therefore, the problem of nature protection in the 1920-1930s in the society turned from the purely ecological problem into the ecological-national one. Ukrainian patriots, uniting around their spiritual leader - the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, started a broad nature protection activity in Halychyna, focusing at conserving and multiplying the natural resources. First of all, they founded the Permanent Commission for Nature Conservation at the Taras Shevchenko Scientific Society, which was carrying out an active nature conservation activity in the given region. (shrink)
The article deals with the expression of affirmation category in a colloquial style. Analyzed the intention of the affirmation on lexical, grammatical and syntactic language levels. Structured each means of realization of affirmative meaning into a proper niche. The research confirmed that nouns, verbs, adverbs belong to the nuclear identifications of the affirmation category. Sub-nuclear identifications of the affirmation category include word-sentences represented as particles, modal verbs, exclamations and estimation lexemes. As for intermediate means of affirmation representation one may attribute (...) the expression likes ‘I know’ or syntactically segmented structures. Peripheral verbalizers of affirmative meaning cover comparisons and phraseological structures. The outmost peripheral niche is formed by elliptical incentive structures, repetitions and combinations of several particles and adverbs. Established, that an affirmation within colloquial style is connected with stating the fact, agreement with the previous fact, approval of the decision, confidence as to the previous message, approval of information truthfulness. (shrink)
The main purpose of the study is a comprehensive economic and legal analysis of the loan agreement in agriculture in the conditions of formation and development of elements of post-industrial economy in Ukraine. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach using the method of cognition from abstract to concrete and special methods of economic and statistical research, which helped to ensure the reliability of research results and validity of conclusions. It was found that the loan agreement in agriculture (...) is an economic and legal category that ensures the further development of agriculture in Ukraine in conditions of further integration of our economy to world market on competitive terms. It was determined that expanding the use of the loan agreement in agriculture is a necessary lever to increase production efficiency, formation and constant restoration of a competitive technological base in modern conditions and further development of the whole agro-industrial complex considering the formation of post-industrial economy. It is proved that the application of the mechanism of crediting of agriculture in Ukraine has a positive effect on the development of the agro-industrial sector in Ukraine. It is determined that the current level and availability of lending to the agro-industrial complex in Ukraine are insufficient for quality modernization and achieving a high level of efficiency of agricultural production. The main value of this study is that it analyzes the concept through the prism of two categories, namely: legal and economic. (shrink)
The study of the peculiarities that the reception of such an essential concept of the philosophical Corpus Dionysiacum Areopagiticum as ὑπερούσιος in ancient Slavic translations has is promising. It allows not only to understand better the internal perspective of the development of philosophical terminology in Rus’-Ukraine, where in the 15th–17th centuries, there existed a significant number of manuscripts of the corpus, but also to strengthen the argument in favor of its dating precisely in the 5th century. According to the conceptual (...) features that are present in the Greek text of De divinis nominibus and are confirmed in the studies of Slavic translations of the Corpus Areopagiticum, this work, preserved also in other languages, could belong to an author, who uniquely combined his Christian views and a philosophical vision of the world that was inspired by his Neoplatonic education at the Alexandrian School of Philosophy under the guidance of the eminent Neoplatonic thinker and mathematician Hypatia, who was well acquainted with the ideas of Plotinus and the whole Alexandrian intellectual tradition. It is possible that this author, who used the ideas of Plotinus and Porphyry and for the first time unfolded the idea of the Christian God as the Hyperousios in the aspect of the Christian Triad in his philosophical hymns and treatises, could be Synesius of Cyrene, Bishop of Ptolemais. (shrink)
This article examines the main approaches to prehistoric environmental studies. The history of theories and concepts used in contemporary prehistory, archaeology, cultural and social anthropology, ecology, sociology, psychology, and demography is discussed. The author concludes with a plea for the concept of “living space” as a way to address certain problems in interdisciplinary studies of prehistoric societies.
The article highlights processes that took place among Ukrainian community during pre-election campaign in the People's Republic of Poland in 1989. The events that, certainly, became a turning point in the history of the state and influenced on the set up of another approach on issues of national minorities in communist Poland are reconstructed. The importance of Ukrainian community candidate participation in parliamentary elections is determined, including the win of one of them. This success was achieved owing to the common (...) objective of different groups of society to overcome the communist regime in country. Those Ukrainians, who helped and supported their candidates, including Volodymyr Mokryy, invoked the Ukrainian community to support the opposition representatives as well. It should be noted that one of most significant challenges for them was struggle against anti-Ukrainian stereotypes. The latter were firmly engrained into Polish society consciousness. In its turn, communist propaganda throughout the period of pre-election campaign, tried to provoke a new wave of hatred to Ukrainians, reminding about the sources of conflicts in Ukrainian-Polish relationship. (shrink)
At the present stage of political life public opinion endures the increase of its role and significance thus determining the relevance of social and philosophical analysis of the public opinion phenomenon. This article aims to represent more profoundly the process of public opinion formation, and to substantiate its regular character. Theoretical knowledge of ontological foundation of the phenomenon under consideration requires the reliance on laws of the dialectic: unity and struggle of opposites, transition from quantitative to qualitative changes, negation of (...) the negation. Due to the analysis of public opinion definitions made by well-known representatives of internationl and national science it was determined that the phenomenon of public opinion has subject-object nature, its formal trait is social activity and information and emotional interaction. It was established that public opinion is formed in accordance with the facts of human life, under conditions when human needs and interests are implemented due to the influence of the environment, public relations, and other realities of social life. However, the essential role in this process also belongs to the fundamental understanding and background assumptions, standards, ideas and values created by public conscience. So it is proved that the formation of public opinion is possible due to the interaction of two major components - a social being and social consciousness. It is the interaction of rational, emotional and conative components of social subjects and objects of public opinion. The relationship of social consciousness and social life is stable, objective, substantial, internal, necessary and repetitive, and, therefore, it appears as the main pattern of public opinion formation. (shrink)
Purpose: finding out the features of logical methods for obtaining conclusions on humanitarian subjects. The task of this scientific research is to analyze the logical paradigmatic aspects of humanitarian knowledge, such as the differences in the formation of sets, logical forms and conclusions, and so on. Methods: a set of logical methods such as analysis, synthesis, abstraction and generalization, informal logic of understanding, etc. Scientific novelty: the logic of humanitarian knowledge is formed on the basis of the logic of historical (...) knowledge, the specificity of which is manifested in the special meaning of individual sets that receive direct and indirect meaning, form the corresponding logical connections in obtaining conclusions. When obtaining conclusions on humanitarian subjects, the formation of an exemplary individual is a plurality. Its ideal qualities are transferred to an unnamed set. Thus, the integrity of the humanitarian subject is created. In the transition from parts to the whole there is a “logical jump”, which is also the difference in the procedure for obtaining a conclusion. Widely used rational understanding by identifying the value of the whole. Understanding can be strong or weak. The difference in the logic of humanitarian knowledge is primarily due to the peculiarity of the work of human thinking, which uses specific tools in formatting various scientific disciplines and organizing the cognitive process. Among the many new approaches and methods of the humanities developed in phenomenology, existentialism, philosophy of life, structuralism, postmodernism, etc., hermeneutics should be noted. It is hermeneutics that occupies a special place in humanitarian knowledge due to its ontology and logic. Conclusions: the logic of humanitarian knowledge is formed on the basis of historical consciousness, relies on ontology and has signs of the logic of practical thinking. In its formation, it is advisable to use the theory of practical judgments and conclusions, taking into account subjective values of life experience, obtaining the logical values of truth and falsehood. The terms of deductive and non-deductive forms are based on judgments about values. The logic of humanitarian knowledge to a large extent is hermeneutical logic, which, in turn, is the logic of rational understanding. (shrink)
Indeed, as an important social phenomenon, the Maydan 2013-2014 became the subject of intellectual reflections of journalists, political scientists, sociologists and historians. Numerous articles, books, seminars and conferences have attracted a large number of people in the discussion of these events not only in Ukraine but also abroad. Obviously, this is just the beginning of the reflection that this phenomenon really needs.
У статті розглядається підхід до ефективного пошуку, планування, використання й моніторингу інвестицій підприємства, яке характеризується розгалуженістю зв'язків як усередині підприємства, так і з зовнішніми контрагентами. Як інструмент пропонується система бюджетування підприємства. Виділено ключові напрями діяльності в рамках інвестиційного стимулювання підприємства, визначено завдання системи бюджетування, наведено основні джерела інвестування, сформульовано основні принципи, яким повинна задовольняти система бюджетування. Класифіковано й розглянуто елементи системи бюджетування підприємства.