Results for 'Methodological Individualism'

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  1.  87
    Methodological Individualism Considered as a Constitutive Principle of Scientific Inquiry.Ron McClamrock - 1991 - Philosophical Psychology 4 (3):343-54.
    The issue of methodological solipsism in the philosophy of mind and psychology has received enormous attention and discussion in the decade since the appearance Jerry Fodor's "Methodological Solipsism" [Fodor 1980]. But most of this discussion has focused on the consideration of the now infamous "Twin Earth" type examples and the problems they present for Fodor's notion of "narrow content". I think there is deeper and more general moral to be found in this issue, particularly in light of Fodor's (...)
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  2.  56
    Eliminativism and Methodological Individualism.Harold Kincaid - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (1):141-148.
    Tuomela (this issue, pp. 96-103) raises several objections to the analysis and critique of methodological individualism in my (1986). In what follows I reply to those criticisms, arguing, among other things, that: (1) the alleged reductions provided by Tuomela and others fail, because they either presuppose rather than eliminate social predicates or do not avoid the problem of multiple realizations; (2) supervenience does not guarantee that the social sciences are reducible, because merely describing supervenieence bases leaves numerous questions (...)
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  3.  94
    Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation.Christian List & Kai Spiekermann - 2013 - American Political Science Review 107 (4):629-643.
    Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and (...)
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  4.  35
    Social Justice, Health Inequalities and Methodological Individualism in US Health Promotion.D. S. Goldberg - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (2):104-115.
    This article asserts that traditionally dominant models of health promotion in the US are fairly characterized by methodological individualism. This schema produces a focus on the individual as the node of intervention. Such emphasis results in a number of scientific and ethical problems. I identify three principal ethical deficiencies: first, the health promotions used are generally ineffective, which violates canons of distributive justice because scarce health resources are expended on interventions that are unlikely to produce health benefits. Second, (...)
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  5.  40
    Meanings of Methodological Individualism.Geoffrey M. Hodgson - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):211-226.
    Advocacy of ?methodological individualism? is widespread, especially among economists. However, the term is rarely defined with adequate precision and some crucial ambiguities are explored in this article. Among these is the commonplace ambivalence over whether explanations should be in terms of individuals alone, or in terms of individuals plus relations between them. It is shown that a great deal hinges on this subtle and often overlooked distinction in explanantia. In particular, explanations in terms of individuals alone have never, (...)
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  6. Methodological Individualism: Background, History and Meaning.Lars Udehn - 2001 - Routledge.
    Throughout the history of social thought, there has been a constant battle over the true nature of society, and the best way to understand and explain it. This volume covers the development of methodological individualism, including the individualist theory of society from Greek antiquity to modern social science. It is a comprehensive and systematic treatment of methodological individualism in all its manifestations.
     
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  7.  39
    Methodological Individualism and Social Explanation.Richard W. Miller - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (3):387-414.
    Past criticisms to the contrary, methodological individualism in the social sciences is neither trivial nor obviously false. In the style of Weber's sociology, it restricts the ultimate explanatory repertoire of social science to agents' reasons for action. Although this restriction is not obviously false, it ought not to be accepted, at present, as a regulative principle. It excludes, as too far-fetched to merit investigation, certain hypotheses concerning the influence of objective interests on large-scale social phenomena. And these hypotheses, (...)
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  8.  38
    Methodological Individualism, Explanation, and Invariance.Daniel Steel - 2006 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (4):440-463.
    This article examines methodological individualism in terms of the theory that invariance under intervention is the signal feature of generalizations that serve as a basis for causal explanation. This theory supports the holist contention that macro-level generalizations can explain, but it also suggests a defense of methodological individualism on the grounds that greater range of invariance under intervention entails deeper explanation. Although this individualist position is not threatened by multiple-realizability, an argument for it based on rational (...)
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  9.  10
    The Firm, Property Rights and Methodological Individualism: Some Lessons From J.S. Mill.Amos Witztum - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (4):339-355.
    In modern economics, the firm is a means of overcoming the inefficiencies generated by transaction costs and incomplete contracts. Its boundaries, therefore, are the means by which the efficiency of competition can be salvaged. Whether or not agents feel comfortable with the values which underlie various ownership structures remains outside this theory. Moreover, the working of different ownership structures is entirely based on the presumption that agents' motivation (as opposed to incentives) will remain constant. This, of course, is typical of (...)
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  10.  61
    An Epistemological Plea for Methodological Individualism and Rational Choice Theory in Cognitive Rhetoric.Alban Bouvier - 2002 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (1):51-70.
    Some current attempts to go beyond the narrow scope of rational choice theory (RCT) in the social sciences and the artificial reconstructions it sometimes provides focus on the arguments that people give to justify their beliefs and behaviors themselves. But the available argumentation theories are not constructed to fill this gap. This article argues that relevance theory, on the contrary, suggests interesting tracks. This provocative idea requires a rereading of Sperber and Wilson's theory. Actually, the authors do not explicitly support (...)
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  11.  29
    Methodological Individualism: Singular Causal Systems and Their Population Manifestations.James H. Fetzer - 1986 - Synthese 68 (1):99 - 128.
    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the properties of singular causal systems and their population manifestations, with special concern for the thesis of methodological individualism, which claims that there are no properties of social groups that cannot be adequately explained exclusively by reference to properties of individual members of those groups, i.e., at the level of individuals. Individuals, however, may be viewed as singular causal systems, i.e., as instantiations of (arrangements of) dispositional properties. From this perspective, (...)
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  12.  1
    Can Analytical Sociology Do Without Methodological Individualism?Nathalie Bulle & Denis Phan - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
    The explanatory power of structures in analytical sociologists’ agent-based models brings into question methodological individualism. We defend that from an explanatory point of view, the syntactic properties of models require semantic conditions of interpretation drawn from a conceptual research framework; in such a framework, social/relational structures have only partial, explanatory power ; and taking the explanation further through generative mechanism modeling necessitates calling upon methodological individualism’s generic framework of interpretation that relies on social actors’ rational capacity. (...)
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  13.  18
    How Individualistic is Methodological Individualism?G. B. Madison - 1990 - Critical Review 4 (1-2):41-60.
    F.A.Hayek is generally considered to be a representative of what, in regard to the methodology of the human sciences, is commonly referred to as ?methodological individualism?; (MI). This paper is an attempt to determine the exact nature and significance of Hayek's own particular brand of ?individualism.?; In particular, it attempts to show that Hayek's MI is grossly misinterpreted when it is viewed as being merely another instance of the atomistic or analytic individualism characteristic of much modern (...)
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  14.  11
    Is Multiple Realizability a Valid Argument Against Methodological Individualism?Branko MitroviĆ - 2017 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 47 (1):28-43.
    In recent decades, a number of authors have relied on the multiple realizability argument to reject methodological individualism. In this article, I argue that this strategy results in serious difficulties and makes it impossible to identify social entities and phenomena.
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  15.  16
    Methodological Individualism.Tännsjö Torbjörn - 1990 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):69-80.
    The doctrine of methodological individualism is clarified and different versions of it are distinguished. The main thesis of the article is that methodological individualism is either a false doctrine or else a doctrine compatible with functionalism, structuralism, and Marxism. Positively it is maintained that, for all we know, collective entities such as power structures may shape our beliefs and values; these beliefs and values may explain some of our actions and expectations. These actions and expectations, together (...)
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  16.  58
    A Pragmatist Spin on Analytical Marxism and Methodological Individualism.Chandra Kumar - 2008 - Philosophical Papers 37 (2):185-211.
    The debates of the 1980s and 1990s on methodological individualism versus methodological holism have not been adequately resolved. Within analytical Marxism, G.A. Cohen, John Roemer, Jon Elster and others have come down in favour of methodological individualism as part of the effort to make analytical Marxism more 'scientific' and 'rigorous' than earlier versions of Marxism. In doing so they have presented methodological individualism as a necessary ingredient in ridding Marxism of obscurantism. This view (...)
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  17.  12
    The Impossibility of a Complete Methodological Individualist: Reduction When Knowledge is Imperfect.David M. Levy - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):101-.
    F. A. Hayek is uniquely responsible for his fellow economists grasping the importance of the decentralization of knowledge: as Hayek shows in his pathbreaking “The Use of Knowledge in Society,” knowledge nowhere exists as a coherent whole and to pretend otherwise is a most serious error. Hayek also shares responsibility for the popularity of a strong form of the methodological individualist research program which asserts that since collectives as such have no impact on the choices of individuals, investigators ought (...)
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  18.  12
    Methodological Individualism.Dániel Havrancsik - 2015 - Schutzian Research 7:65-87.
    The purpose of this paper is to show that the work of Alfred Schutz, mostly neglected by the current representatives of the social scientific movement of methodological individualism, can provide a foundation for an alternative methodological individualist programme, which instead of building on the presumed rationality of action, starts from the subjective consciousness of the actor, thus can overcome the objectivist bias characterizing most other variants. Following the Schutzian guidelines, this individualist approach can avoid the error of (...)
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  19.  39
    Methodological Individualism and Explanation.Raimo Tuomela - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (1):133-140.
    This critical note concerns Harold Kincaid's "Reduction, Explanation and Empiricism" (this journal, December 1986). Kincaid criticizes methodological individualism on several grounds. The present note argues that Kincaid fails at least in his attempt to show that it is false that individualistic theory suffices to fully explain social phenomena. Kincaid's main reason for claiming that individualistic theory is insufficient is that it cannot adequately explain social kinds. The present note contends that an individualist can suitably reinterpret the social talk (...)
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  20.  16
    Methodological Individualism.L. Pellicani - 1995 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 1995 (104):159-174.
    Orthodox game theory and social preference models cannot explain why people cooperate in many experimental games or how they manage to coordinate their choices. The theory of evidential decision making provides a solution, based on the idea that people tend to project their own choices onto others, whatever these choices might be. Evidential decision making preserves methodological individualism, and it works without recourse to social preferences. Rejecting methodological individualism, team reasoning is a thinly disguised resurgence of (...)
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  21.  4
    World 3 and Methodological Individualism in Popper’s Thought.Francesco Di Iorio - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (4):352-374.
    Popper’s theory of World 3 is often regarded as incongruent with his defense of methodological individualism. This article criticizes this widespread view. Methodological individualism is said to be at odds with three crucial assumptions of the theory of World 3: the impossibility of reducing World 3 to subjective mental states because it exists objectively, the view that the mental functions cannot be explained by assuming that individuals are isolated atoms, and the idea that World 3 has (...)
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  22.  16
    Methodological Individualism, Cognitive Homogeneity and Environmental Determinism.André Clark - 2003 - Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (1):79-85.
    A study encompassing a number of UK Universities identified a widespread implicit environmental determinism employed in the teaching of Economics to business studies undergraduates. In this paper the author argues that this bias is an inevitable by-product of the methodological individualism adopted within mainstream economics. The author concludes that methodological individualism is, therefore, flawed both as a mechanism for accessing the reality of the business world and the power of firms within it, and for teaching others (...)
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  23.  5
    Methodological Individualism in Ecology.James Justus - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):770-784.
    Methodological individualism has a long, successful, and controversial track record in the social sciences. Its record in ecology is much shorter but proving as successful and controversial with so-called individual-based models. Distinctions and debates about methodological individualism in social sciences clarify the commitments of this general, individualistic approach to modeling ecological phenomena and show that there is a lot recommending it. In particular, a representational priority on individual organisms yields a cogent albeit deflationary account of ecological (...)
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  24. The Forms and Limits of Methodological Individualism.Rajeev Bhargava - 1988 - Dissertation, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. ;It is frequently asserted that the debate between individualists and non-individualists is futile and that a suitably modified methodological individualism is trivially true. This thesis seeks to challenge this assertion, and to revive the debate by first identifying a plausible version of methodological individualism and then by outlining a non-individualist alternative. ;Identifying a plausible version of methodological individualism is not easy because the (...)
     
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  25. Methodological Individualism: Background, History and Meaning.Lars Udehn - 2014 - Routledge.
    Throughout the history of social thought, there has been a constant battle over the true nature of society, and the best way to understand and explain it. This volume covers the development of methodological individualism, including the individualist theory of society from Greek antiquity to modern social science. It is a comprehensive and systematic treatment of methodological individualism in all its manifestations.
     
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  26.  13
    Monadic Marxism: A Critique of Elster's Methodological Individualism.Douglas Moggach - 1991 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 21 (1):38-63.
    Elster's work unstably combines Leibnizian and utilitarian conceptions of action and offers various deconstructions of rationality and individuality. His method ological individualism gives an inadequate account of its privileged object, individual teleologies, and a distorted account of the relational framework of social reproduction and transformation. Elster has not properly conceptualized the relation of the teleological act to patterns of material and social causality, and his rational choice theory proves unable to accommodate the interactions of his postulated monadic individuals. His (...)
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  27.  54
    Marxism, Functionalism, and Game Theory: A Case for Methodological Individualism.Jon Elster - 2003 - In Derek Matravers & Jonathan E. Pike (eds.), Theory and Society. Routledge, in Association with the Open University. pp. 453.
  28. Group Selection and Methodological Individualism: A Criticism of Watkins.Edward Reed - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):256-262.
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  29.  5
    Methodological Individualism Vs. Collectivist Holism in Historical Explanation.Richard Eldridge - 2017 - History and Theory 56 (3):442-451.
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  30.  27
    Methodological Individualism.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    (1968 [1922]). It amounts to the claim that social phenomena must be explained by showing how they result from individual actions, which in turn must be explained through reference to the intentional states that motivate the individual actors. It involves, in other words, a commitment to the primacy of what Talcott Parsons would later call “the action frame of reference” (Parsons 1937: 43-51) in social-scientific explanation. It is also sometimes described as the claim that explanations of “macro” social phenomena must (...)
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  31.  18
    Searching for a Methodological Synthesis -Hayek's Individualism in the Light of Recent Holistic Criticism.Juergen Lange-Von Kulessa - 1997 - Journal of Economic Methodology 4 (2):267-287.
    This paper compares different strategies of analysing economic phe-nomena, namely individualism and holism. As it turns out, a main point for which methodological individualism is criticized is its supposed reductionism and the related arbitrariness of choosing individuals as a unit of explanation. The paper shows that there exists at least with F. A. Hayek an author who presents an evolutionary theory of economic and social change that avoids the reductionism of orthodox individualistic theory. According to Hayek, the (...)
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  32.  9
    Methodological Individualism and Deductive Marxism.John E. Roemer - 1982 - Theory and Society 11 (4):513.
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  33. Methodological Individualism and Methodological Socialism.Arthur C. Danto - 1962 - Filosofia 13 (4 Supplemento):626.
  34.  36
    A Note on Methodological Individualism.C. Mantzavinos - 2009 - In Mohamed Cherkaoui Peter Hamilton (ed.), Raymond Boudon. A Life in Sociology.
  35.  56
    The Principle of Methodological Individualism.J. W. N. Watkins - 1952 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (10):186-189.
  36.  27
    The Inadequacy of the Principle of Methodological Individualism.Leon J. Goldstein - 1956 - Journal of Philosophy 53 (25):801-813.
  37.  35
    Methodological Individualism and Marxism.Julius Sensat - 1988 - Economics and Philosophy 4 (2):189.
    Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of attempts to reconstruct Marxian theory in forms that can be assessed by reference to currently received standards in various disciplines. The work has even been said to establish a new paradigm: “analytical Marxism.” One doesn't have to endorse this claim to recognize a good deal of merit in the work. Through creative application of state-of-the-art methods to traditional Marxian issues, researchers have promoted productive cross-fertilization with non-Marxian programs and have revealed many problems (...)
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  38.  40
    Methodological Individualism: A Reply.J. W. N. Watkins - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (1):58-62.
  39.  8
    Methodological Individualism in Proper Perspective.Todd Jones - 1996 - Behavior and Philosophy 24 (2):119 - 128.
  40.  26
    The Two Theses of Methodological Individualism.J. W. N. Watkins - 1958 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (36):319-320.
  41.  22
    Marxism and Methodological Individualism.Jutta Weldes - 1989 - Theory and Society 18 (3):353-386.
  42.  26
    The Two Theses of Methodological Individualism.Leon J. Goldstein - 1958 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (33):1-11.
  43. Marxism and Methodological Individualism.Erik Olin Wright, Andrew Levine & Elliott Sober - 2003 - In Derek Matravers & Jonathan E. Pike (eds.), Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology. Routledge, in Association with the Open University.
     
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  44.  23
    15 Methodological Individualism and Economics.Harold Kincaid - 2004 - In John Bryan Davis & Alain Marciano (eds.), The Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy. Edward Elgar. pp. 299.
  45.  11
    Methodological Individualism and Institutional Individualism.Joseph Agassi - 1987 - In Joseph Agassi & I. C. Jarvie (eds.), Rationality: The Critical View. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 119--150.
  46.  24
    The Alleged Inadequacy of Methodological Individualism.J. W. N. Watkins - 1958 - Journal of Philosophy 55 (9):390-395.
  47. How Can We Increase the Fruitfulness of Popper's Methodological Individualism?Karl R. Popper - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (4):517-526.
  48.  36
    Methodological Individualism and Marx: Some Remarks on Jon Elster, Game Theory, and Other Things.Robert Paul Wolff - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):469 - 486.
  49.  42
    Some Notes on Methodological Individualism: Orthodox and Heterodox Views.Andy Denis - manuscript
    methodology both of neoclassical and Austrian economics, as well as other approaches, from New Keynesianism to analytical Marxism. Yet there is considerable controversy as to what the phrase means. Moreover, the methodologies of those to whom the theoretical practice of MI is ascribed differ profoundly on the status of the individual economic agent: economics.
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  50.  13
    Methodological Individualism and Reductionism in Biology.John Dupre - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (sup1):165-184.
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