Critical (necessary or sufficient) features in categorisation have a long history, but the empirical evidence makes their existence questionable. Nevertheless, there are some cases that suggest critical feature effects. The purpose of the present work is to offer some insight into why classification decisions might misleadingly appear as if they involve critical features. Utilising Tversky's (1977) contrast model of similarity, we suggest that when an object has a sparser representation, changing any of its features is more likely to lead to (...) a change in identity than it would in objects that have richer representations. Experiment 1 provides a basic test of this suggestion with artificial stimuli, whereby objects with a rich or a sparse representation were transformed by changing one of their features. As expected, we observed more identity judgements in the former case. Experiment 2 further confirms our hypothesis, with realistic stimuli, by assuming that superordinate categories have sparser representations than subordinate ones. These results offer some insight into the way feature changes may or may not lead to identity changes in classification decisions. (shrink)
This paper reports a study of the roles of visuo-spatial and verbal working memory capacities in solving a planning task - the five-disc Tower of London (TOL) task. An individual differences approach was taken. Sixty adult participants were tested on 20 TOL tasks of varying difficulty. Total moves over the 20 TOL tasks was taken as a measure of performance. Participants were also assessed on measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's matrices), verbal short-term storage (Digit span), verbal working memory span (Silly (...) Sentence span), visuo-spatial short-term storage (Visual Pattern span and Corsi Block span), visuo-spatial working memory (Corsi Distance Estimation), visuo-spatial processing speed (Manikin test), and verbal speed (Rehearsal speed). Exploratory factor analysis using an oblique rotation method revealed three factors which were interpreted as (1) a visuo-spatial working memory factor, (2) an age-speed factor, and (3) a verbal working memory factor. The visuo-spatial and verbal factors were only moderately correlated. Performance on the TOL task loaded on the visuo-spatial factor but did not load on the other factors. It is concluded that the predominant goal-selection strategy adopted in solving the TOL relies on visuo-spatial working memory capacity and particularly involves the active ''inner scribe'' spatial rehearsal mechanism. These correlational analyses confirm and extend results previously obtained by use of dual task methods, (Phillips, Wynn, Gilhooly, Della Sala, & Logie, 1999). (shrink)
Fr. Sala attempts in this article to provide readers and students of Lonergan with a clear, precise, and condensed presentation of his conception of method in theology in today’s context. He does this by sketching the most important stages in the evolution of Lonergan’s thought. The core of this presentation is the analysis of the “human subject in its subjectivity.” Lonergan deals primarily not with the content of theological science but with the operations theologians perform in constructing theology. He endeavors (...) to clarify this subjectivity in all its dimensions. Having given us an analysis of Lonergan’s Verbum articles, Sala goes on to present Lonergan’s Insight under three headings: knowledge, objectivity, and reality. This done, he proceeds to summarize Method in Theology under these headings: the religious dimension of the subject, the structure of theological method, the specific theological principle of a method in theology, and the authentic subject as the foundation for theological reflection.The article is a masterly presentation of a vast area of research and a good introduction to Lonergan’s works.This article appeared in Theologie und Philosophie 63 (1988) 34-59 and was titled: “B. Lonergans Methode der Theologie: Ein Theologe hinterfugt seinen eigenen Verstand.” Von Giovanni B. Sala, S.J. (shrink)
Nurses are responsible for the well-being and quality of life of many people, and therefore must meet high standards of technical and ethical competence. The most common form of ethical guidance is a code of ethics/professional practice; however, little research on how codes are viewed or used in practice has been undertaken. This study, carried out in six European countries, explored nurses’ opinions of the content and function of codes and their use in nursing practice. A total of 49 focus (...) groups involving 311 nurses were held. Purposive sampling ensured a mix of participants from a range of specialisms. Qualitative analysis enabled emerging themes to be identified on both national and comparative bases. Most participants had a poor understanding of their codes. They were unfamiliar with the content and believed they have little practical value because of extensive barriers to their effective use. In many countries nursing codes appear to be ‘paper tigers’ with little or no impact; changes are needed in the way they are developed and written, introduced in nurse education, and reinforced/implemented in clinical practice. (shrink)
In recent literature there is unanimous agreement about children's pragmatic competence in drawing scalar implicatures about some , if the task is made easy enough. However, children accept infelicitous some sentences more often than adults do. In general their acceptance is assumed to be synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. But in our view an overlap with some as a determiner in under-informative sentences cannot be ruled out, given the ambiguity of the experimental instructions and the (...) attitude of trust by children in adults. Our study investigated this hypothesis with different experimental manipulations. We found that when the experimenter's intentions are clear (Experiment 1, all / some order effect; Experiments 2 and 4, conditions 2 and 3), under-informative sentences are usually rejected; otherwise (Experiment 1, some / all order effect; Experiments 3 and 4, control condition) they are accepted. However, analysis of verbal protocols indicated that pragmatically infelicitous sentences are accepted, with some interpreted mostly as a determiner, irrespective of the function of some as a quantifier. Acceptance is not in itself synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. (shrink)
Those who want to know anything about strike action by Italian nurses will find very little written about it. This contribution intends to show that, whatever they are prepared to admit, Italian nurses are not used to strike action because they mostly think of their profession as a form of mission. Even if we could agree with the idea of nursing as a profession subscribing to an ideal of service, we have to distinguish between a real profession and philanthropic work; (...) vocational motivation is not enough to make a good professional. Historically, nurses perceived strikes as contradictory to human need and action; patients must never be left alone. However, Italian nurses are now interested in a dramatic transformation of many aspects of their professional life, becoming conscious of the duty to protect themselves from every kind of exploitation, even if the typical idealism and dedication of nurses makes them vulnerable. (shrink)
Uno de los elementos de modernidad que sobresalen en el procedimiento exegético desarrollado por Maimónides es el de la decodificación de los conceptos figurativos y simbólicos que se encuentran en el texto bíblico. La labor que ejerció el cordobés en este sentido sitúa a los textos ante nuevas posibilidades hermenéuticas que ofrecen novedosas lecturas a partir de su interpretación.
Traducción y estudio de la sección 11,2,12-14 del Maymar fi "wupud al-Haliq wa-l-din al-qawim" de Teodoro Abu Qurrah. Buscando demostrar que el cristianismo es la única religión verdadera, Abu Qurrah plantea un método analítico de corte apologético que desarrolla a partir de criterios racionalistas de naturaleza comparatista, adoptando para ello un discurso expositivo, moralista o escriturista en cada caso, de acuerdo con sus necesidades.
El texto que Massignon creyera ser la muestra del más antiguo "Padre nuestro" en árabe, tal como se nos ha conservado no es sino una adaptación musulmana que queda lejos de poder representar una versión directa de la Oratio Dominica, lo cual obliga a rastrear las antiguas versiones árabes del "Padre nuestro" entre la producción literaria cristiana. En ésta, tanto las versiones orientales como las occidentales ofrecen lecturas distintas en función de su procedencia doctrinal: las orientales atienden, a grandes rasgos, (...) a una doble clasificación, muestras ortodoxas y monofisitas, en tanto que las occidentales, además de evidencias una compleja tradición textual de los textos bíblicos neotestamentarios, parecen reflejar, cuando menos y a simple vista, interferencias orientales de procedencia monofisita, que llevan a reconsiderar la naturaleza, las fuentes y las familias textuales de las traducciones que circularon por al-Andalus . (shrink)
In this article we focus on female genital mutilation. We analyse this problem as one of the most important issues of multiculturalism, which is also coming to the attention of the public in Italy as a consequence of the growing number of immigrants from African countries. The fundamental problem is about the acceptability of this practice: can female genital mutilation be permitted and, if so, on what basis? We will try to cope with this as a genuine conflict between culture-relative (...) values and universal values, such as human rights. Some attention will be drawn to Italian law. Finally, the impact on nurses of requests for genital mutilation will be described. (shrink)
En el presente artículo analizamos el motivo de «los reyes de Etiopía y Nubia» en una de las familias textuales del Apocalipsis árabe del Pseudo Atanasio. El propósito de este trabajo es demostrar, mediante el análisis de los elementos que conforman el motivo, cómo los autores de obras apocalípticas trabajaron sobre la base de un material en buena medida estandarizado, al que denominamos testimonia, del que se sirvió cada autor en función de circunstancias varias. Esta labor plasmada en los textos (...) apocalípticos fue generada y desarrollada en el seno de una tradición textual y literaria en la que el recurso a la intertextualidad actuó como un mecanismo estructural determinante en la configuración, modelización y pervivencia de este género literario con el paso de los siglos entre las varias comunidades cristianas orientales. (shrink)
In this article I look for an alternative way in which ‘unreasonable’ people may be included in a liberal society. Differing from Rawls, whose reasonable hope is for unreasonable people gradually to adhere to liberal institutions so that, over time, an overlapping consensus is reached, I propose the alternative way of them supporting these institutions as a special modus vivendi, which does not require them to renounce their non-reasonableness. First I detail the Rawlsian notion of reasonableness and unreasonableness; second, I (...) discuss how the treatment of the unreasonable is addressed by Rawls; third, taking inspiration from two accounts of how to consider the ‘unreasonable’ within a liberal society, I maintain that a subset of ‘unreasonable’ (I call them ‘non-reasonable’) may be included in public debate; fourth, I propose that their way of inclusion is a stable modus vivendi. (shrink)
La creciente competencia profesional, la incorporación de la mujer al mundo laboral y la crisis económica actual, son aspectos que han cambiado nuestro estilo de vida y nuestros valores. Estas variables y otras muchas hacen que el día a día el fenómeno del estrés sea objeto de atención en centros de salud, siendo una de las principales causas de las bajas laborales tramitadas. La familia, la pareja, el tiempo de ocio y el entorno social también se ven afectados, creando dinámicas (...) poco saludables y/o conflictivas difíciles de gestionar. Por todo ello, es importante reflexionar sobre qué provoca estrés, qué es lo que nos hace más resistentes a él o si podemos elegir entre estresarnos o no introduciendo ciertos cambio en nuestra filosofía de vida. (shrink)
Political representatives with excessive authority and a lack of deliberation and co-legislation with their electors, provoke protests that desire to have influence over the State. Traditional mass media (television, radio, newspapers and cinema) and the Web 1.0 (lists of e-mails and non-interactive websites) created distance among them because they reduced the electorate to fewer recipients. But the new media from the Web 2.0 (Blogs, Facebook, Wikis, and in particular the Micro-Bloggins and Twitter) pretend to improve old limitations. Likewise, the first (...) supposed we had a democracy and so we searched for information online, on the other hand, the new gives information and demands democracy. The idea exposed on this article is how the new Web 2.0 seeks to exceed the limits of traditional participation and to dissolve, more than surpassing, citizen's frontiers of political activity on the Web. (shrink)
This article is a first assessment of the Italian Code of deontology for nurses (revised in 1999) on the basis of data collected from focus groups with nurses taking part in the Ethical Codes in Nursing (ECN) project. We illustrate the professional context in which the Code was introduced and explain why the 1999 revision was necessary in the light of changes affecting the Italian nursing profession. The most remarkable findings concern professional autonomy and responsibility, and how the Code is (...) thought of as a set of guidelines for nursing practice. We discuss these issues, underlining that the 1999 Code represents a valuable instrument for ethical reflection and examination, a stimulus for putting the moral sense of the nursing profession into action, and that it represents a new era for professional nursing practice in Italy. The results of the analysis also deserve further qualitative study and future consideration. (shrink)
The article tries to retrace the emergence of kant's "critique of pure reason". Already in the sixties, Kant faced the problem of metaphysics and came to the result that the conclusions of pure reason have only a subjective value. Hereby the material content of transcendental dialectic was reached. Only afterwards kant examined the underlying ontology and came to his transcendental idealism. On this new base kant should have had to revise his former critique of special metaphysics. However, He did this (...) only partially. (shrink)