Results for 'Men'

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  1. A Phenomenological Study ofHerbivore Men”.Masahiro Morioka - 2013 - The Review of Life Studies 4:1-20.
    From 2008 to 2009, “herbivore men (sôshoku danshi or sôshoku-kei danshi in Japanese)” became a trendy, widely used term in Japanese. It flourished in all sorts (...)of media, including TV, the Internet, newspapers and magazines, and could even occasionally be heard in everyday conversation. As it became more popular its original meaning was diversified, and people began to use it with a variety of different nuances. In December of 2009 it made the top ten list of nominees for theBuzzword of the Yearcontest sponsored by U-CAN. By 2010 it had become a standard noun, and right now, in 2011, people do not seem particularly interested in it. Buzzwords have a short lifespan, so there is a high probability that it will soon fall out of use. The fact remains, however, that the appearance of this term has radically changed the way people look at young men. It can perhaps even be described as an epochal event in the history of the male gender in Japan. (shrink)
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  2.  22
    Paternal-Fetal Harm and Mens Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Mens Reproductive Responsibility.Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2014 - Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):1-13.
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect (...)
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  3. The Joke is the Thing: 'In the Company of Men' and the Ethics of Humor.Aaron Smuts - 2007 - Film and Philosophy 11 (1):49-66.
    Any analysis of "In the Company of Men" is forced to answer three questions of central importance to the ethics of humor: What does it mean to (...)
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  4.  22
    Are Men Always Picked Over Women? The Effects of Employment Equity Directives on Selection Decisions.Eddy S. Ng & Willi H. Wiesner - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (2):177-187.
    This study replicates and extends previous work by Oppenheimer and Wiesner [1990, Sex discrimination: Who is hired and do employment equity statements make a difference? Proceedings of (...)
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  5.  7
    Recreating Sexual Politics (Routledge Revivals): Men, Feminism and Politics.Victor Seidler - 2009 - Routledge.
    This thought-provoking book, first published in 1991, examines sexual politics in a world which is being radically changed by the challenges of feminism. Seidler explores how (...)men have responded to feminism, and the contradictory feelings men have towards dominant forms of masculinity. Seidlers stimulating and original analysis of social and political theory connects personally to everyday issues in peoples lives. It reflects the growing importance of sexual and personal politics within contemporary politics and culture, and demonstrates clearly the challenge that feminism brings to our inherited forms of morality, politics and sexuality. (shrink)
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  6. Do Men and Women Have Different Philosophical Intuitions? Further Data.Toni Adleberg, Morgan Thompson & Eddy Nahmias - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):615-641.
    To address the underrepresentation of women in philosophy effectively, we must understand the causes of the early loss of women. In this paper we challenge one of (...)
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  7. Men in Feminism.Alice Jardine & Paul Smith - 1989
  8. Not Guilty Men, the Case for the Defence.David Thomas - 1993
     
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  9. Men Doing Feminism.Tom Digby (ed.) - 1997 - Routledge.
    First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  10. Unreasonable Men Masculinity and Social Theory.Victor J. Seidler - 1994
     
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  11.  8
    Measuring Men's Preferences for Involvement in Medical Care: Getting the Question Right.Melina Gattellari & Jeanette E. Ward - 2005 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (3):237-246.
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  12.  4
    Effectiveness of a Brief Condom Promotion Program in Reducing Risky Sexual Behaviours Among African American Men.Stephen B. Kennedy, Sherry Nolen, Zhenfeng Pan, Betty Smith, Jeffrey Applewhite & Kenneth J. Vanderhoff - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (2):408-413.
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  13. The Men for the Age a Lecture Delivered Before the Halifax Young Men's Christian Association on Tuesday Evening, December 20, 1859.Thomas Crisp - 1987
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  14. Dark Hearts: The Unconscious Forces That Shape Men's Lives.Loren E. Pedersen - 1991 - Shambhala.
  15. Confessions of a Frigid Man: A Philosophers Journey Into the Hidden Layers of Mens Sexuality.Masahiro Morioka - 2017 - Tokyo: Tokyo Philosophy Project.
    "Confessions of a Frigid Man: A Philosophers Journey into the Hidden Layers of Mens Sexuality" is the translation of a Japanese 2005 bestseller, "Kanjinai (...) Otoko." Soon after the publication, this book stirred controversy over the nature of male sexuality, malefrigidity,” and its connection to theLolita complex.” Today, this work is considered a classic in Japanese mens studies. The most striking feature of this book is that it was written from the authors first-person perspective. The author is a professor who teaches philosophy and ethics at a university in Japan, and in this book he talks about his own sexual fetishism, his feeling of emptiness after ejaculation, and his huge obsession with young girls and their developing female bodies. He undertakes a philosophical investigation of how and why sexuality took such a form within a person who had grown up as anormal,” heterosexual man. This may be the first case in which a philosopher delves deep into his own sexuality and poses an ambitious hypothesis about the formation of malefrigidsexuality, which might actually be shared by manynormalmen in our society in a hidden way. Reading this book, female readers will come to know, for the first time, some hidden aspects of male sexuality which men have skillfully submerged in a deep layer of their psyches. (shrink)
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  16.  74
    Ethical Differences Between Men and Women in the Sales Profession.Leslie M. Dawson - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (11):1143-1152.
    This research addresses the question of whether men and women in sales differ in their ethical attitudes and decision making. The study asked 209 subjects to respond (...)
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  17. Testosterone and Dominance in Men.Allan Mazur & Alan Booth - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):353-363.
    In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to (...)
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  18.  1
    Household and Kin Provisioning by Hadza Men.Brian M. Wood & Frank W. Marlowe - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (3):280-317.
    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of mens foraging and food sharing. We (...) find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producershouseholds. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 34 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others. (shrink)
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  19.  26
    Effect of Business Education on Women and Men Students' Attitudes on Corporate Responsibility in Society.Anna-Maija Lämsä, Meri Vehkaperä, Tuomas Puttonen & Hanna-Leena Pesonen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):45 - 58.
    This article describes a survey among Finnish business students to find answers to the following questions: How do business students define a well-run company? What are (...)their attitudes on the responsibilities of business in society? Do the attitudes of women students differ from those of men? What is the influence of business education on these attitudes? Our sample comprised 217 students pursuing a masters degree in business studies at two Finnish universities. The results show that, as a whole, students valued the stakeholder model of the company more than the shareholder model. However, attitudes differed according to gender: women students were more in favor of the stakeholder model and placed more weight on corporate ethical, environmental, and societal responsibilities than their men counterpartsboth at the beginning and at the end of their studies. Thus, no gender socialization effect of business school education could be observed in this sense. Business school education was found to shape women and men studentsattitudes in two ways. Firstly, valuation of the shareholder model increased and, secondly, the importance of equal-opportunity employment decreased in the course of education. This raises the question whether the educational context is creating an undesirable tendency among future business professionals. The results further suggest that the sociocultural context can make a difference in how corporate social responsibility is perceived. The article also discusses possible ways to influence the attitudes of business students. (shrink)
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  20.  24
    Making Men Moral: Civil Liberties and Public Morality.Robert P. George - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    Contemporary liberal thinkers commonly suppose that there is something in principle unjust about the legal prohibition of putatively victimless crimes. Here Robert P. George defends the traditional (...)
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  21. Pornography: Men Possessing Women. A Reassessment.Bob Brecher - unknown
    For a few years in the 1980s, Andrea Dworkins Pornography: Men Possessing Women appeared to have changed the intellectual landscapeas well as some peoples (...)lives. Pornography, she argued, not only constitutes violence against women; it constitutes also the main conduit for such violence, of which rape is at once the prime example and the central image. In short, it is patriarchys most powerful weapon. Given that, feministssingle most important task is to deal with pornography. By the early 1990s, however, the consensus had become that her project was a diversion, both politically and intellectually. Today, who would argue that pornography is a crucial political issue? I shall argue that Dworkin has in fact a great deal to teach usperhaps even more today, as we are going through the neo-liberal revolution, than thirty years ago. Her argument is not a causal one, despite in places reading as if it were. The legal route she chose as the ground on which to fight may well be a dead end, but that does nothing to undermine the force of her analysis. Nor does the fact that she makes arguments that might not be recognized as professionally philosophical or social scientific undermine their substantive force. It may even be that pornography itself is not the sole key she thought it was to understanding and dealing with political realities; but even if that were so, the form of her analysis, far from rhetorical and/or fallacious, is exactly what is needed to counter the depredations of neo-liberalcommon sense”. That she herself found it difficult to find a language beyond that of liberalism to express her argument is no reason either for ignoring or misinterpreting it. (shrink)
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  22. The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with (...)
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  23. Expositions of Sacrificial Logic: Girard, Žižek, and Cormac McCarthy's No Country for Old Men.Benjamin Barber - 2013 - Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 20 (1):163-179.
    Cormac McCarthys No Country for Old Men, and Joel and Ethan Coens film adaptation of the same name, deliver two separate critiques of sacrificial violence through (...) their particular renderings of Carla Jean Mosss death scene, as they correspond, respectively, to the theories of René Girard and Slavoj Žižek. In both film and novel, the chase narrative offers a concrete representation of runaway acquisitive mimesis engendering resentment and cathartic violence. This violence is symbolically manifest in the character of Anton Chigurh. An assassin whose killings often employ a ritual of chance, Chigurh is a symbol for both the violence foundational to culture and the fascinating draw such violence continues to have .. (shrink)
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  24.  26
    Asymmetries in the Friendship Preferences and Social Styles of Men and Women.Jacob M. Vigil - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (2):143-161.
    Several hypotheses on the form and function of sex differences in social behaviors were tested. The results suggest that friendship preferences in both sexes can be understood (...)
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  25.  9
    Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women.Jane M. Merritt, Robert Stickgold, Edward Pace-Schott, Julie Williams & J. Allan Hobson - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60.
    We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within (...)
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  26.  69
    Sensus Communis as a Foundation for Men as Political Beings: Arendt's Reading of Kant's Critique of Judgment.A. Degryse - 2011 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 37 (3):345-358.
    In the literature on Hannah Arendts Lectures on Kants Political Philosophy, two sorts of claim have been made by different interpreters. First, there is Beiners (...)
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  27.  5
    Does Observed Fertility Maximize Fitness Among New Mexican Men?Hillard S. Kaplan, Jane B. Lancaster, Sara E. Johnson & John A. Bock - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (4):325-360.
    Our objective is to test an optimality model of human fertility that specifies the behavioral requirements for fitness maximization in order (a) to determine whether current behavior (...)
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  28. Loose Women, Lecherous Men.Alan Soble - 1999 - Teaching Philosophy 22 (4):411-416.
  29.  10
    Asymmetric Perceptions of Ethical Frameworks of Men and Women in Business and Nonbusiness Settings.Marshall Schminke & Maureen L. Ambrose - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):719-729.
    This paper examines the relationship between individuals' gender and their ethical decision models. The study seeks to identify asymmetries in men's and women's approaches to ethical (...) decision making and differences in their perceptions of how same-sex and other-sex managers would likely act in business and nonbusiness situations that present an ethical dilemma. Results indicate that the models employed by men and women differ in both business and nonbusiness settings, that both sexes report changing models when leaving business settings, and that women were better predictors of both sex's likely ethical models. (shrink)
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  30.  6
    Height and Reproductive Success in a Cohort of British Men.Daniel Nettle - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (4):473-491.
    Two recent studies have shown a relationship between male height and number of offspring in contemporary developed-world populations. One of them argues as a result that (...)directional selection for male tallness is both positive and unconstrained. This paper uses data from a large and socially representative national cohort of men who were born in Britain in March 1958. Taller men were less likely to be childless than shorter ones. They did not have a greater mean number of children. If anything, the pattern was the reverse, since men from higher socioeconomic groups tended to be taller and also to have smaller families. However, clear evidence was found that men who were taller than average were more likely to find a long-term partner, and also more likely to have several different long-term partners. This confirms the finding that tall men are considered more attractive and suggests that, in a noncontracepting environment, they would have more children. There is also evidence of stabilizing selection, since extremely tall men had an excess of health problems and an increased likelihood of childlessness. The conclusion is that male tallness has been selected for in recent human evolution but has been constrained by developmental factors and stabilizing selection on the extremely tall. (shrink)
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  31. When Narratives Matter: Men, Sport, and Spinal Cord Injury.A. C. Sparkes - 2005 - Medical Humanities 31 (2):81-88.
    Next SectionExperiencing a spinal cord injury (SCI) and becoming disabled through sport is a major disruptive life event that instigates a multiplicity of difficult and complex issues (...)
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  32. All Men Are Animals: Hypothetical, Categorical, or Material?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - manuscript
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements likeAll men are animalsas universally quantified material conditionalsFor all x, if x is F, then x is (...)
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  33. An Unconventional History of Western Philosophy: Conversations Between Men and Women Philosophers.Therese Boos Dykeman, Eve Browning, Judith Chelius Stark, Jane Duran, Marilyn Fischer, Lois Frankel, Edward Fullbrook, Jo Ellen Jacobs, Vicki Harper, Joy Laine, Kate Lindemann, Elizabeth Minnich, Andrea Nye, Margaret Simons, Audun Solli, Catherine Villanueva Gardner, Mary Ellen Waithe, Karen J. Warren & Henry West (eds.) - 2008 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This is a unique, groundbreaking study in the history of philosophy, combining leading men and women philosophers across 2600 years of Western philosophy, covering key foundational topics, (...)
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  34.  90
    Relational Dynamics and Strategies: Men and Women in a Forest Community in Sweden[REVIEW]Seema Arora-Jonsson - 2003 - Agriculture and Human Values 21 (4):355-365.
    This article views gender dynamics and strategies for change in a small Swedish village from a systems perspective. In the context of the struggle for the communal (...)
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  35.  14
    The Vindications: The Rights of Men and the Rights of Woman.Mary Wollstonecraft - 1997 - Broadview Press.
    The works of Mary Wollstonecraft ranged from the early Thoughts on the Education of Daughters to The Female Reader, a selection of texts for girls, and included (...)
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  36. Through the Eyes of Mad Men: Simulation, Interaction, and Ethics.Mitchell Aboulafia - 2011 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy (2):133-147.
    Traditionally pragmatists have been favorably disposed to improving our understanding of agency and ethics through the use of empirical research. In the last two decades simulation theory (...)
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  37.  5
    Ordinary Cosmopolitanisms: Strategies for Bridging Racial Boundaries Among Working-Class Men.M. Lamont & S. Aksartova - 2002 - Theory, Culture and Society 19 (4):1-25.
    In contrast to most literature on cosmopolitanism, which focuses on its elite forms, this article analyzes how ordinary people bridge racial boundaries in everyday life. It is (...)
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  38.  12
    Mate Choice Trade-Offs and Women's Preference for Physically Attractive Men.David Waynforth - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (3):207-219.
    Researchers studying human sexuality have repeatedly concluded that men place more emphasis on the physical attractiveness of potential mates than women do, particularly in long-term sexual (...)relationships. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that this is the case because male mate value (the total value of the characteristics that an individual possesses in terms of the potential contribution to his or her mates reproductive success) is better predicted by social status and economic resources, whereas womens mate value hinges on signals conveyed by their physical appearance. This pattern may imply that women trade off attractiveness for resources in mate choice. Here I test whether a trade-off between resources and attractiveness seems to be occurring in the mate choice decisions of women in the United States. In addition, the possibility that the risk of mate desertion drives women to choose less attractive men as long-term mates is tested. The results were that women rated physically attractive men as more likely to cheat or desert a long-term relationship, whereas men did not consider attractive women to be more likely to cheat. However, women showed no aversion to the idea of forming long-term relationships with attractive men. Evidence for a trade-off between resources and attractiveness was found for women, who traded off attractiveness, but not other traits, for resources. The potential meaning of these findings, as well as how they relate to broader issues in the study of sex differences in the evolution of human mate choice for physical traits, is discussed. (shrink)
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  39.  2
    American Legacies and the Variable Life Histories of Women and Men.Debra S. Judge - 1995 - Human Nature 6 (4):291-323.
    Sex differences in behavior are most interesting when they are the result of inherent differences in the operational rules motivating behavior and not merely a reflection of (...)
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  40.  41
    The South African Constitution Requires Men to Be Feminist.H. P. P. Lotter - 2000 - Koers 65 (4).
    Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate (...)
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  41.  93
    Men in Groups: Collective Responsibility for Rape.Larry May & Robert Strikwerda - 1994 - Hypatia 9 (2):134 - 151.
    We criticize the following views: only the rapist is responsible since only he committed the act; no one is responsible since rape is a biological response to (...)
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  42.  6
    Of Moths and Men: Theo Lang and the Persistence of Richard Goldschmidt's Theory of Homosexuality, 1916-1960.Michael R. Dietrich - 2000 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (2):219 - 247.
    Using an analogy between moths and men, in 1916, Richard Goldschmidt proposed that homosexuality was a case of genetic intersexuality. As he strove to create a unified (...)
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  43.  47
    Men and Citizens: A Study of Rousseau's Social Theory.Judith N. Shklar - 1969 - London: Cambridge University Press.
    This book, first published in 1969 and now made available in paperback with a new foreword by the author, is widely regarded as one of the best (...)
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  44.  15
    Blaming the Victimand Other Ways Business Men and Women Account for Questionable Behavior.Mary A. Konovsky & Frank Jaster - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):391 - 398.
    Impression management refers to behaviors used by individuals to control the impressions they make on audiences. This study demonstrated that business men and women were more likely (...)
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  45.  74
    Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex.Linda Lemoncheck - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 89 (2-3):369-373.
    Linda LeMoncheck introduces a new way of thinking and talking about women's sexual pleasures, preferences, and desires. Using the tools of contemporary analytic philosophy, she discusses (...)methods for mediating the tensions among apparently irreconcilable feminist perspectives on women's sexuality and shows how a feminist epistemology and ethic can advance the dialogue in women's sexuality across a broad political spectrum. She argues that in order to capture the diversity and complexity of women's sexual experience, women's sexuality must be examined from two equally compelling perspectives: that of women's sexual oppression under conditions of individual and institutional male dominance; and that of women's sexual liberation, both in terms of each woman's pursuit of sexual agency and self-definition, and in terms of women's sexual liberation as a class. Loose Women, Lecherous Men sheds crucial new light on such much-debated topics as promiscuity, adultery, sexual deviance, prostitution, pornography, sexual harassment, and sexual violence against women. Her book supports a dialogue that encourages both women and men to take up a feminist perspective in exploring the meaning and value of sexuality in their lives. (shrink)
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  46.  13
    What Explains Differences in Men's and Women's Production?Bliege Bird Rebecca, F. Codding Brian & W. Bird Douglas - 2009 - Human Nature 20 (2):105-129.
    Researchers commonly use long-term average production inequalities to characterize cross-cultural patterns in foraging divisions of labor, but little is known about how the strategies of individuals (...) shape such inequalities. Here, we explore the factors that lead to daily variation in how much men produce relative to women among Martu, contemporary foragers of the Western Desert of Australia. We analyze variation in foraging decisions on temporary foraging camps and find that the percentage of total camp production provided by each gender varies primarily as a function of mens average bout successes with large, mobile prey. When men target large prey, either their success leads to a large proportional contribution to the daily harvest, or their failure results in no contribution. When both men and women target small reliable prey, production inequalities by gender are minimized. These results suggest that production inequalities among Martu emerge from stochastic variation in mens foraging success on large prey measured against the backdrop of womens consistent production of small, low-variance resources. (shrink)
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  47. Real Men.Hugh LaFollette - 1992 - In Larry May & Robert Strikwerda (eds.), Masculinity. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 59--74.
    "Ah, for the good old days, when men were men and women were women." Men who express such sentiments long for the world where homosexuals were (...) ensconced in their closets and women were sexy, demure, and subservient. That is a world well lost -- though not as lost as I would like. More than a few men still practice misogyny and homophobia. The defects of such attitudes are obvious. My concern here is not to document these defects but to ask how real men, men who reject stereotypical male-female roles -- men who are sensitive to the insights of feminism -- should relate with women. In particular, how should men and women relate in intimate, sexually oriented, i.e., "romantic," relationships. (shrink)
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  48. Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times.Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper - 1723 - Cambridge University Press.
    Shaftesbury's Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times was first published in 1711. It ranges widely over ethics, aesthetics, religion, the arts (painting, literature, architecture, gardening), and (...)ancient and modern history, and aims at nothing less than a new ideal of the gentleman. Together with Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Addison and Steele's Spectator, it is a text of fundamental importance for understanding the thought and culture of Enlightenment Europe. This volume presents a new edition of the text together with an introduction, explanatory notes and a guide to further reading. (shrink)
     
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  49.  8
    Men's Reproductive Investment Decisions.Coren L. Apicella & Frank W. Marlowe - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (1):22-34.
    Using questionnaire data completed by 170 men, we examine variation in paternal investment in relation to the trade-off between mating and parenting. We found that as (...)mens self-perceived mate value increases, so does their mating effort, and in turn, as mating effort increases, paternal investment decreases. This study also simultaneously examined the influence on parental investment of mens mating effort, mens perception of their matesfidelity, and their perceived resemblance to their offspring. All predicted investment. The predictors of investment are also tested independently for men who are still in a relationship with the mother of their children and those that are separated from her. Finally we examine how self-perceived mate value affects how men respond to variation in paternity confidence. Men with a self-perceived low mate value were less likely to respond to lowered mate fidelity by reducing their parental investment compared with men with a self-perceived high mate value. (shrink)
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  50.  3
    Smiling Reflects Different Emotions in Men and Women.Simine Vazire, Laura P. Naumann, Peter J. Rentfrow & Samuel D. Gosling - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):403-405.
    We present evidence that smiling is positively associated with positive affect in women and negatively associated with negative affect in men. In line with Vigil's model, (...)we propose that, in women, smiling signals warmth (trustworthiness cues), which attracts fewer and more intimate relationships, whereas in men, smiling signals confidence and lack of self-doubt (capacity cues), which attracts numerous, less-intimate relationships. (shrink)
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