Results for 'Medicine & Public Health'

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  1.  29
    Medicine, Public Health, and the Ethics of Rationing.Alfred I. Tauber - 2002 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (1):16-30.
  2.  13
    Medicine Public Health and the Medical Profession in the Renaissance. By Carlo Cipolla. London: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. Viii + 136. £5.50. [REVIEW]William Wightman - 1977 - British Journal for the History of Science 10 (1):74-75.
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  3.  29
    Moralization and Mismoralization in Public Health.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    Moralization is a social-psychological process through which morally neutral issues take on moral significance. Often linked to health and disease, moralization may sometimes lead to good outcomes; yet moralization is often detrimental to individuals and to society as a whole. It is therefore important to be able to identify when moralization is inappropriate. In this paper, we offer a systematic normative approach to the evaluation of moralization. We introduce and develop the concept of ‘mismoralization’, which is when moralization is (...)
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  4.  44
    Medicine and Public Health, Ethics and Human Rights.Jonathan M. Mann - 1997 - Hastings Center Report 27 (3):6-13.
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  5. Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain.James F. Childress, Ruth R. Faden, Ruth D. Gaare, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jeffrey Kahn, Richard J. Bonnie, Nancy E. Kass, Anna C. Mastroianni, Jonathan D. Moreno & Phillip Nieburg - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (2):170-178.
    Public health ethics, like the field of public health it addresses, traditionally has focused more on practice and particular cases than on theory, with the result that some concepts, methods, and boundaries remain largely undefined. This paper attempts to provide a rough conceptual map of the terrain of public health ethics. We begin by briefly defining public health and identifying general features of the field that are particularly relevant for a discussion of (...)
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  6. Medicine and Health Care in Later Medieval Europe: Hospitals, Public Health, and Minority Medical Prac-Titioners in English and German Cities, 1250-1450.Anna Terry - 2001 - Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal 2.
     
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  7.  25
    Public Health in an Era of Terrorism: The IOM Report on Public-Health Infrastructure. Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. [REVIEW]Thomas May - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):10 – 14.
  8.  62
    Justice in Medicine and Public Health.Rosamond Rhodes - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (1):13-26.
    a This paper is a revised and shortened version of my chapter, “Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health” in Public Health Ethics, edited by Michael Boylan, Kluwer; 2004. Portions of this material were presented at the International Bioethics Retreat, Pavia, Italy, June 2003, and at the meetings of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences, Philadelphia, September 2003.
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  9.  11
    Justice in Medicine and Public Health.Rosamond Rhodes - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (1):13-26.
    This paper is a revised and shortened version of my chapter, “Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health” in Public Health Ethics, edited by Michael Boylan, Kluwer; 2004. Portions of this material were presented at the International Bioethics Retreat, Pavia, Italy, June 2003, and at the meetings of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences, Philadelphia, September 2003.
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  10.  45
    Public Health Ethics Theory: Review and Path to Convergence.Lisa M. Lee - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):85-98.
    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the “patient” in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public (...) ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. (shrink)
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  11. In Me We Trust: Public Health, Personalized Medicine and the Common Good.Donna Dickenson - 2014 - The Hedgehog Review 16 (1).
    The rise of personalised medicine can be seen as an extension of individualism and as a threat to the common good.
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  12.  2
    Public Health Genomics : From Scientific Considerations to Ethical Integration.Yanick Farmer & BÉatrice Godard - 2007 - Genomics, Society and Policy 3 (3):14-27.
    Recent advances in our understanding of the human genome have raised high hopes for the creation of personalized medicine able to predict diseases well before they occur, or that will lead to individualized and therefore more effective treatments. This possibility of a more accurate science of the prevention and surveillance of disease also illuminates the field of public health, where the translation of genomic knowledge could provide tools enhancing the capacity of public health authorities to (...)
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  13.  22
    Elementary Concepts of Medicine: II. Health, Health Fields, Public Health.Olli S. Miettinen & Kenneth M. Flegel - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (3):311-313.
  14.  69
    Public Health Ethics From Foundations and Frameworks to Justice and Global Public Health.Nancy E. Kass - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (2):232-242.
    Public health ethics in the future will be distinguished from public health ethics in the past by this new subfield being labeled as such, acknowledged, and called upon for service. Ethical dilemmas have been present throughout the history of public health. The question of whether to force Henning Jacobson to be immunized in 1905 in accordance with the 1902 Massachusetts smallpox vaccination law was one of ethics as well as law. How Thomas Parran, Surgeon (...)
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  15.  23
    Public Health Nudges: Weighing Individual Liberty and Population Health Benefits.Derek Soled - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11):756-760.
    Libertarian paternalism describes the idea of nudging —that is, steering individual decision-making while preserving freedom of choice. In medicine, libertarian paternalism has gained widespread attention, specifically with respect to interventions designed to promote healthy behaviours. Some scholars argue that nudges appropriately balance autonomy and paternalistic beneficence, while others argue that nudges inherently exploit cognitive weaknesses. This paper further explores the ethics of libertarian paternalism in public health. The use of nudges may infringe on an individual’s voluntary choice, (...)
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  16.  19
    A Public Health Perspective on Research Ethics.D. R. Buchanan & F. G. Miller - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (12):729-733.
    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, (...) health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re-assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. (shrink)
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  17.  24
    Evidence‐Based Medicine and Public Health.Paul Aveyard - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):139-144.
  18.  12
    Public Health Ethics Theory: Review and Path to Convergence.Lisa M. Lee - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):85-98.
    For over 100 years, the field of contemporary public health has existed to improve the health of communities and populations. As public health practitioners conduct their work – be it focused on preventing transmission of infectious diseases, or prevention of injury, or prevention of and cures for chronic conditions – ethical dimensions arise. Borrowing heavily from the ethical tools developed for research ethics and bioethics, the nascent field of public health ethics soon began (...)
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  19. Public Health Policy, Evidence, and Causation: Lessons From the Studies on Obesity.Federica Russo - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):141-151.
    The paper addresses the question of how different types of evidence ought to inform public health policy. By analysing case studies on obesity, the paper draws lessons about the different roles that different types of evidence play in setting up public health policies. More specifically, it is argued that evidence of difference-making supports considerations about ‘what works for whom in what circumstances’, and that evidence of mechanisms provides information about the ‘causal pathways’ to intervene upon.
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  20.  22
    On Medicine and Health Enhancement - Towards a Conceptual Framework.Lennart Nordenfelt - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (1):5-12.
    This paper contains an attempt at constructing a semantic framework for the field of health enhancement. The latter is here conceived as an extremely general category covering the whole area of health care and health promotion. With this framework as a basis I attempt to define the place of medicine within the enterprise of health enhancement. I finally indicate some normative issues for the future, in particular problems and possible developments for medicine as a (...)
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  21. Public Health Ethics: The Voices of Practitioners.Ruth Gaare Bernheim - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (s4):104-109.
    Public health ethics is emerging as a new field of inquiry, distinct not only from public health law, but also from traditional medical ethics and research ethics. Public health professional and scholarly attention is focusing on ways that ethical analysis and a new public health code of ethics can be a resource for health professionals working in the field. This article provides a preliminary exploration of the ethical issues faced by (...) health professionals in day-to-day practice and of the type of ethics education and support they believe may be helpful. (shrink)
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  22.  75
    Medicine’s Metaphysical Morass: How Confusion About Dualism Threatens Public Health.Diane O’Leary - 2020 - Synthese 2020 (December):1977-2005.
    What position on dualism does medicine require? Our understanding of that ques- tion has been dictated by holism, as defined by the biopsychosocial model, since the late twentieth century. Unfortunately, holism was characterized at the start with con- fused definitions of ‘dualism’ and ‘reductionism’, and that problem has led to a deep, unrecognized conceptual split in the medical professions. Some insist that holism is a nonreductionist approach that aligns with some form of dualism, while others insist it’s a reductionist (...)
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  23.  31
    Philosophy of Population Health: Philosophy for a New Public Health Era.Sean A. Valles - 2018 - Abingdon OX14, UK: Routledge.
    Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding field of research—population health science. Its approach is to promote the public’s health through improving everyday human life: affordable nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will (...)
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  24.  21
    Public Health, Ethics, and Human Rights: A Tribute to the Late Jonathan Mann.Lawrence O. Gostin - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 29 (2):121-130.
    The late Jonathan Mann famously theorized that public health, ethics, and human rights are complementary fields motivated by the paramount value of human well-being. He felt that people could not be healthy if governments did not respect their rights and dignity as well as engage in health policies guided by sound ethical values. Nor could people have their rights and dignity if they were not healthy. Mann and his colleagues argued that public health and human (...)
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  25.  15
    Mothers, Medicine and Public Health: Exploring the Influence of Health Advice in Defining Gendered Responsibility for Child Health.Toni Noeline Denise Delany - 2009 - Nexus (Misc) 21 (3):19-19.
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  26.  23
    The Right to Health and Medicines: The Case of Recent Multilateral Negotiations on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property.German Velasquez - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 14 (2):67-74.
    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the ‘IGWG’, undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on ‘Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated (...)
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  27.  4
    Public Health, Ethics, and Human Rights: A Tribute to the Late Jonathan Mann.Lawrence O. Gostin - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 29 (2):121-130.
    The late Jonathan Mann famously theorized that public health, ethics, and human rights are complementary fields motivated by the paramount value of human well-being. He felt that people could not be healthy if governments did not respect their rights and dignity as well as engage in health policies guided by sound ethical values. Nor could people have their rights and dignity if they were not healthy. Mann and his colleagues argued that public health and human (...)
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  28.  1
    Tailoring Public Health Policies.Govind Persad - 2021 - American Journal of Law and Medicine 47 (2-3):176–204.
    In an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, many states and countries have adopted public health restrictions on activities previously considered commonplace: crossing state borders, eating indoors, gathering together, and even leaving one’s home. These policies often focus on specific activities or groups, rather than imposing the same limits across the board. In this Article, I consider the law and ethics of these policies, which I call tailored policies. In Part II, I identify two types of tailored (...)
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  29.  9
    The Public Health Value of Opioid Litigation.Rebecca L. Haffajee - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):279-292.
    Opioid litigation continues a growing public health litigation trend in which governments seek to hold companies responsible for population harms related to their products. The litigation can serve to address gaps in regulatory and legislative policymaking and in market self-regulation pervasive in the prescription opioid domain. Moreover, prior opioid settlements have satisfied civil tort litigation objectives of obtaining compensation for injured parties, deterring harmful behavior, and holding certain opioid manufacturers, distributors and pharmacies accountable for their actions. In this (...)
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  30.  20
    Medicine and Health Care - A Commentary to Lennart Nordenfelt.Henk A. M. J. ten Have - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (1):13-14.
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  31.  34
    Burgeoning Visions of Global Public Health: The Rockefeller Foundation, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the 'Hookworm Connection'.L. Wilkinson - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (3):397-407.
  32.  3
    Preventive Medicine and Public Health.R. M. Dykes - 1951 - The Eugenics Review 43 (2):104.
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  33.  18
    Burgeoning Visions of Global Public Health: The Rockefeller Foundation, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the ‘Hookworm Connection’.Lise Wilkinson - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (3):397-407.
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  34.  9
    Public Health and Health Care: Integration, Disintegration, or Eclipse.Peter D. Jacobson & Wendy E. Parmet - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (4):940-951.
    Many observers have argued that the US health care system could be more efficient, and achieve better outcomes if providers focused more on improving the community's health, not just the welfare of individual patients. The passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 seemed to herald the promise of such reforms, and greater integration of the health care and public systems. In this article, we reassess the quest for integration, a quest we call the “integration project.” (...)
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  35.  38
    Public Health Dilemmas Concerning a 2-Year Old Hepatitis-B Carrier – Response.Marcel Verweij & Jim van Steenbergen - 2008 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):87--89.
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  36.  17
    Bioethics, Public Health, and Firearm-Related Violence: Missing Links Between Bioethics and Public Health.Leigh Turner - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (1):42-48.
    Open any standard bioethics textbook, and therein can be found a host of subjects ranging from the abortion rights controversy to the morality of xenographic tissue transplantation. Just as there is a wide scope to the subject matter of bioethics, its practitioners come from a multitude of disciplines, including law, medicine, nursing, theology, philosophy, sociology, and anthropology. And yet, despite a rich variety of investigators and methods, bioethicists overlook numerous subjects that deserve to be addressed. In particular, they neglect (...)
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  37.  5
    A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence, Legally Speaking.Michael R. Ulrich - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (S2):112-115.
    The call for a public health approach to gun violence has largely ignored what role the nascent Second Amendment jurisprudence will play in hindering change. Given the state interest for infringing on Second Amendment rights is nearly always public safety, public health law doctrine provides an apt framework for analysis.
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  38.  37
    When Public Health and Genetic Privacy Collide: Positive and Normative Theories Explaining How ACA's Expansion of Corporate Wellness Programs Conflicts with GINA's Privacy Rules.Jennifer S. Bard - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):469-487.
    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite (...)
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  39.  19
    Nanotechnology in Global Medicine and Human Biosecurity: Private Interests, Policy Dilemmas, and the Calibration of Public Health Law.Thomas A. Faunce - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):629-642.
    This article explores a unique opportunity for shaping public health law and policy to reflect a greater balance between public and private goods in two areas of primary concern to human well-being: medicine and human biosecurity. This opportunity is presented both by the rapid changes likely to occur in these areas as a result of nanotechnology and the fact that multinational corporate actors have not yet had the opportunity to use their well-honed techniques of governance influence (...)
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  40.  10
    Public Health Legal Preparedness: A Framework for Action.Georges C. Benjamin & Anthony D. Moulton - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (s1):13-17.
    Public health emergencies have occurred throughout history, encompassing such events as plagues and famines arising from natural causes, disease pandemics interrelated with wars, and industrial accidents such as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, among others. Law and legal tools have played an important role in addressing such emergencies. Three prime U.S. examples are Congressional authorization of quarantine as early as 1796, legally mandated smallpox vaccination upheld in a landmark 1905 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, and the President's 2003 executive order (...)
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  41.  19
    Bioethics, Public Health, and Firearm-Related Violence: Missing Links Between Bioethics and Public Health.Leigh Turner - 1997 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (1):42-48.
    Open any standard bioethics textbook, and therein can be found a host of subjects ranging from the abortion rights controversy to the morality of xenographic tissue transplantation. Just as there is a wide scope to the subject matter of bioethics, its practitioners come from a multitude of disciplines, including law, medicine, nursing, theology, philosophy, sociology, and anthropology. And yet, despite a rich variety of investigators and methods, bioethicists overlook numerous subjects that deserve to be addressed. In particular, they neglect (...)
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  42.  4
    Public Health Ethics: The Voices of Practitioners.Ruth Gaare Bernheim - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (S4):104-109.
    Public health ethics is emerging as a new field of inquiry, distinct not only from public health law, but also from traditional medical ethics and research ethics. Public health professional and scholarly attention is focusing on ways that ethical analysis and a new public health code of ethics can be a resource for health professionals working in the field. This article provides a preliminary exploration of the ethical issues faced by (...) health professionals in day-to-day practice and of the type of ethics education and support they believe may be helpful. (shrink)
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  43.  11
    Public Health Legal Preparedness: A Framework for Action.Georges C. Benjamin & Anthony D. Moulton - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (s1):13-17.
    Public health emergencies have occurred throughout history, encompassing such events as plagues and famines arising from natural causes, disease pandemics interrelated with wars, and industrial accidents such as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, among others. Law and legal tools have played an important role in addressing such emergencies. Three prime U.S. examples are Congressional authorization of quarantine as early as 1796, legally mandated smallpox vaccination upheld in a landmark 1905 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, and the President's 2003 executive order (...)
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  44.  10
    Public Health Data Collection and Implementation of the Revised Common Rule.Lisa M. Lee - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2):232-237.
    For the first time, the revised Common Rule specifies that public health surveillance activities are not research. This article reviews the historical development of the public health surveillance exclusion and implications for other foundational public health practices.
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  45.  21
    The Public Health Workforce and Willingness to Respond to Emergencies: A 50‐State Analysis of Potentially Influential Laws.Lainie Rutkow, Jon S. Vernick, Maxim Gakh, Jennifer Siegel, Carol B. Thompson & Daniel J. Barnett - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (1):64-71.
    Law plays a critical role in all stages of a public health emergency, providing an infrastructure for planning, response, and recovery efforts. A growing body of research has underscored the potential for certain types of state laws, such as those granting liability protections to responders, to influence the public health workforce's participation in emergency responses. It is therefore especially important to focus on particular state-level laws that may be associated with individuals' increased or decreased willingness to (...)
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  46.  22
    Public Health als Beitrag zur sozialen Gerechtigkeit.Oliver Rauprich - 2010 - Ethik in der Medizin 22 (3):263-273.
    Soziale Faktoren haben einen starken Einfluss auf die Gesundheit und Lebenserwartung. Auch in Wohlfahrtsstaaten bestehen signifikante gesundheitliche Ungleichheiten zwischen besser und schlechter gestellten Bevölkerungsgruppen. Sie werden zunehmend als ein Problem der sozialen Gerechtigkeit wahrgenommen. Public Health dient dem Abbau gesundheitlicher Ungleichheiten und somit der Förderung der sozialen Gerechtigkeit. Obwohl Public Health-Maßnahmen effizienter zur Förderung und Angleichung der Bevölkerungsgesundheit beitragen können als viele medizinische Versorgungen, erhalten sie einen geringeren gesundheitspolitischen Stellenwert. Diese Prioritätensetzung zu Gunsten der Medizin kann (...)
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  47.  21
    Public Health and the Built Environment: Historical, Empirical, and Theoretical Foundations for an Expanded Role.Wendy C. Perdue, Lawrence O. Gostin & Lesley A. Stone - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (4):557-566.
    In 2000, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Environmental Health issued a report that explored some of the ways in which “sprawl” impacts public health. The report has generated great interest, and state health officials are beginning to discuss the relationship between land use and public health. The CDC report has also produced a backlash. For example, the Southern California Building Industry Association labeled the report “a ludicrous sham” and argued (...)
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  48.  3
    Public Health Dilemmas Concerning a 2-Year Old Hepatitis-B Carrier – Response.Marcel Verweij & Jim Steenbergen - 2008 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):87-89.
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  49.  1
    Nationalizing Public Health Emergency Legal Responses.James G. Hodge - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):315-320.
    The fight for public health primacy in U.S. emergency preparedness and response to COVID-19 centers on which level of government — federal or state — should “call the shots” to quell national emergencies?
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  50. Public Health as a Matter of Concern: Victorian England, 1834-1848.Michael Strand - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 44 (3):399-423.
    Public health is currently evolving, expanding, and reinforcing itself as a governance project in which health authorities’ concerns meet and blend with epidemiology and civil engineering. Rarely, however, are those concerns found worthy of examination, at least not to account for the multiplying involvements of public health, its ability to find political life in things, and its many translations. The shape of public health is dictated as much by its matters of concern as (...)
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