Published with the aid of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Contains the only complete English-language text of The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages. Tarski made extensive corrections and revisions of the original translations for this edition, along with new historical remarks. It includes a new preface and a new analytical index for use by philosophers and linguists as well as by historians of mathematics and philosophy.
Putnam famously attempted to use model theory to draw metaphysical conclusions. His Skolemisation argument sought to show metaphysical realists that their favourite theories have countable models. His permutation argument sought to show that they have permuted models. His constructivisation argument sought to show that any empirical evidence is compatible with the Axiom of Constructibility. Here, I examine the metamathematics of all three model-theoretic arguments, and I argue against Bays (2001, 2007) that Putnam is largely immune to metamathematical challenges.
Pursuing the proof-theoretic program of Friedman and Simpson, we begin the study of the metamathematics of countable linear orderings by proving two main results. Over the weak base system consisting of arithmetic comprehension, II 1 1 -CA0 is equivalent to Hausdorff's theorem concerning the canonical decomposition of countable linear orderings into a sum over a dense or singleton set of scattered linear orderings. Over the same base system, ATR0 is equivalent to a version of the Continuum Hypothesis for linear (...) orderings, which states that every countable linear ordering either has countably many or continuum many Dedekind cuts. (shrink)
In this paper, we trace the conceptual history of the term ?metamathematics? in the nineteenth century. It is well known that Hilbert introduced the term for his proof-theoretic enterprise in about 1922. But he was verifiably inspired by an earlier usage of the phrase in the 1870s. After outlining Hilbert's understanding of the term, we will explore the lines of inducement and elucidate the different meanings of ?metamathematics? in the final decades of the nineteenth century. Finally, we will (...) investigate the earlier occurrences and come to the conclusion that the conceptual prehistory of the Hilbertian notion of metamathematics dates back to 1870, whereas the history of the word starts in 1799 at the latest. What is this: metamathematics? It is something amazing everybody, [?] since it makes the mind dizzy and withdraws thinking its sole fulcrum.1 1 Brunner 1898, p. 832: ?Was ist das: Metamathematik? Es ist etwas, was einen Jeden in das äusserste Staunen versetzt, [?] was das Gehirn schwindlig macht und dem Denken seinen einzigen Stütz- und Angelpunkt zu entziehen droht? (shrink)
The paper is concerned with Quine's substitutional account of logical truth. The critique of Quine's definition tends to focus on miscellaneous odds and ends, such as problems with identity. However, in an appendix to his influential article On Second Order Logic, George Boolos offered an ingenious argument that seems to diminish Quine's account of logical truth on a deeper level. In the article he shows that Quine's substitutional account of logical truth cannot be generalized properly to the general concept of (...) logical consequence. The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to introduce the reader to the metamathematics of Quine's substitutional definition of logical truth; second, to make Boolos' result accessible to a broader audience by giving a detailed and self-contained presentation of his proof; and, finally, to discuss some of the possible implications and how a defender of the Quinean concepts might react to the challenge posed by Boolos' result. (shrink)
The metamathematical theorems of Gödel and Church are frequently applied to the philosophy of mind, typically as rational evidence against mechanism. Using methods of Post and Smullyan, these results are presented as purely mathematical theorems and various such applications are discussed critically. In particular, J. Lucas's use of Gödel's theorem to distinguish between conscious and unconscious beings is refuted, while more generally, attempts to extract philosophy from metamathematics are shown to involve only dramatizations of the constructivity problem in foundations. (...) More specifically, philosophical extrapolations from metamathematics are shown to involve premature extensions of Church's thesis. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to examine the idea of metamathematical deduction in Hilbert’s program showing its dependence of epistemological notions, specially the notion of intuitive knowledge. It will be argued that two levels of foundations of deduction can be found in the last stages of Hilbert’s Program. The first level is related to the reduction – in a particular sense – of mathematics to formal systems, which are ‘metamathematically’ justified in terms of symbolic manipulation. The second level of (...) foundation consists in warranting epistemologically the validity of the combinatory processes underlying the symbolic manipulation in metamathematics. In this level the justification was carried out with the aid of notions from modern epistemology, particularly the notion of intuition. Finally, some problems concerning Hilbert’s use of this notion will be shown and it will be compared with Brouwer’s. (shrink)
We discuss the development of metamathematics in the Hilbert school, and Hilbert’s proof-theoretic program in particular. We place this program in a broader historical and philosophical context, especially with respect to nineteenth century developments in mathematics and logic. Finally, we show how these considerations help frame our understanding of metamathematics and proof theory today.
The relevance of metamathematical researches for philosophy of math- ematics is an indubitable matter. In the paper I shall speak about impli- cations of metamathematics for general philosophy, especially for classical epistemological problems. Let us start with a historical observation con- cerning Hilbert's programme, the rst research programme in metamathe- matics as a separate study of formal systems. This programme was strongly in uence by epistemological considerations. In fact, Hilbert wanted to se- cure all classical mathematics against inconsistencies and (...) this aim had be achieved with the help of nitary consistency proof. Hilbert's claim is like the Cartesian project of reduction of all concepts to clarae et distinctae ideae. The epistemological commitment of original Hilbert's programme may be treated as a prelim- inary heuristic motivation for looking for epistemological implications of metamathematical results. It seems reasonable to examine in this respect three so-called limitative theorems: the rst Godel's incompleteness theo- rem , the second Godel's incom- pleteness theorem consistency of S, cannot be proved in S, providing that S is consistent) and Tarski's undenability theorem ; \S" stands for formal system containing elementary number theory. From the above-mentioned theorems we obtain an important, from philosophical point of view, conclusion: semantics of S cannot be expressed in S. Now, I shall present three applications of limitative theorems to the analysis of classical epistemological problems. (shrink)
The automatic verification of large parts of mathematics has been an aim of many mathematicians from Leibniz to Hilbert. While Gödel's first incompleteness theorem showed that no computer program could automatically prove certain true theorems in mathematics, the advent of electronic computers and sophisticated software means in practice there are many quite effective systems for automated reasoning that can be used for checking mathematical proofs. This book describes the use of a computer program to check the proofs of several celebrated (...) theorems in metamathematics including those of Gödel and Church-Rosser. The computer verification using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover yields precise and rigorous proofs of these difficult theorems. It also demonstrates the range and power of automated proof checking technology. The mechanization of metamathematics itself has important implications for automated reasoning, because metatheorems can be applied as labor-saving devices to simplify proof construction. (shrink)
Turing's programme, the idea that intelligence can be modelled computationally, is set in the context of a parallel between certain elements from metamathematics and Popper's schema for the evolution of knowledge. The parallel is developed at both the formal level, where it hinges on the recursive structuring of Popper's schema, and at the contentual level, where a few key issues common to both epistemology and metamathematics are briefly discussed. In light of this connection Popper's principle of transference, akin (...) to Turing's belief in the relevance of the theory of computation for modelling psychological functions, is widened into the extended principle of transference. Thus Turing's programme gains a solid epistemological footing. *I am grateful to Claude Lamontagne and Jean-Pierre Delage for their comments on this paper. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to bring together two separated areas of research: classical mathematics and metamathematics on the one side, non-monotonic reasoning on the other. This is done by simulating nonmonotonic logic through antitonic theory extensions. In the first half, the specific extension procedure proposed here is motivated informally, partly in comparison with some well-known non-monotonic formalisms. Operators V and, more generally, U are obtained which have some plausibility when viewed as giving nonmonotonic theory extensions. In the second (...) half, these operators are treated from a mathematical and metamathematical point of view. Here an important role is played by U -closed theories and U -fixed points. The last section contains results on V-closed theories which are specific for V. (shrink)
This paper deals with Tarski's first axiomatic presentations of the syntax of deductive system. Andrzej Grzegorczyk's significant results which laid the foundations for the formalization of metalogic, are touched upon briefly. The results relate to Tarski's theory of concatenation, also called the theory of strings, and to Tarski's ideas on the formalization of metamathematics. There is a short mention of author's research in the field. The main part of the paper surveys research on the theory of deductive systems initiated (...) by Tarski, in particular research on the axiomatization of the general notion of consequence operation, axiom systems for the theories of classic consequence and for some equivalent theories, and axiom systems for the theories of nonclassic consequence. In this paper the results of Jerzy Supecki's research are taken into account, and also the author's and other people belonging to his circle of scientific research. Particular study is made of his dual characterization of deductive systems, both as systems in regard to acceptance and systems in regard to rejection . Comparison is made, therefore, with axiomatizations of the theories of rejection and dual consequence, and the theory of the usual consequence operation. (shrink)
This work is a sequel to the author's Godel's Incompleteness Theorems, though it can be read independently by anyone familiar with Godel's incompleteness theorem for Peano arithmetic. The book deals mainly with those aspects of recursion theory that have applications to the metamathematics of incompleteness, undecidability, and related topics. It is both an introduction to the theory and a presentation of new results in the field.
A number of comparability theorems have been investigated from the viewpoint of reverse mathematics. Among these are various comparability theorems between countable well orderings (,), and between closed sets in metric spaces (,). Here we investigate the reverse mathematics of a comparability theorem for countable metric spaces, countable linear orderings, and sets of rationals. The previous work on closed sets used a strengthened notion of continuous embedding. The usual weaker notion of continuous embedding is used here. As a byproduct, we (...) sharpen previous results of ,. (shrink)
The classical Ulm theory provides a complete set of invariants for countable abelian p-groups, and hence also for countable torsion abelian groups. These invariants involve countable ordinals. One can read off many simple structural properties of such groups directly from the Ulm theory. We carry out a reverse mathematics analysis of several such properties. In many cases, we reverse to ATR0, thereby demonstrating a kind of necessary use of Ulm theory.
The metamathematical tradition, tracing back to Hilbert, employs syntactic modeling to study the methods of contemporary mathematics. A central goal has been, in particular, to explore the extent to which infinitary methods can be understood in computational or otherwise explicit terms. Ergodic theory provides rich opportunities for such analysis. Although the field has its origins in seventeenth century dynamics and nineteenth century statistical mechanics, it employs infinitary, nonconstructive, and structural methods that are characteristically modern. At the same time, computational concerns (...) and recent applications to combinatorics and number theory force us to reconsider the constructive character of the theory and its methods. This paper surveys some recent contributions to the metamathematical study of ergodic theory, focusing on the mean and pointwise ergodic theorems and the Furstenberg structure theorem for measure preserving systems. In particular, I characterize the extent to which these theorems are nonconstructive, and explain how proof-theoretic methods can be used to locate their "constructive content.". (shrink)
In this article, it is suggested a possible profile for the historical and philosophical migration of several issues from the metamathematical domain to the domain of functionalist neuro-computational Cognitive Science. The description of such a transition is accomplished by an analysis of the ideas of Post, Church, Gödel, and, in particular, Turing on the possibility of formalization of creative thinking in Mathematics.Neste artigo, propõe-se uma configuração possível para a transição histórico-filosófica de temas investigados no domínio da metamatemática para o domínio (...) da Ciência Cognitiva funcionalista neurocomputacional. A descrição de tal transição é feita por meio de uma breve análise das idéias de Post, Church, Gödel e Turing sobre a possibilidade de formalização do pensamento criador na matemática, enfatizando as contribuições deste último. (shrink)
We explain and summarize the use of logic to provide a uniform perspective for studying limit laws on finite probability spaces. This work connects developments in stability theory, finite model theory, abstract model theory, and probability. We conclude by linking this context with work on the Urysohn space.