Results for 'Melissa Ebbers'

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Melissa Ebbers
University of Maryland, College Park (PhD)
  1.  58
    The Meaning Of Language, Second Edition.Heidi Savage, Melissa Ebbers & Robert M. Martin - 2020 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    A new edition of a comprehensive introduction to the philosophy of language, substantially updated and reorganized. The philosophy of language aims to answer a broad range of questions about the nature of language, including “what is a language?” and “what is the source of meaning?” This accessible comprehensive introduction to the philosophy of language begins with the most basic properties of language and only then proceeds to the phenomenon of meaning. The second edition has been significantly expanded and reorganized, putting (...)
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  2.  38
    Reseña "Los medios y la política. Relación aviesa" de Melissa Salazar y Robinson Salazar.Melissa Salazar - 2012 - Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana 17 (56):110-115.
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  3.  24
    Chance and Human Error in Spinoza and Lucretius: Melissa Shew Chances to Wonder About the Influence of Doubt and Human Error.Melissa Shew - 2008 - Philosophy Now 68:27-30.
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  4.  49
    Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics. [REVIEW]Melissa Barry - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (2):259-261.
    In Finite and Infinite Goods, Adams develops a sophisticated and richly detailed Platonic-theistic framework for ethics. The view is Platonic in virtue of being Good-centered; it is theistic both in identifying God with the Good and, more distinctively, in including a divine command theory of moral obligation. Readers familiar with Adams’s earlier divine command theory will recall that in response to the worry that God might command something evil, Adams introduced an independent value constraint, claiming that only the commands of (...)
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  5.  44
    Kant on Reflection and Virtue.Melissa Merritt - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    There can be no doubt that Kant thought we should be reflective: we ought to care to make up our own minds about how things are and what is worth doing. Philosophical objections to the Kantian reflective ideal have centred on concerns about the excessive control that the reflective person is supposed to exert over her own mental life, and Kantians who feel the force of these objections have recently drawn attention to Kant’s conception of moral virtue as it is (...)
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  6. Deontic Modality and the Semantics of Choice.Melissa Fusco - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    I propose a unified solution to two puzzles: Ross's puzzle and free choice permission. I begin with a pair of cases from the decision theory literature illustrating the phenomenon of act dependence, where what an agent ought to do depends on what she does. The notion of permissibility distilled from these cases forms the basis for my analysis of 'may' and 'ought'. This framework is then combined with a generalization of the classical semantics for disjunction — equivalent to Boolean disjunction (...)
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  7. Citizenship as Identity, Citizenship as Shared Fate, and the Functions of Multiculatural Education.Melissa S. Williams - 2003 - In Kevin McDonough & Walter Feinberg (eds.), Citizenship and Education in Liberal-Democratic Societies: Teaching for Cosmopolitan Values and Collective Identities. Oxford University Press.
    This is the second of the four essays in Part II of the book on liberalism and traditionalist education; all four are by authors who would like to find ways for the liberal state to honour the self-definitions of traditional cultures and to find ways of avoiding a confrontation with differences. Melissa Williams examines citizenship as identity in relation to the project of nation-building, the shifting boundaries of citizenship in relation to globalization, citizenship as shared fate, and the role (...)
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  8.  88
    Kantian Practical Love.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (3):313-331.
    In the Doctrine of Virtue Kant stipulates that ‘Love is a matter of feeling, not of willing . . . so a duty to love is an absurdity.’ Nonetheless, in the same work Kant claims that we have duties of love to other human beings. According to Kant, the kind of love which is commanded by duty is practical love. This paper defends the view that the duty of practical love articulated in the Doctrine of Virtue is distinct from the (...)
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  9.  42
    The Interplay of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Guiding Repeated Search in Scenes.Melissa L.-H. Võ & Jeremy M. Wolfe - 2013 - Cognition 126 (2):198-212.
  10.  70
    The Perverse Effects of Competition on Scientists' Work and Relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, sabotage of others’ (...)
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  11.  16
    The human organism is not a conductorless orchestra: a defense of brain death as true biological death.Melissa Moschella - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (5):437-453.
    In this paper, I argue that brain death is death because, despite the appearance of genuine integration, the brain-dead body does not in fact possess the unity that is proper to a human organism. A brain-dead body is not a single entity, but a multitude of organs and tissues functioning in a coordinated manner with the help of artificial life support. In order to support this claim, I first lay out Hoffmann and Rosenkrantz’s ontological account of the requirements for organismal (...)
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  12.  29
    Infants' Understanding of False Labeling Events: The Referential Roles of Words and the Speakers Who Use Them.Melissa A. Koenig & Catharine H. Echols - 2003 - Cognition 87 (3):179-208.
  13.  7
    Conceptual Structure and the Procedural Affordances of Rational Numbers: Relational Reasoning with Fractions and Decimals.Melissa DeWolf, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (1):127-150.
  14.  26
    Deconstructing the Brain Disconnection–Brain Death Analogy and Clarifying the Rationale for the Neurological Criterion of Death.Melissa Moschella - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (3):279-299.
    This article explains the problems with Alan Shewmon’s critique of brain death as a valid sign of human death, beginning with a critical examination of his analogy between brain death and severe spinal cord injury. The article then goes on to assess his broader argument against the necessity of the brain for adult human organismal integration, arguing that he fails to translate correctly from biological to metaphysical claims. Finally, on the basis of a deeper metaphysical analysis, I offer a revised (...)
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  15.  97
    Designing Ethical Organizations: Avoiding the Long-Term Negative Effects of Rewards and Punishments.Melissa S. Baucus & Caryn L. Beck-Dudley - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (4):355-370.
    Ethics researchers advise managers of organizations to link rewards and punishments to ethical and unethical behavior, respectively. We build on prior research maintaining that organizations operate at Kohlbergs stages of moral reasoning, and explain how the over-reliance on rewards and punishments encourages employees to operate at Kohlbergs lowest stages of moral reasoning. We advocate designing organizations as ethical communities and relying on different assumptions about employees in order to foster ethical reasoning at higher levels. Characteristics associated with ethical communities are (...)
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  16. How Social Perception Can Automatically Influence Behavior.Melissa J. Ferguson & John A. Bargh - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):33-39.
  17.  51
    Voting the General Will.Melissa Schwartzberg - 2008 - Political Theory 36 (3):403-423.
    Scholars exploring the logic of Rousseau's voting rules have typically turned to the connection between Rousseau and the Marquis de Condorcet. Though Condorcet could not have had a direct influence on Rousseau's arguments about the choice of decision rules in "Social Contract," the possibility of a connection has encouraged the view that Rousseau's selection of voting rules was based on epistemic reasons. By turning to alternative sources of influence on Rousseau--the work of Hugo Grotius and particularly that of Samuel Pufendorf--a (...)
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  18.  28
    Living Ethically, Acting Politically.Melissa A. Orlie - 1997 - Cornell University Press.
    Political scientist Melissa Orlie asks what it means to live freely and responsibly when advantages are distributed disproportionately according to race, gender ...
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  19.  24
    Two-Year-Olds Use Artist Intention to Understand Drawings.Melissa Allen Preissler & Paul Bloom - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):512-518.
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  20.  33
    Life's Dominion.Melissa Lane & Ronald Dworkin - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (176):413.
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  21.  17
    Fostering Creativity and Innovation Without Encouraging Unethical Behavior.Melissa S. Baucus, William I. Norton, David A. Baucus & Sherrie E. Human - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):97-115.
    Many prescriptions offered in the literature for enhancing creativity and innovation in organizations raise ethical concerns, yet creativity researchers rarely discuss ethics. We identify four categories of behavior proffered as a means for fostering creativity that raise serious ethical issues: breaking rules and standard operating procedures; challenging authority and avoiding tradition; creating conflict, competition and stress; and taking risks. We discuss each category, briefly identifying research supporting these prescriptions for fostering creativity and then we delve into ethical issues associated with (...)
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  22. Collective Openness and Other Recommendations for the Promotion of Research Integrity.Melissa S. Anderson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):387-394.
  23.  22
    Resisting Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Dilemmas in the Mass Treatment of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in North-West Uganda.Melissa Parker, Tim Allen & Julie Hastings - 2008 - Journal of Biosocial Science 40 (2):161-181.
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  24.  52
    Sexual Identity, Gender, and Human Fulfillment: Analyzing the “Middle Way” Between Liberal and Traditionalist Approaches.Melissa Moschella - 2019 - Christian Bioethics 25 (2):192-215.
    In this essay, I outline fundamental anthropological and moral principles related to human sexuality and gender identity and then apply these principles to analyze and evaluate the views of several authors who attempt to carve out a “middle way” between liberal and traditionalist approaches to these issues. In doing so, I engage especially with the claim that gender dysphoria, rather than being a psychological issue, is a type of biological intersex condition in which one’s “brain sex” is out of line (...)
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  25.  28
    A Democratic Case for Comparative Political Theory.Melissa S. Williams & Mark E. Warren - 2014 - Political Theory 42 (1):26-57.
    Globalization generates new structures of human interdependence and vulnerability while also posing challenges for models of democracy rooted in territorially bounded states. The diverse phenomena of globalization have stimulated two relatively new branches of political theory: theoretical accounts of the possibilities of democracy beyond the state; and comparative political theory, which aims at bringing non-Western political thought into conversation with the Western traditions that remain dominant in the political theory academy. This article links these two theoretical responses to globalization by (...)
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  26.  47
    Sex-Related Variation in Human Behavior and the Brain.Melissa Hines - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):448-456.
  27. Active Sympathetic Participation: Reconsidering Kant's Duty of Sympathy.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2009 - Kantian Review 14 (1):31-52.
    In the Doctrine of Virtue Kant divides duties of love into three categories: beneficent activity , gratitude and Teilnehmung – commonly referred to as the duty of sympathy . In this paper I will argue that the content and scope of the third duty of love has been underestimated by both critics and defenders of Kant's ethical theory. The account which pervades the secondary literature maintains that the third duty of love includes only two components: an obligation to make use (...)
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  28. On the Supposed Moral Harm of Selecting for Deafness.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (3):128-136.
    This paper demonstrates that accounting for the moral harm of selecting for deafness is not as simple or obvious as the widespread negative response from the hearing community would suggest. The central questions addressed by the paper are whether our moral disquiet with regard to selecting for deafness can be adequately defended, and if so, what this might entail. The paper considers several different strategies for accounting for the supposed moral harm of selecting for deafness and concludes that the deaf (...)
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  29.  12
    Will Mass Drug Administration Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis? Evidence From Northern Coastal Tanzania.Melissa Parker & Tim Allen - 2013 - Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (4):517-545.
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  30.  5
    Referential Uses of Arabic Numerals.Melissa Vivanco - 2020 - Manuscrito 43 (4):142-164.
    Is the debate over the existence of numbers unsolvable? Mario Gómez-Torrente presents a novel proposal to unclog the old discussion between the realist and the anti-realist about numbers. In this paper, the strategy is outlined, highlighting its results and showing how they determine the desiderata for a satisfactory theory of the reference of Arabic numerals, which should lead to a satisfactory explanation about numbers. It is argued here that the theory almost achieves its goals, yet it does not capture the (...)
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  31.  39
    Integrated But Not Whole? Applying an Ontological Account of Human Organismal Unity to the Brain Death Debate.Melissa Moschella - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):550-556.
    As is clear in the 2008 report of the President's Council on Bioethics, the brain death debate is plagued by ambiguity in the use of such key terms as ‘integration’ and ‘wholeness’. Addressing this problem, I offer a plausible ontological account of organismal unity drawing on the work of Hoffman and Rosenkrantz, and then apply that account to the case of brain death, concluding that a brain dead body lacks the unity proper to a human organism, and has therefore undergone (...)
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  32. Practical Reason and Respect for Persons.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):53-79.
    My project is to reconsider the Kantian conception of practical reason. Some Kantians think that practical reasoning must be more active than theoretical reasoning, on the putative grounds that such reasoning need not contend with what is there anyway, independently of its exercise. Behind that claim stands the thesis that practical reason is essentially efficacious. I accept the efficacy principle, but deny that it underwrites this inference about practical reason. My inquiry takes place against the background of recent Kantian metaethical (...)
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  33.  32
    Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions.Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (8):2053-2088.
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally inverse (...)
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  34. On Procreative Responsibility in Assisted and Collaborative Reproduction.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):55-70.
    Abstract It is common practice to regard participants in assisted and collaborative reproduction (gamete donors, embryologists, fertility doctors, etc.) as simply providing a desired biological product or medical service. These agents are not procreators in the ordinary sense, nor do they stand in any kind of meaningful parental relation to the resulting offspring. This paper challenges the common view by defending a principle of procreative responsibility and then demonstrating that this standard applies as much to those who provide reproductive assistance (...)
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  35.  38
    Naturalizing Deontic Logic: Indeterminacy, Diagonalization, and Self‐Affirmation.Melissa Fusco - 2018 - Philosophical Perspectives 32 (1):165-187.
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  36. Slaves of the Passions. [REVIEW]Melissa Barry - 2010 - Hume Studies 36 (2):225-228.
    In Slaves of the Passions, Mark Schroeder provides a systematic, rigorously argued defense of a Humean theory of reasons for action, taking pains to respond to influential objections to the view. While inspired by Hume, Schroeder makes it clear that he aims to develop a Humean theory, not necessarily one that Hume himself embraced, and for this reason little is said about Hume in the book. One respect in which Schroeder takes himself to be departing from Hume is in developing (...)
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  37. Can Language Restructure Cognition? The Case for Space.Asifa Majid, Melissa Bowerman, Sotaro Kita, Daniel B. M. Haun & Stephen C. Levinson - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):108-114.
  38. Change Blindness Blindness: Beliefs About the Roles of Intention and Scene Complexity in Change Detection.Melissa R. Beck, Daniel T. Levin & Bonnie Angelone - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):31-51.
    Observers have difficulty detecting visual changes. However, they are unaware of this inability, suggesting that people do not have an accurate understanding of visual processes. We explored whether this error is related to participants’ beliefs about the roles of intention and scene complexity in detecting changes. In Experiment 1 participants had a higher failure rate for detecting changes in an incidental change detection task than an intentional change detection task. This effect of intention was greatest for complex scenes. However, participants (...)
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  39.  16
    Free Choice Effects and Exclusive Disjunction.Melissa Fusco - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-15.
    This paper presents experimental data relevant to understanding the modal free choice effect (Kamp, 1973) when there are more than two disjuncts under the relevant modal operator. The results suggest that speakers' willingness to draw free choice inferences is correlated with whether the embedded disjuncts are *modally separable*, in a sense brought into focus by considering cases within which the relevant propositions fail to be pairwise redundant but are redundant as a set.
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  40. Varieties of Reflection in Kant's Logic.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):478-501.
    For Kant, ‘reflection’ is a technical term with a range of senses. I focus here on the senses of reflection that come to light in Kant's account of logic, and then bring the results to bear on the distinction between ‘logical’ and ‘transcendental’ reflection that surfaces in the Amphiboly chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason. Although recent commentary has followed similar cues, I suggest that it labours under a blind spot, as it neglects Kant's distinction between ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ (...)
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  41. Kantian Perspectives on Paternalism.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - 2018 - In Jason Hanna & Kalle Grill (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism. New York, NY, USA: pp. 96-107.
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  42.  30
    Vulnerability in the Clinic: Case Study of a Transcultural Consultation.Melissa Dominicé Dao - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):167-170.
    Discrimination and inequalities in healthcare can be experienced by many patients due to many characteristics ranging from the obviously visible to the more subtly noticeable, such as race and ethnicity, legal status, social class, linguistic fluency, health literacy, age, gender and weight. Discrimination can take a number of forms including overt racist statement, stereotyping or explicit and implicit attitudes and biases. This paper presents the case study of a complex transcultural clinical encounter between the mother of a young infant in (...)
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  43. Free Choice Permission and the Counterfactuals of Pragmatics.Melissa Fusco - 2014 - Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (4):275-290.
    This paper addresses a little puzzle with a surprisingly long pedigree and a surprisingly large wake: the puzzle of Free Choice Permission. I begin by presenting a popular sketch of a pragmatic solution to the puzzle, due to Kratzer and Shimoyama, which has received a good deal of discussion, endorsement and elaboration in recent work :535–590, 2006; Fox, in: Sauerland and Stateva Presupposition and implicature in compositional semantics, 2007; Geurts, Mind Lang 24:51–79, 2009; von Fintel, Central APA session on Deontic (...)
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  44.  10
    Production Constraints on Learning Novel Onset Phonotactics.Melissa A. Redford - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):785-816.
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  45.  72
    The Origins of Children's Spatial Semantic Categories: Cognitive Versus Linguistic Determinants.Melissa Bowerman - 1996 - In J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (eds.), Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145--176.
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  46.  31
    Agential Free Choice.Melissa Fusco - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (1):57-87.
    The Free Choice effect—whereby \\) seems to entail both \ and \—has traditionally been characterized as a phenomenon affecting the deontic modal ‘may’. This paper presents an extension of the semantic account of free choice defended by Fusco to the agentive modal ‘can’, the ‘can’ which, intuitively, describes an agent’s powers. On this account, free choice is a nonspecific de re phenomenon that—unlike typical cases—affects disjunction. I begin by sketching a model of inexact ability, which grounds a modal approach to (...)
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  47.  10
    A two-dimensional logic for diagonalization and the a priori.Melissa Fusco - forthcoming - Synthese:1-16.
    Two-dimensional semantics, which can represent the distinction between a priority and necessity, has wielded considerable influence in the philosophy of language. In this paper, I axiomatize the dagger ) operator of Stalnaker’s “Assertion” in the formal context of two-dimensional modal logic. The language contains modalities of actuality, necessity, and a priority, but is also able to represent diagonalization, a conceptually important operation in a variety of contexts, including models of the relative a priori and a posteriori often appealed to Bayesian (...)
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  48. Attention and Synthesis in Kant's Conception of Experience.Merritt Melissa & Markos Valaris - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (268):571-592.
    In an intriguing but neglected passage in the Transcendental Deduction, Kant appears to link the synthetic activity of the understanding in experience with the phenomenon of attention (B156-7n). In this paper, we take up this hint, and draw upon Kant's remarks about attention in the Anthropology to shed light on the vexed question of what, exactly, the understanding's role in experience is for Kant. We argue that reading Kant's claims about synthesis in this light allows us to combine two aspects (...)
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  49.  40
    Rawls and Habermas on Religion in the Public Sphere.Melissa Yates - 2007 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (7):880-891.
    In recent essays, Jürgen Habermas endorses an account of political liberalism much like John Rawls'. Like Rawls, he argues that laws and public policies should be justified only in neutral terms, i.e. in terms of reasons that people holding conflicting world-views could accept. Habermas also, much like Rawls, distinguishes reasonable religious citizens, whose views should be included in public discourse, from unreasonable citizens in his expectation that religious citizens self-modernize. But in sharing these Rawlsian features, Habermas is vulnerable to some (...)
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  50. Respect for the Law and the Use of Dynamical Terms in Kant's Theory of Moral Motivation.Melissa Zinkin - 2006 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 88 (1):31-53.
    Kant's discussion of the feeling of respect presents a puzzle regarding both the precise nature of this feeling and its role in his moral theory as an incentive that motivates us to follow the moral law. If it is a feeling that motivates us to follow the law, this would contradict Kant's view that moral obligation is based on reason alone. I argue that Kant has an account of respect as feeling that is nevertheless not separate from the use of (...)
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