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Michele Friend [38]Michèle Indira Friend [3]
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Michele Friend
George Washington University
  1. .Michèle Friend - 2013 - Les Cahiers D'Ithaque.
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  2.  23
    Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics.Michèle Friend - unknown
    The pluralist sheds the more traditional ideas of truth and ontology. This is dangerous, because it threatens instability of the theory. To lend stability to his philosophy, the pluralist trades truth and ontology for rigour and other ‘fixtures’. Fixtures are the steady goal posts. They are the parts of a theory that stay fixed across a pair of theories, and allow us to make translations and comparisons. They can ultimately be moved, but we tend to keep them fixed temporarily. Apart (...)
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  3.  52
    Confronting Ideals of Proof with the Ways of Proving of the Research Mathematician.Norma B. Goethe & Michèle Friend - 2010 - Studia Logica 96 (2):273-288.
    In this paper, we discuss the prevailing view amongst philosophers and many mathematicians concerning mathematical proof. Following Cellucci, we call the prevailing view the “axiomatic conception” of proof. The conception includes the ideas that: a proof is finite, it proceeds from axioms and it is the final word on the matter of the conclusion. This received view can be traced back to Frege, Hilbert and Gentzen, amongst others, and is prevalent in both mathematical text books and logic text books.
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  4.  53
    Distances Between Formal Theories.Michele Friend, Mohamed Khaled, Koen Lefever & Gergely Székely - unknown - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-20.
    In the literature, there have been several methods and definitions for working out if two theories are "equivalent" or not. In this article, we do something subtler. We provide means to measure distances between formal theories. We define two main notions for such distances. A natural definition is that of axiomatic distance, but we argue that it might be of limited interest. The more interesting and widely applicable definition is that of conceptual distance which measures the minimum number of concepts (...)
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  5.  11
    Pluralism and “Bad” Mathematical Theories: Challenging Our Prejudices.Michèle Friend - 2013 - In Francesco Berto, Edwin Mares, Koji Tanaka & Francesco Paoli (eds.), Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Springer. pp. 277--307.
  6.  96
    Book Review: Extensionalism: The Revolution in LogicBar-AmNimrodExtensionalism: The Revolution in LogicNew York: Springer, 2008. Xxii + 172 Pp. $129.00 . ISBN 978-1-4020-8167-5. [REVIEW]Michèle Friend - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):116-120.
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  7.  29
    On the Epistemological Significance of the Hungarian Project.Michèle Friend - 2015 - Synthese 192 (7):2035-2051.
    There are three elements in this paper. One is what we shall call ‘the Hungarian project’. This is the collected work of Andréka, Madarász, Németi, Székely and others. The second is Molinini’s philosophical work on the nature of mathematical explanations in science. The third is my pluralist approach to mathematics. The theses of this paper are that the Hungarian project gives genuine mathematical explanations for physical phenomena. A pluralist account of mathematical explanation can help us with appreciating the significance of (...)
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  8.  54
    Using Mathematics to Explain a Scientific Theory.Michèle Friend & Daniele Molinini - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (2):185-213.
    We answer three questions: 1. Can we give a wholly mathematical explanation of a physical phenomenon? 2. Can we give a wholly mathematical explanation for a whole physical theory? 3. What is gained or lost in giving a wholly, or partially, mathematical explanation of a phenomenon or a scientific theory? To answer these questions we look at a project developed by Hajnal Andréka, Judit Madarász, István Németi and Gergely Székely. They, together with collaborators, present special relativity theory in a three-sorted (...)
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  9. Introducing Philosophy of Mathematics.Michele Friend - 2007 - Routledge.
    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it (...)
     
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  10.  31
    Are Mathematicians Better Described as Formalists or Pluralists?Andrea Pedeferri & Michele Friend - 2011 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 9 (1):173-180.
    In this paper we try to convert the mathematician who calls himself, or herself, “a formalist” to a position we call “meth-odological pluralism”. We show how the actual practice of mathe-matics fits methodological pluralism better than formalism while preserving the attractive aspects of formalism of freedom and crea-tivity. Methodological pluralism is part of a larger, more general, pluralism, which is currently being developed as a position in the philosophy of mathematics in its own right.1 Having said that, henceforth, in this (...)
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  11.  14
    Keeping Globally Inconsistent Scientific Theories Locally Consistent.Michele Friend & María del Rosario Martínez-Ordaz - 2018 - In Walter Carnielli & Jacek Malinowski (eds.), Contradictions, from Consistency to Inconsistency. pp. 53-88.
    Most scientific theories are globally inconsistent. Chunk and Permeate is a method of rational reconstruction that can be used to separate, and identify, locally consistent chunks of reasoning or explanation. This then allows us to justify reasoning in a globally inconsistent theory. We extend chunk and permeate by adding a visually transparent way of guiding the individuation of chunks and deciding on what information permeates from one chunk to the next. The visual representation is in the form of bundle diagrams. (...)
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  12.  24
    Inconsistency in Mathematics and Inconsistency in Chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2017 - Humana Mente 10 (32):31-51.
    In this paper, I compare how it is that inconsistencies are handled in mathematics to how they are handled in chemistry. In mathematics, they are very precisely formulated and identified, unlike in chemistry. So the chemists can learn from the precision and the very well-worked out strategies developed by logicians and deployed by mathematicians to cope with inconsistency. Some lessons can also be learned by the mathematicians from the chemists. Mathematicians tend to be intolerant towards inconsistencies. There are some philosophers (...)
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  13.  38
    An Analysis of the Notion of Rigour in Proofs.Michele Friend & Andrea Pedeferri - 2011 - Logic and Philosophy of Science 9 (1):165-171.
    We are told that there are standards of rigour in proof, and we are told that the standards have increased over the centuries. This is fairly clear. But rigour has also changed its nature. In this paper we as-sess where these changes leave us today.1 To motivate making the new assessment, we give two illustra-tions of changes in our conception of rigour. One, concerns the shift from geometry to arithmetic as setting the standard for rig-our. The other, concerns the notion (...)
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  14.  2
    The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  15. Leigh S. Cauman, First-Order Logic, an Introduction Reviewed By.Michele Friend - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (4):240-244.
     
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  16. Paul Tomassi, Logic: How to Think Logically Reviewed By.Michele Friend - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (4):240-244.
     
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  17.  6
    Embracing the Crisis in the Foundations of Mathematics.Michèle Friend - 2013 - In . Les Cahiers D'Ithaque.
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  18. A Pluralist Approach to Proof in Mathematics.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  19. Conclusion.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  20. Erratum.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  21. Formalism and Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  22. From Structuralism to Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  23. Introduction.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  24. Leigh S. Cauman, First-Order Logic, an Introduction. [REVIEW]Michele Friend - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:240-244.
     
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  25. Mathematical Fixtures.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  26. Motivating Maddy’s Naturalist to Adopt Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  27. Pluralism and Together Incompatible Philosophies of Mathematics.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  28. Philosophical Presentation of Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  29. Paul Tomassi, Logic: How to Think Logically. [REVIEW]Michele Friend - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:240-244.
  30. Pluralism Towards Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  31. Rigour in Proof.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
  32. Suggestions for Further Pluralist Research.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  33. The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  34. The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
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  35. The Journey From Realism to Pluralism.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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  36. The Paradoxes of Tolerance and Transcendental Pluralist Paradoxes.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
  37. Using a Formal Theory of Logic Metaphorically.Michèle Friend - 2014 - In Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
     
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  38. Varieties of Pluralism and Objectivity in Mathematics.Michèle Friend - 2019 - In Deniz Sarikaya, Deborah Kant & Stefania Centrone (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
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