Results for 'Melissa Kapulu'

999 found
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  1.  15
    Ethical considerations around volunteer payments in a malaria human infection study in Kenya: an embedded empirical ethics study.Dorcas Kamuya, Vicki Marsh, Melissa Kapulu, Philip Bejon, Irene Jao, Esther Awuor Owino & Primus Che Chi - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-13.
    Human Infection Studies have emerged as an important research approach with the potential to fast track the global development of vaccines and treatments for infectious diseases, including in low resource settings. Given the high level of burdens involved in many HIS, particularly prolonged residency and biological sampling requirements, it can be challenging to identify levels of study payments that provide adequate compensation but avoid ‘undue’ levels of inducement to participate. Through this embedded ethics study, involving 97 healthy volunteers and other (...)
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  2.  37
    Deliberately infecting healthy volunteers with malaria parasites: Perceptions and experiences of participants and other stakeholders in a Kenyan‐based malaria infection study.Irene Jao, Vicki Marsh, Primus Che Chi, Melissa Kapulu, Mainga Hamaluba, Sassy Molyneux, Philip Bejon & Dorcas Kamuya - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (8):819-832.
    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies involve the deliberate infection of healthy volunteers with malaria parasites under controlled conditions to study immune responses and/or test drug or vaccine efficacy. An empirical ethics study was embedded in a CHMI study at a Kenyan research programme to explore stakeholders’ perceptions and experiences of deliberate infection and moral implications of these. Data for this qualitative study were collected through focus group discussions, in‐depth interviews and non‐participant observation. Sixty‐nine participants were involved, including CHMI study (...)
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  3.  38
    Living ethically, acting politically.Melissa A. Orlie - 1997 - Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Political scientist Melissa Orlie asks what it means to live freely and responsibly when advantages are distributed disproportionately according to race, gender ...
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  4. Kant's Argument for the Apperception Principle.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2011 - European Journal of Philosophy 19 (1):59-84.
    Abstract: My aim is to reconstruct Kant's argument for the principle of the synthetic unity of apperception. I reconstruct Kant's argument in stages, first showing why thinking should be conceived as an activity of synthesis (as opposed to attention), and then showing why the unity or coherence of a subject's representations should depend upon an a priori synthesis. The guiding thread of my account is Kant's conception of enlightenment: as I suggest, the philosophy of mind advanced in the Deduction belongs (...)
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  5. Sexual Agency and Sexual Wrongs: A Dilemma for Consent Theory.Melissa Rees & Jonathan Ichikawa - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    On a version of consent theory that tempts many, predatory sexual relations involving significant power imbalances (e.g. between professors and students, adults and teenagers, or employers and employees) are wrong because they violate consent-centric norms. In particular, the wronged party is said to have been _incapable_ of consenting to the predation, and the sexual wrong is located in the encounter’s nonconsensuality. Although we agree that these are sexual wrongs, we resist the idea that they are always nonconsensual. We argue instead (...)
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  6. Feeling and Orientation in Action: A Reply to Alix Cohen.Melissa M. Merritt - 2021 - Kantian Review 51 (5):329-350.
    Alix Cohen argues that the function of feeling in Kantian psychology is to appraise and orient activity. Thus she sees feeling and agency as importantly connected by Kant’s lights. I endorse this broader claim, but argue that feeling, on her account, cannot do the work of orientation that she assigns to it.
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  7. The Sublime.Melissa Merritt - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This Element considers Kant's account of the sublime in the context of his predecessors both in the Anglophone and German rationalist traditions. Since Kant says with evident endorsement that 'we call sublime that which is absolutely great' and nothing in nature can in fact be absolutely great, Kant concludes that strictly speaking what is sublime can only be the human calling to perfect our rational capacity according to the standard of virtue that is thought through the moral law. The Element (...)
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  8. The Social Epistemology of Clinical Placebos.Melissa Rees - 2024 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 49 (3):233-245.
    Many extant theories of placebo focus on their causal structure wherein placebo effects are those that originate from select features of the therapy (e.g., client expectations or “incidental” features like size and shape). Although such accounts can distinguish placebos from standard medical treatments, they cannot distinguish placebos from everyday occurrences, for example, when positive feedback improves our performance on a task. Providing a social-epistemological account of a treatment context can rule out such occurrences, and furthermore reveal a new way to (...)
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  9.  50
    Absolution of a Causal Decision Theorist.Melissa Fusco - forthcoming - Noûs.
    I respond to a dilemma for Causal Decision Theory (CDT) under determinism, posed in Adam Elga's paper “Confessions of a Causal Decision Theorist”. The treatment I present highlights (i) the status of laws as predictors, and (ii) the consequences of decision dependence, which arises natively out of Jeffrey Conditioning and CDT's characteristic equation.My argument leverages decision dependence to work around a key assumption of Elga's proof: to wit, that in the two problems he presents, the CDTer must employ subjunctive-suppositional (rather (...)
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  10.  97
    The perverse effects of competition on scientists' work and relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, sabotage of others’ (...)
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  11.  55
    II—Plato on the Value of Knowledge in Ruling.Melissa Lane - 2018 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 92 (1):49-67.
    This paper transposes for evaluation in relation to the concerns of Plato’s Politicus a claim developed by Verity Harte in the context of his Philebus, that ‘external imposition of a practical aim would in some way corrupt paideutic [philosophical] knowledge’. I argue that the Politicus provides a case for which the Philebus distinction may not allow: ruling, or statecraft, as embodying a form of knowledge that can be answerable to practical norms in a way that does not necessarily subordinate or (...)
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  12.  11
    Greek and Roman political ideas.Melissa Lane - 2014 - New York: Pelican, an imprint of Penguin Books.
    Where do our ideas about politics come from? What can we learn from the Greeks and Romans? How should we exercise power? Melissa Lane teaches politics at Princeton University, and previously taught political thought at the University of Cambridge, where she was a Fellow of King's College. She has received a Guggenheim Fellowship in the field of classics, and the historian Richard Tuck called her book Eco-Republic 'a virtuoso performance by one of our best scholars of ancient philosophy.'.
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  13. Mendelssohn and Kant on Human Progress: a Neo-Stoic Debate.Melissa Merritt - 2024 - In Luigi Filieri & Sophie Møller (eds.), Kant on Freedom and Nature: Essays in Honor of Paul Guyer. Routledge.
    The chapter replies to Paul Guyer’s (2020) account of the debate between Mendelssohn and Kant about whether humankind makes continual moral progress. Mendelssohn maintained that progress can only be the remit of individuals, and that humankind only “continually fluctuates within fixed limits”. Kant dubs Mendelssohn’s position “abderitism” and explicitly rejects it. But Guyer contends that Kant’s own theory of freedom commits him, malgré lui, to abderitism. Guyer’s risky interpretive position is not supported by examination of the relevant texts in their (...)
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  14.  22
    Politics as Architectonic Expertise? Against Taking the So-called ‘Architect’ (ἀρχιτέκτων) in Plato’s Statesman to Prefigure this Aristotelian View.Melissa Lane - 2020 - Polis 37 (3):449-467.
    This article rejects the claim made by other scholars that Plato in the Statesman, by employing the so-called ‘architect’ (ὁ ἀρχιτέκτων) in one of the early divisions leading to the definition of political expertise, prefigured and anticipated the architectonic conception of political expertise advanced by Aristotle. It argues for an alternative reading in which Plato in the Statesman, and in the only other of his works (Gorgias) in which the word appears, closely tracks the existing social role of the architektōn, (...)
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  15. Sublimity and Joy: Kant on the Aesthetic Constitution of Virtue.Melissa Merritt - 2017 - In Matthew Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 447-467.
    This chapter argues that Kant’s aesthetic theory of the sublime has particular relevance for his ethics of virtue. Kant contends that our readiness to revel in natural sublimity depends upon a background commitment to moral ends. Further lessons about the emotional register of the sublime allow us to understand how Kant can plausibly contend that the temperament of virtue is both sublime and joyous at the same time.
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  16. Differences that matter.Melissa Wright - 2006 - In Noel Castree & Derek Gregory (eds.), David Harvey: a critical reader. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 80--101.
     
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  17. Murdoch and Kant.Melissa Merritt - 2022 - In Silvia Caprioglio Panizza & Mark Hopwood (eds.), Murdochian Mind. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 253-265.
    It has been insufficiently remarked that Murdoch deems “Kant’s ethical theory” to be “one of the most beautiful and exciting things in the whole of philosophy” in her 1959 essay “The Sublime and the Good”. Murdoch specifically has in mind the connection between Kant’s ethics and his theory of the sublime, which runs via the moral feeling of respect (Achtung). The chapter examines Murdoch’s interest in Kant on this point as a way to tease out the range of issues that (...)
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  18.  6
    Symbolic Understanding of Pictures and Written Words Share a Common Source.Melissa L. Allen, Karen Mattock & Macarena Silva - 2014 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 14 (3-4):187-198.
    Here we examine the hypothesis that symbolic understanding across domains is mediated by a fundamental ‘symbolizing’ ability in young children. We tested 30 children aged 2–4 years on symbolic tasks assessing iconic and non-iconic word-referent and picture-referent understanding and administered standardised tests of symbolic play and receptive language. Children showed understanding of the symbol-referent relation earlier for pictures than written words, and performance within domains was correlated and, importantly, predicted by a marker of general symbolic ability. Performance on picture and (...)
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  19.  18
    Chapter Twelve–A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time.Melissa Barden Dowling - 2004 - In Paul Harris & Michael Crawford (eds.), Time and uncertainty. Boston: Brill. pp. 175.
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  20. Humean Theories of Motivation.Melissa Barry - 2010 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics , Volume 5. Oxford University Press. pp. 195-223.
  21. Humean Theories of Motivation.Melissa Barry - 2010 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 5.
     
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  22. Humean Theories of Motivation.Melissa Barry - 2010 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 5. Oxford University Press.
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  23. Designing Ethical Organizations: Avoiding the Long-Term Negative Effects of Rewards and Punishments.Melissa S. Baucus & Caryn L. Beck-Dudley - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (4):355-370.
    Ethics researchers advise managers of organizations to link rewards and punishments to ethical and unethical behavior, respectively. We build on prior research maintaining that organizations operate at Kohlbergs stages of moral reasoning, and explain how the over-reliance on rewards and punishments encourages employees to operate at Kohlbergs lowest stages of moral reasoning. We advocate designing organizations as ethical communities and relying on different assumptions about employees in order to foster ethical reasoning at higher levels. Characteristics associated with ethical communities are (...)
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  24.  96
    Constructivist Practical Reasoning and Objectivity.Melissa Barry - 2013 - In David Archard, Monique Deveaux, Neil Manson & Daniel Weinstock (eds.), Reading Onora O'Neill. Routledge. pp. 17-36.
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  25. CARO: The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology.Haendel Melissa, A. Neuhaus, Fabian Osumi-Sutherland, David Mabee, M. Paula, L. V. MejinoJosé, Mungall Chris, J. Smith & Barry - 2008 - In Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice. Springer. pp. 327--349.
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  26.  48
    Infants' understanding of false labeling events: the referential roles of words and the speakers who use them.Melissa A. Koenig & Catharine H. Echols - 2003 - Cognition 87 (3):179-208.
  27. Research misconduct and misbehavior.Melissa S. Anderson - 2011 - In Tricia Bertram Gallant (ed.), Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct and Empowering Change in Higher Education. Routledge.
     
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  28.  56
    The interplay of episodic and semantic memory in guiding repeated search in scenes.Melissa L.-H. Võ & Jeremy M. Wolfe - 2013 - Cognition 126 (2):198-212.
  29.  4
    Going Om: real-life stories on and off the yoga mat.Melissa Carroll (ed.) - 2014 - Berkeley, California: Viva Editions.
    With candid, witty, and compelling experiences of yoga from renowned memoirists, including Cheryl Strayed (author of the number-one New York Times bestseller Wild), Claire Dederer (author of national bestseller Poser: My Life in 23 Yoga Poses), Dinty W. Moore (author of The Accidental Buddhist), Neal Pollack (author of Stretch: The Making of a Yoga Dude) and many others, Going Om shares a range of observations about this popular practice. Unlike books on yoga that provide instruction on technique, Going Om is (...)
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  30. CARO: The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology.Melissa Haendel, Fabian Neuhaus, David Osumi-Sutherland, Paula M. Mabee, José L. V. Mejino Jr, Chris J. Mungall & Barry Smith - 2008 - In Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice. Springer. pp. 327-349.
    The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO) is being developed to facilitate interoperability between existing anatomy ontologies for different species, and will provide a template for building new anatomy ontologies. CARO has a structural axis of classification based on the top-level nodes of the Foundational Model of Anatomy. CARO will complement the developmental process sub-ontology of the GO Biological Process ontology, using it to ensure the coherent treatment of developmental stages, and to provide a common framework for the model organism communities (...)
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  31.  23
    Production constraints on learning novel onset phonotactics.Melissa A. Redford - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):785-816.
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  32.  34
    Fostering Creativity and Innovation without Encouraging Unethical Behavior.Melissa S. Baucus, William I. Norton, David A. Baucus & Sherrie E. Human - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):97-115.
    Many prescriptions offered in the literature for enhancing creativity and innovation in organizations raise ethical concerns, yet creativity researchers rarely discuss ethics. We identify four categories of behavior proffered as a means for fostering creativity that raise serious ethical issues: (1) breaking rules and standard operating procedures; (2) challenging authority and avoiding tradition; (3) creating conflict, competition and stress; and (4) taking risks. We discuss each category, briefly identifying research supporting these prescriptions for fostering creativity and then we delve into (...)
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  33.  39
    Vulnerability in the clinic: case study of a transcultural consultation.Melissa Dominicé Dao - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):167-170.
    Discrimination and inequalities in healthcare can be experienced by many patients due to many characteristics ranging from the obviously visible to the more subtly noticeable, such as race and ethnicity, legal status, social class, linguistic fluency, health literacy, age, gender and weight. Discrimination can take a number of forms including overt racist statement, stereotyping or explicit and implicit attitudes and biases. This paper presents the case study of a complex transcultural clinical encounter between the mother of a young infant in (...)
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  34.  5
    Plato's Political Philosophy: The Republic, the Statesman, and the Laws.Melissa Lane - 2018 - In Sean D. Kirkland & Eric Sanday (eds.), A Companion to Ancient Philosophy. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. pp. 170–191.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Laws Conclusion Bibliography.
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  35.  58
    Kant on wonder as the motive to learn.Melissa Zinkin - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (6):921-934.
  36.  99
    Bounded Justice and the Limits of Health Equity.Melissa S. Creary - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):241-256.
    Programs, policies, and technologies — particularly those concerned with health equity — are often designed with justice envisioned as the end goal. These policies or interventions, however, frequently fail to recognize how the beneficiaries have historically embodied the cumulative effects of marginalization, which undermines the effectiveness of the intended justice. These well-meaning attempts at justice are bounded by greater socio-historical constraints. Bounded justice suggests that it is impossible to attend to fairness, entitlement, and equity when the basic social and physical (...)
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  37. Deontic Modality and the Semantics of Choice.Melissa Fusco - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    I propose a unified solution to two puzzles: Ross's puzzle and free choice permission. I begin with a pair of cases from the decision theory literature illustrating the phenomenon of act dependence, where what an agent ought to do depends on what she does. The notion of permissibility distilled from these cases forms the basis for my analysis of 'may' and 'ought'. This framework is then combined with a generalization of the classical semantics for disjunction — equivalent to Boolean disjunction (...)
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  38. Patient autonomy and withholding information.Melissa Rees - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (3):256-264.
    Disclosure in clinical practice is aimed at promoting patient autonomy, usually culminating in patient choice (e.g., to consent to an operation or not, or between different medications). In medical ethics, there is an implicit background assumption that knowing more about (X) automatically translates to greater, or more genuine, autonomy with respect to one's choices involving (X). I challenge this assumption by arguing that in rare cases, withholding information can promote a patient's autonomy (understood as the capacity for rational choice in (...)
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  39.  54
    Rawls and Habermas on religion in the public sphere.Melissa Yates - 2007 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (7):880-891.
    In recent essays, Jürgen Habermas endorses an account of political liberalism much like John Rawls'. Like Rawls, he argues that laws and public policies should be justified only in neutral terms, i.e. in terms of reasons that people holding conflicting world-views could accept. Habermas also, much like Rawls, distinguishes reasonable religious citizens, whose views should be included in public discourse, from unreasonable citizens in his expectation that religious citizens self-modernize. But in sharing these Rawlsian features, Habermas is vulnerable to some (...)
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  40.  17
    Of Rule and Office: Plato's Ideas of the Political.Melissa Lane - 2023 - Princeton University Press.
    A new reading of Plato’s political thought Plato famously defends the rule of knowledge. Knowledge, for him, is of the good. But what is rule? In this study, Melissa Lane reveals how political office and rule were woven together in Greek vocabulary and practices that both connected and distinguished between rule in general and office as a constitutionally limited kind of rule in particular. In doing so, Lane shows Plato to have been deeply concerned with the roles and relationships (...)
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  41.  21
    Interpersonal trust in children's testimonial learning.Melissa A. Koenig, Pearl Han Li & Benjamin McMyler - 2022 - Mind and Language 37 (5):955-974.
    Within the growing developmental literature on children's testimonial learning, the emphasis placed on children's evaluations of testimonial evidence has shielded from view some of the more collaborative dimensions of testimonial learning. Drawing on recent philosophical work on testimony and interpersonal trust, we argue for an alternative way of conceptualizing the social nature of testimonial learning. On this alternative, some testimonial learning is the result of a jointly collaborative epistemic activity, an activity that aims at the epistemic goal of true belief, (...)
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  42.  46
    Two-year-olds use artist intention to understand drawings.Melissa Allen Preissler & Paul Bloom - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):512-518.
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  43. Mendelssohn and Kant on Virtue as a Skill.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2020 - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Skill and Expertise. Routledge. pp. 88-99.
    The idea that virtue can be profitably conceived as a certain sort of skill has a long history. My aim is to examine a neglected episode in this history — one that focuses on the pivotal role that Moses Mendelssohn played in rehabilitating the skill model of virtue for the German rationalist tradition, and Immanuel Kant’s subsequent, yet significantly qualified, endorsement of the idea. Mendelssohn celebrates a certain automatism in the execution of skill, and takes this feature to be instrumental (...)
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  44.  98
    The origins of children's spatial semantic categories: Cognitive versus linguistic determinants.Melissa Bowerman - 1996 - In J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (eds.), Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145--176.
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  45. Collective openness and other recommendations for the promotion of research integrity.Melissa S. Anderson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):387-394.
  46.  24
    On the Separated Soul according to St. Thomas Aquinas.Melissa Eitenmiller - 2019 - Nova et Vetera 17 (1):57-91.
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  47. Kant on Reflection and Virtue.Melissa Merritt - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    There can be no doubt that Kant thought we should be reflective: we ought to care to make up our own minds about how things are and what is worth doing. Philosophical objections to the Kantian reflective ideal have centred on concerns about the excessive control that the reflective person is supposed to exert over her own mental life, and Kantians who feel the force of these objections have recently drawn attention to Kant’s conception of moral virtue as it is (...)
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  48.  3
    The Public Performativity of Trust.Melissa Creary & Lynette Hammond Gerido - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (S2):76-85.
    Building trust between academic medical centers and certain communities they depend on in the research process is hard, particularly when those communities consist of minoritized or historically marginalized populations. Some believe that engagement activities like the creation of advisory boards, town halls, or a research workforce that looks more like community members will establish or reestablish trust between academic medical centers and racialized communities. However, without systematic approaches to dismantle racism, those well‐intended actions become public performativity, and trust building will (...)
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  49. Systems Perspective of Amazon Mechanical Turk for Organizational Research: Review and Recommendations.Melissa G. Keith, Louis Tay & Peter D. Harms - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  50.  51
    Help from faculty: Findings from the acadia institute graduate education study.Melissa S. Anderson, Elo Charity Oju & Tina M. R. Falkner - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (4):487-503.
    Doctoral students receive many kinds of assistance from faculty members, but much of this support falls short of mentoring. This paper takes the perspective that it is more important to find out what kinds of help students receive from faculty than to assume that students are taken care of by mentors, as distinct from advisors or role models. The findings here are based on both survey and interview data collected through the Acadia Institute’s project on Professional Values and Ethical Issues (...)
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