Results for 'Melissa Kerin'

999 found
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  1.  30
    Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure.Melissa R. Kerin, Pratapaditya Pal, Amy Heller, Oskar von Hinuber & Gautama V. Vajracharya - 2004 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (4):835.
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  2. Book reviews and notices. [REVIEW]Francis X. Clooney, Gail Hinich Sutherland, Lou Ratté, Francis X. Clooney, Carl Olson, Constantina Rhodes Bailly, Alex Wayman, Herman Tull, Sheila McDonough, Robert Zydenbos, Cynthia Ann Humes, Sarah Caldwell, Deepak Sharma, Robin Rinehart, Robert N. Minor, Frank J. Korom, Janice D. Willis, Peter Flügel, Vijay Prashad, Muhammad Usman Erdosy, Muhammad Usman Erdosy, Antony Copley, Steve Derné, Swarna Rajagopalan, Gavin Flood, Rebecca J. Manring, Michael York, David Gordon White, John Grimes, Melissa Kerin, Steven J. Rosen, Anna B. Bigelow, Carl Olson & Will Sweetman - 1997 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 1 (3):596-643.
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  3.  65
    Introduction: Sharing Data in a Medical Information Commons.Amy L. McGuire, Mary A. Majumder, Angela G. Villanueva, Jessica Bardill, Juli M. Bollinger, Eric Boerwinkle, Tania Bubela, Patricia A. Deverka, Barbara J. Evans, Nanibaa' A. Garrison, David Glazer, Melissa M. Goldstein, Henry T. Greely, Scott D. Kahn, Bartha M. Knoppers, Barbara A. Koenig, J. Mark Lambright, John E. Mattison, Christopher O'Donnell, Arti K. Rai, Laura L. Rodriguez, Tania Simoncelli, Sharon F. Terry, Adrian M. Thorogood, Michael S. Watson, John T. Wilbanks & Robert Cook-Deegan - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):12-20.
    Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons. We identify participant-centricity and trustworthiness as the most important features of an MIC and discuss the implications for those seeking to create a sustainable, useful, and widely available collection of linked resources for research and other purposes.
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  4. The role of the hippocampus in flexible cognition and social behavior.Rachael D. Rubin, Patrick D. Watson, Melissa C. Duff & Neal J. Cohen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:104150.
    Successful behavior requires actively acquiring and representing information about the environment and people, and manipulating and using those acquired representations flexibly to optimally act in and on the world. The frontal lobes have figured prominently in most accounts of flexible or goal-directed behavior, as evidenced by often-reported behavioral inflexibility in individuals with frontal lobe dysfunction. Here, we propose that the hippocampus also plays a critical role by forming and reconstructing relational memory representations that underlie flexible cognition and social behavior. There (...)
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  5.  13
    Food insecurity as a driver of obesity in humans: The insurance hypothesis.Daniel Nettle, Clare Andrews & Melissa Bateson - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
    Integrative explanations of why obesity is more prevalent in some sectors of the human population than others are lacking. Here, we outline and evaluate one candidate explanation, the insurance hypothesis. The IH is rooted in adaptive evolutionary thinking: The function of storing fat is to provide a buffer against shortfall in the food supply. Thus, individuals should store more fat when they receive cues that access to food is uncertain. Applied to humans, this implies that an important proximate driver of (...)
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  6.  25
    Patient‐Centered Outcomes Research: Stakeholder Perspectives and Ethical and Regulatory Oversight Issues.Emily A. Largent, Joel S. Weissman, Avni Gupta, Melissa Abraham, Ronen Rozenblum, Holly Fernandez Lynch & I. Glenn Cohen - 2018 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 40 (1):7-17.
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  7.  71
    The Effects of Pornography on Unethical Behavior in Business.Nathan W. Mecham, Melissa F. Lewis-Western & David A. Wood - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 168 (1):37-54.
    Pornography is no longer an activity confined to a small group of individuals or the privacy of one’s home. Rather, it has permeated modern culture, including the work environment. Given the pervasive nature of pornography, we study how viewing pornography affects unethical behavior at work. Using survey data from a sample that approximates a nationally representative sample in terms of demographics, we find a positive correlation between viewing pornography and intended unethical behavior. We then conduct an experiment to provide causal (...)
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  8. Understanding “Understanding” in Public Understanding of Science.Joanna K. Huxster, Matthew Slater, Jason Leddington, Victor LoPiccolo, Jeffrey Bergman, Mack Jones, Caroline McGlynn, Nicolas Diaz, Nathan Aspinall, Julia Bresticker & Melissa Hopkins - 2017 - Public Understanding of Science 28:1-16.
    This study examines the conflation of terms such as “knowledge” and “understanding” in peer-reviewed literature, and tests the hypothesis that little current research clearly distinguishes between importantly distinct epistemic states. Two sets of data are presented from papers published in the journal Public Understanding of Science. In the first set, the digital text analysis tool, Voyant, is used to analyze all papers published in 2014 for the use of epistemic success terms. In the second set of data, all papers published (...)
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  9.  20
    Indigenous perspectives on breaking bad news: ethical considerations for healthcare providers.Shemana Cassim, Jacquie Kidd, Rawiri Keenan, Karen Middleton, Anna Rolleston, Brendan Hokowhitu, Melissa Firth, Denise Aitken, Janice Wong & Ross Lawrenson - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e62-e62.
    Most healthcare providers work from ethical principles based on a Western model of practice that may not adhere to the cultural values intrinsic to Indigenous peoples. Breaking bad news is an important topic of ethical concern in health research. While much has been documented on BBN globally, the ethical implications of receiving bad news, from an Indigenous patient perspective in particular, is an area that requires further inquiry. This article discusses the experiences of Māori lung cancer patients and their families, (...)
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  10.  18
    Adaptive Associations between Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation are Absent in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.Jesseca E. Rowland, Meelah K. Hamilton, Nicholas Vella, Bianca J. Lino, Philip B. Mitchell & Melissa J. Green - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  11.  42
    Introns in UTRs: Why we should stop ignoring them.Alicia A. Bicknell, Can Cenik, Hon N. Chua, Frederick P. Roth & Melissa J. Moore - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (12):1025-1034.
    Although introns in 5′‐ and 3′‐untranslated regions (UTRs) are found in many protein coding genes, rarely are they considered distinctive entities with specific functions. Indeed, mammalian transcripts with 3′‐UTR introns are often assumed nonfunctional because they are subject to elimination by nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD). Nonetheless, recent findings indicate that 5′‐ and 3′‐UTR intron status is of significant functional consequence for the regulation of mammalian genes. Therefore these features should be ignored no longer.
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  12.  20
    Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization.Laura B. Ray, Stéphane Sockeel, Melissa Soon, Arnaud Bore, Ayako Myhr, Bobby Stojanoski, Rhodri Cusack, Adrian M. Owen, Julien Doyon & Stuart M. Fogel - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  13.  45
    Interocular suppression prevents interference in a flanker task.Qiong Wu, Jonathan T. H. Lo Voi, Thomas Y. Lee, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Yanhong Wu & Jin Fan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:152768.
    Executive control of attention refers to processes that detect and resolve conflict among competing thoughts and actions. Despite the high-level nature of this faculty, the role of awareness in executive control of attention is not well understood. In this study, we used interocular suppression to mask the flankers in an arrow flanker task, in which the flankers and the target arrow were presented simultaneously in order to elicit executive control of attention. Participants were unable to detect the flanker arrows or (...)
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  14.  43
    Semantic alignment across whole-number arithmetic and rational numbers: evidence from a Russian perspective.Yulia A. Tyumeneva, Galina Larina, Ekaterina Alexandrova, Melissa DeWolf, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):198-220.
    Solutions to word problems are moderated by the semantic alignment of real-world relations with mathematical operations. Categorical relations between entities are aligned with addition, whereas certain functional relations between entities are aligned with division. Similarly, discreteness vs. continuity of quantities is aligned with different formats for rational numbers. These alignments have been found both in textbooks and in the performance of college students in the USA and in South Korea. The current study examined evidence for alignments in Russia. Textbook analyses (...)
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  15.  14
    Preferences for different insomnia treatment options in people with schizophrenia and related psychoses: a qualitative study.Flavie Waters, Vivian W. Chiu, Aleksandar Janca, Amanda Atkinson & Melissa Ree - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  16.  26
    Contributor Biographies.Daniel S. Brown, Heather Brown, Catherine A. Civello, Sara Dustin, Melissa Dykes, Deborah M. Fratz, Alexis Harley, Anne-Sophie Leluan-Pinker, Diana Maltz & Natalie A. Phillips - forthcoming - Aesthetics and Business Ethics.
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  17.  34
    Numerical abstraction: It ain't broke.Jessica F. Cantlon, Sara Cordes, Melissa E. Libertus & Elizabeth M. Brannon - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):331-332.
    The dual-code proposal of number representation put forward by Cohen Kadosh & Walsh (CK&W) accounts for only a fraction of the many modes of numerical abstraction. Contrary to their proposal, robust data from human infants and nonhuman animals indicate that abstract numerical representations are psychologically primitive. Additionally, much of the behavioral and neural data cited to support CK&W's proposal is, in fact, neutral on the issue of numerical abstraction.
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  18. Effects of partner's ability on the achievement and conceptual organization of high‐achieving fifth‐grade students.Glenda Carter, M. Gail Jones & Melissa Rua - 2003 - Science Education 87 (1):94-111.
     
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  19. Sexual Agency and Sexual Wrongs: A Dilemma for Consent Theory.Melissa Rees & Jonathan Ichikawa - 2024 - Philosophers' Imprint 24 (1):1-23.
    On a version of consent theory that tempts many, predatory sexual relations involving significant power imbalances (e.g. between professors and students, adults and teenagers, or employers and employees) are wrong because they violate consent-centric norms. In particular, the wronged party is said to have been incapable of consenting to the predation, and the sexual wrong is located in the encounter’s nonconsensuality. Although we agree that these are sexual wrongs, we resist the idea that they are always nonconsensual. We argue instead (...)
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  20.  46
    Reseña "Los medios y la política. Relación aviesa" de Melissa Salazar y Robinson Salazar.Melissa Salazar - 2012 - Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana 17 (56):110-115.
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  21. Kant on Reflection and Virtue.Melissa Merritt - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    There can be no doubt that Kant thought we should be reflective: we ought to care to make up our own minds about how things are and what is worth doing. Philosophical objections to the Kantian reflective ideal have centred on concerns about the excessive control that the reflective person is supposed to exert over her own mental life, and Kantians who feel the force of these objections have recently drawn attention to Kant’s conception of moral virtue as it is (...)
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  22.  16
    Potential Benefits to Families, Children, and Adolescents, Enrolled in Longitudinal Qualitative Research.Minisha Lohani, Kristopher A. Hendershot, Wendy Pelletier, Kristin Stegenga, Margie Dixon, Pamela Hinds, Melissa A. Alderfer & Rebecca D. Pentz - 2018 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 40 (4):1-7.
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  23.  6
    Adaptive principles of weight regulation: Insufficient, but perhaps necessary, for understanding obesity.Daniel Nettle, Clare Andrews & Melissa Bateson - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  24.  9
    Opportunity or Opportunism?Thomas G. Pittz, Philip G. Benson, Melissa Intindola & Manos Kalargiros - 2017 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 36 (2):157-176.
    Despite attention to the concerns of labor migration by public policy makers and scholars, the effects of international recruitment policies in developed nations on the economies of the developing world have been largely unaddressed by management literature. This work addresses that lacuna by combining hitherto separate streams of management scholarship with the fledgling fields of nation and employer branding to consider their synthesis in an international context. This combination introduces the possibility for evaluating the effects of recruitment practices on developing (...)
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  25.  15
    The tell-tale heart: physiological reactivity during resolution of ambiguity in youth anxiety.Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, Marisela Iglesias, Melissa Mendez & John Piacentini - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (2):389-396.
    In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths’ resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring (...)
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  26.  52
    Littérature et histoire du christianisme ancien.Costa Babalis, Serge Cazelais, Julio Cesar Dias Chaves, Mélissa Dubé, Mary Gedeon Harvan, David Joubert-LeClerc, Amaury Levillayer, Stéphanie Machabée, Louis Painchaud, Adrienne Phillips, Paul-Hubert Poirier, Gaëlle Rioual, Nadia Savard, Daniel Trestianu & Eric Crégheur - 2012 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 68 (2):435.
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  27.  33
    Prenatal exposure to aluminum or stress: II. Behavioral and performance effects.Brenda J. Anderson, Susan M. Nash, Melissa Richard, David S. Dungan & Stephen F. Davis - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (6):524-526.
  28. 2006 Reviewer Acknowledgement.Bindu Arya, Ruth Aguilera, Ken Aupperle, Kristin Backhaus, Deborah Balser, Tina Bansla, Barbara Bartkus, Melissa Baucus, Shawn Berman & Stephanie Bertels - 2007 - Business and Society 46 (1):4-6.
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  29.  21
    2005 Reviewer Acknowledgment.Bindu Arya, Ken Aupperle, Kristin Backhaus, Deborah Balser, Barbara Bartkus, Melissa Baucus, Shawn Berman, Stephanie Bertels, Janice Black & Leeora Black - 2006 - Business and Society 45 (1):5-6.
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  30. Ansorge, Ulrich, 528 Arnel Trevena, Judy, 162, 308.Elisabeth Bacon, Clive G. Ballard, William P. Banks, James J. Barrell, John Barresi, Melissa R. Beck, Derek Besner, Uri Bibi, Niels Birbaumer & Mark Bishop - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11:689-690.
     
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  31. Jacques Derrida.Kerin Harl - 1997 - In Phillip Blond (ed.), Post-Secular Philosophy: Between Philosophy and Theology. New York: Routledge. pp. 259.
     
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  32.  12
    Review article: Genetic research and biological weapons — the ethics of the Human Genome Project.Jacinta Kerin - 1999 - Monash Bioethics Review 18 (3):S1-S10.
  33.  13
    A Self-Organising Strategy for Digital Neural Networks.M. A. Kerin & T. J. Stonham - 1992 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 2 (1-4):291-311.
  34.  71
    Moral distress in healthcare practice: The situation of nurses. [REVIEW]Wendy Austin, Gillian Lemermeyer, Lisa Goldberg, Vangie Bergum & Melissa S. Johnson - 2005 - HEC Forum 17 (1):33-48.
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  35.  23
    A review of empathy education in nursing. [REVIEW]Scott Brunero, Scott Lamont & Melissa Coates - 2010 - Nursing Inquiry 17 (1):65-74.
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  36.  61
    "Everyone has a price at which he sells himself": Epictetus and Kant on Self-Respect.Melissa Merritt - forthcoming - In Kant and Stoic Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    “Everyone has a price at which he sells himself”: Immanuel Kant quotes this remark in the 1793 _Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone_, attributing it to “a member of English Parliament”. I argue, however, that the context of the quotation in the _Religion_ alludes to the arresting pedagogical practices of the Stoic philosopher Epictetus, who famously said that “different people sell themselves at different prices” (Discourses 1.2). I argue that there are two sides of Epictetus’s pedagogical strategies: a jolting (...)
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  37. Nature, corruption, and freedom: Stoic ethics in Kant's Religion.Melissa Merritt - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):3-24.
    Kant’s account of “the radical evil in human nature” in the 1793 Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone is typically interpreted as a reworking of the Augustinian doctrine of original sin. But Kant doesn’t talk about Augustine explicitly there, and if he is rehabilitating the doctrine of original sin, the result is not obviously Augustinian. Instead Kant talks about Stoic ethics in a pair of passages on either end of his account of radical evil, and leaves other clues that (...)
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  38. The Sublime.Melissa Merritt - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This Element considers Kant's account of the sublime in the context of his predecessors both in the Anglophone and German rationalist traditions. Since Kant says with evident endorsement that 'we call sublime that which is absolutely great' and nothing in nature can in fact be absolutely great, Kant concludes that strictly speaking what is sublime can only be the human calling to perfect our rational capacity according to the standard of virtue that is thought through the moral law. The Element (...)
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  39.  30
    The human organism is not a conductorless orchestra: a defense of brain death as true biological death.Melissa Moschella - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (5):437-453.
    In this paper, I argue that brain death is death because, despite the appearance of genuine integration, the brain-dead body does not in fact possess the unity that is proper to a human organism. A brain-dead body is not a single entity, but a multitude of organs and tissues functioning in a coordinated manner with the help of artificial life support. In order to support this claim, I first lay out Hoffmann and Rosenkrantz’s ontological account of the requirements for organismal (...)
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  40.  27
    Evidence, ethics and the promise of artificial intelligence in psychiatry.Melissa McCradden, Katrina Hui & Daniel Z. Buchman - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (8):573-579.
    Researchers are studying how artificial intelligence (AI) can be used to better detect, prognosticate and subgroup diseases. The idea that AI might advance medicine’s understanding of biological categories of psychiatric disorders, as well as provide better treatments, is appealing given the historical challenges with prediction, diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry. Given the power of AI to analyse vast amounts of information, some clinicians may feel obligated to align their clinical judgements with the outputs of the AI system. However, a potential (...)
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  41. Varieties of Reflection in Kant's Logic.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):478-501.
    For Kant, ‘reflection’ is a technical term with a range of senses. I focus here on the senses of reflection that come to light in Kant's account of logic, and then bring the results to bear on the distinction between ‘logical’ and ‘transcendental’ reflection that surfaces in the Amphiboly chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason. Although recent commentary has followed similar cues, I suggest that it labours under a blind spot, as it neglects Kant's distinction between ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ (...)
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  42.  41
    Action verbs are processed differently in metaphorical and literal sentences depending on the semantic match of visual primes.Melissa Troyer, Lauren B. Curley, Luke E. Miller, Ayse P. Saygin & Benjamin K. Bergen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  43.  20
    Democratic failure.Melissa Schwartzberg & Daniel Viehoff (eds.) - 2020 - New York: New York University Press.
    Explores the challenges facing democracies in the twenty-first century In Democratic Failure, Melissa Schwartzberg and Daniel Viehoff bring together a distinguished group of interdisciplinary scholars in political science, law, and philosophy to explore the key questions and challenges facing democracies, both in the past and present, around the world. In ten timely essays, contributors examine the fascinating, centuries-old question of whether or not democracy can ever fulfill the promise of its ideals. Together, they explore lessons from the history of (...)
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  44. Kant on the Pleasures of Understanding.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2014 - In Alix Cohen (ed.), Kant on Emotion and Value. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 126-145.
    Why did Kant write the Critique of Judgment, and why did he say that his analysis of the judgment of taste — his technical term for our enjoyment of beauty — is the most important part of it? Kant claims that his analysis of taste “reveals a property of our faculty of cognition that without this analysis would have remained unknown” (KU §8, 5:213). The clue lies in Kant’s view that while taste is an aesthetic, and non-cognitive, mode of judgment, (...)
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  45.  8
    Personal Account of Psychiatric Hospitalization.Michael Kerins - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (1):15-17.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Narrative SymposiumPersonal Narratives Experiences of Psychiatric HospitalizationV. Barnard, J. Carson, Eugene Doe, Robin Driben, Anonymous One, Anonymous Two, Charles Kelley, Michael Kerins, D. Millman, Anonymous Three, Viesia Novosielski, Ben Zion, and Anonymous Four• Dreaming: A Recovery Story• The Intervention of the Demon• Bent but Not Broken• Tortured Souls Do Not Rest• Homesick• A Professional Patient No More• My Spiritual Journey• Personal Account of Psychiatric Hospitalization• Psychiatric Hospitalization Story• As (...)
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  46.  13
    Regarding Emma: Photographs of American Women and Girls.Melissa Ann Pinney - 2003 - Center for American Places.
    For more than fifteen years, Melissa Ann Pinney has been making photographs of girls and women, from infancy to old age, to portray how feminine identity is constructed, taught, and communicated. Her work depicts not only the rites of American womanhood—a prom, a wedding, a baby shower, a tea party—but the informal passages of girlhood: combing a doll's hair, doing laundry with a mother, smoking a cigarette at a state fair. With each view, we gain a greater understanding of (...)
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  47. The Social Epistemology of Clinical Placebos.Melissa Rees - 2024 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 49 (3):233-245.
    Many extant theories of placebo focus on their causal structure wherein placebo effects are those that originate from select features of the therapy (e.g., client expectations or “incidental” features like size and shape). Although such accounts can distinguish placebos from standard medical treatments, they cannot distinguish placebos from everyday occurrences, for example, when positive feedback improves our performance on a task. Providing a social-epistemological account of a treatment context can rule out such occurrences, and furthermore reveal a new way to (...)
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  48. Mendelssohn and Kant on Human Progress: a Neo-Stoic Debate.Melissa Merritt - 2024 - In Luigi Filieri & Sophie Møller (eds.), Kant on Freedom and Nature: Essays in Honor of Paul Guyer. Routledge.
    The chapter replies to Paul Guyer’s (2020) account of the debate between Mendelssohn and Kant about whether humankind makes continual moral progress. Mendelssohn maintained that progress can only be the remit of individuals, and that humankind only “continually fluctuates within fixed limits”. Kant dubs Mendelssohn’s position “abderitism” and explicitly rejects it. But Guyer contends that Kant’s own theory of freedom commits him, malgré lui, to abderitism. Guyer’s risky interpretive position is not supported by examination of the relevant texts in their (...)
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  49.  3
    The Public Performativity of Trust.Melissa Creary & Lynette Hammond Gerido - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (S2):76-85.
    Building trust between academic medical centers and certain communities they depend on in the research process is hard, particularly when those communities consist of minoritized or historically marginalized populations. Some believe that engagement activities like the creation of advisory boards, town halls, or a research workforce that looks more like community members will establish or reestablish trust between academic medical centers and racialized communities. However, without systematic approaches to dismantle racism, those well‐intended actions become public performativity, and trust building will (...)
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  50.  24
    Interpersonal trust in children's testimonial learning.Melissa A. Koenig, Pearl Han Li & Benjamin McMyler - 2022 - Mind and Language 37 (5):955-974.
    Within the growing developmental literature on children's testimonial learning, the emphasis placed on children's evaluations of testimonial evidence has shielded from view some of the more collaborative dimensions of testimonial learning. Drawing on recent philosophical work on testimony and interpersonal trust, we argue for an alternative way of conceptualizing the social nature of testimonial learning. On this alternative, some testimonial learning is the result of a jointly collaborative epistemic activity, an activity that aims at the epistemic goal of true belief, (...)
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