Results for 'Michael A. Nielsen'

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  1.  77
    Book Review: By Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000, I–Xxv+ 676 Pp., $42.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW]Stanley P. Gudder - 2001 - Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1665-1667.
  2.  11
    Quantum Computation and Quantum Information.Michael A. Nielsen & Isaac L. Chuang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    First-ever comprehensive introduction to the major new subject of quantum computing and quantum information.
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  3.  35
    Book Review: Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. By Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2000, I–Xxv+676 Pp., $42.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW]Stanley P. Gudder - 2001 - Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1665-1667.
  4.  31
    Perception of Ensemble Statistics Requires Attention.Molly Jackson-Nielsen, Michael A. Cohen & Michael A. Pitts - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 48:149-160.
  5.  3
    The Societal Readiness Thinking Tool: A Practical Resource for Maturing the Societal Readiness of Research Projects.Michael J. Bernstein, Mathias Wullum Nielsen, Emil Alnor, André Brasil, Astrid Lykke Birkving, Tung Tung Chan, Erich Griessler, Stefan de Jong, Wouter van de Klippe, Ingeborg Meijer, Emad Yaghmaei, Peter Busch Nicolaisen, Mika Nieminen, Peter Novitzky & Niels Mejlgaard - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-32.
    In this paper, we introduce the Societal Readiness Thinking Tool to aid researchers and innovators in developing research projects with greater responsiveness to societal values, needs, and expectations. The need for societally-focused approaches to research and innovation—complementary to Technology Readiness frameworks—is presented. Insights from responsible research and innovation concepts and practice, organized across critical stages of project-life cycles are discussed with reference to the development of the SR Thinking Tool. The tool is designed to complement not only shortfalls in TR (...)
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  6.  25
    Comprehension and Engagement in Survey Interviews with Virtual Agents.Frederick G. Conrad, Michael F. Schober, Matt Jans, Rachel A. Orlowski, Daniel Nielsen & Rachel Levenstein - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  7. The Mind, the Lab, and the Field: Three Kinds of Populations in Scientific Practice.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Ryan Giordano, Michael D. Edge & Rasmus Nielsen - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:12-21.
    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R.A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion (...)
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  8. German Sports, Doping, and Politics: A History of Performance Enhancement.Michael Krüger, Christian Becker & Stefan Nielsen - 2015 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book examines doping in Germany, with primary attention given to West Germany, from 1950 to the present, including what societal, cultural, and institutional pressures arose after WWII to bring about such prevalence of doping in the country.
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  9. Persistent Disagreement and Polarization in a Bayesian Setting.Michael Nielsen & Rush T. Stewart - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (1):51-78.
    For two ideally rational agents, does learning a finite amount of shared evidence necessitate agreement? No. But does it at least guard against belief polarization, the case in which their opinions get further apart? No. OK, but are rational agents guaranteed to avoid polarization if they have access to an infinite, increasing stream of shared evidence? No.
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  10.  52
    Sleeping Beauty: A New Problem for Halfers.Michael Nielsen - manuscript
    I argue against the halfer response to the Sleeping Beauty case by presenting a new problem for halfers. When the original Sleeping Beauty case is generalized, it follows from the halfer’s key premise that Beauty must update her credence in a fair coin’s landing heads in such a way that it becomes arbitrarily close to certainty. This result is clearly absurd. I go on to argue that the halfer’s key premise must be rejected on pain of absurdity, leaving the halfer (...)
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  11. Accuracy and Probabilism in Infinite Domains.Michael Nielsen - forthcoming - Mind.
    The best accuracy arguments for probabilism apply only to credence functions with finite domains, that is, credence functions that assign credence to at most finitely many propositions. This is a significant limitation. It reveals that the support for the accuracy-first program in epistemology is a lot weaker than it seems at first glance, and it means that accuracy arguments cannot yet accomplish everything that their competitors, the pragmatic (Dutch book) arguments, can. In this paper, I investigate the extent to which (...)
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  12. A Harder Dilemma for Partial Subjunctive Supposition.Michael Nielsen - forthcoming - Analysis.
    This article strengthens a dilemma posed by Eva and Hartmann. They show that accounts of partial subjunctive supposition based on imaging sometimes violate a natural monotonicity condition. The paper develops a more general framework for modelling partial supposition and shows that, in this framework, imaging-based accounts of partial subjunctive supposition always violate monotonicity. In fact, the only account of partial supposition that satisfies monotonicity is the one that Eva and Hartmann defend for indicative suppositions. Insofar as one is committed to (...)
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  13.  42
    Kolmogorov Conditionalization, A New Argument For.Michael Nielsen - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-16.
    This paper contributes to a recent research program that extends arguments supporting elementary conditionalization to arguments supporting conditionalization with general, measure-theoretic conditional probabilities. I begin by suggesting an amendment to the framework that Rescorla (2018) has used to characterize regular conditional probabilities in terms of avoiding Dutch book. If we wish to model learning scenarios in which an agent gains complete membership knowledge about some subcollection of the events of interest to her, then we should focus on updating policies that (...)
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  14. Accuracy-dominance and conditionalization.Michael Nielsen - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (10):3217-3236.
    Epistemic decision theory produces arguments with both normative and mathematical premises. I begin by arguing that philosophers should care about whether the mathematical premises (1) are true, (2) are strong, and (3) admit simple proofs. I then discuss a theorem that Briggs and Pettigrew (2020) use as a premise in a novel accuracy-dominance argument for conditionalization. I argue that the theorem and its proof can be improved in a number of ways. First, I present a counterexample that shows that one (...)
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  15. On the Best Accuracy Arguments for Probabilism.Michael Nielsen - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (3):621-630.
    In a recent paper, Pettigrew reports a generalization of the celebrated accuracy-dominance theorem due to Predd et al., but Pettigrew’s proof is incorrect. I will explain the mistakes and provide a correct proof.
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  16. Obligation, Permission, and Bayesian Orgulity.Michael Nielsen & Rush T. Stewart - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    This essay has two aims. The first is to correct an increasingly popular way of misunderstanding Belot's Orgulity Argument. The Orgulity Argument charges Bayesianism with defect as a normative epistemology. For concreteness, our argument focuses on Cisewski et al.'s recent rejoinder to Belot. The conditions that underwrite their version of the argument are too strong and Belot does not endorse them on our reading. A more compelling version of the Orgulity Argument than Cisewski et al. present is available, however---a point (...)
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  17.  81
    Voodoo Dolls and Angry Lions: How Emotions Explain Arational Actions.Andrea Scarantino & Michael Nielsen - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (11):2975-2998.
    Hursthouse :57–68, 1991) argues that arational actions—e.g. kicking a door out of anger—cannot be explained by belief–desire pairs. The Humean Response to Hursthouse :25–38, 2000b) defends the Humean model from Hursthouse’s challenge. We argue that the Humean Response fails because belief–desire pairs are neither necessary nor sufficient for causing emotional actions. The Emotionist Response is to embrace Hursthouse’s conclusion that emotions provide an independent source of explanation for intentional actions. We consider Döring’s :214–230, 2003) feeling-based Emotionist account and argue that (...)
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  18.  31
    Deterministic Convergence and Strong Regularity.Michael Nielsen - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (4):1461-1491.
    Bayesians since Savage (1972) have appealed to asymptotic results to counter charges of excessive subjectivity. Their claim is that objectionable differences in prior probability judgments will vanish as agents learn from evidence, and individual agents will converge to the truth. Glymour (1980), Earman (1992) and others have voiced the complaint that the theorems used to support these claims tell us, not how probabilities updated on evidence will actually}behave in the limit, but merely how Bayesian agents believe they will behave, suggesting (...)
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  19.  18
    Generalized Learning and Conditional Expectation.Simon M. Huttegger & Michael Nielsen - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):868-883.
    Reflection and martingale principles are central to models of rational learning. They can be justified in a variety of ways. In what follows we study martingale and reflection principles in the con...
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  20. Another Approach to Consensus and Maximally Informed Opinions with Increasing Evidence.Rush T. Stewart & Michael Nielsen - 2018 - Philosophy of Science (2):236-254.
    Merging of opinions results underwrite Bayesian rejoinders to complaints about the subjective nature of personal probability. Such results establish that sufficiently similar priors achieve consensus in the long run when fed the same increasing stream of evidence. Initial subjectivity, the line goes, is of mere transient significance, giving way to intersubjective agreement eventually. Here, we establish a merging result for sets of probability measures that are updated by Jeffrey conditioning. This generalizes a number of different merging results in the literature. (...)
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  21. Speed-Optimal Induction and Dynamic Coherence.Michael Nielsen & Eric Wofsey - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (2):439-455.
    A standard way to challenge convergence-based accounts of inductive success is to claim that they are too weak to constrain inductive inferences in the short run. We respond to such a challenge by answering some questions raised by Juhl (1994). When it comes to predicting limiting relative frequencies in the framework of Reichenbach, we show that speed-optimal convergence—a long-run success condition—induces dynamic coherence in the short run.
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  22.  25
    On Linear Aggregation of Infinitely Many Finitely Additive Probability Measures.Michael Nielsen - 2019 - Theory and Decision 86 (3-4):421-436.
    We discuss Herzberg’s :319–337, 2015) treatment of linear aggregation for profiles of infinitely many finitely additive probabilities and suggest a natural alternative to his definition of linear continuous aggregation functions. We then prove generalizations of well-known characterization results due to :410–414, 1981). We also characterize linear aggregation of probabilities in terms of a Pareto condition, de Finetti’s notion of coherence, and convexity.
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  23. Conglomerability, Disintegrability and the Comparative Principle.Rush T. Stewart & Michael Nielsen - 2021 - Analysis 81 (3):479-488.
    Our aim here is to present a result that connects some approaches to justifying countable additivity. This result allows us to better understand the force of a recent argument for countable additivity due to Easwaran. We have two main points. First, Easwaran’s argument in favour of countable additivity should have little persuasive force on those permissive probabilists who have already made their peace with violations of conglomerability. As our result shows, Easwaran’s main premiss – the comparative principle – is strictly (...)
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  24.  37
    Convergence to the Truth Without Countable Additivity.Michael Nielsen - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (2):395-414.
    Must probabilities be countably additive? On the one hand, arguably, requiring countable additivity is too restrictive. As de Finetti pointed out, there are situations in which it is reasonable to use merely finitely additive probabilities. On the other hand, countable additivity is fruitful. It can be used to prove deep mathematical theorems that do not follow from finite additivity alone. One of the most philosophically important examples of such a result is the Bayesian convergence to the truth theorem, which says (...)
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  25.  16
    The Strength of de Finetti’s Coherence Theorem.Michael Nielsen - 2020 - Synthese 198 (12):11713-11724.
    I show that de Finetti’s coherence theorem is equivalent to the Hahn-Banach theorem and discuss some consequences of this result. First, the result unites two aspects of de Finetti’s thought in a nice way: a corollary of the result is that the coherence theorem implies the existence of a fair countable lottery, which de Finetti appealed to in his arguments against countable additivity. Another corollary of the result is the existence of sets that are not Lebesgue measurable. I offer a (...)
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  26.  21
    Opinions Regarding Polygamy Among LDS Church Members: Demographic Predictors.Michael Nielsen - 2009 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (2):261-270.
    People's opinions toward polygamy were examined in a study of 1369 adults who were current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Questions addressed several areas: polygamy and the law, respondents' perceptions of polygamous women, the potential link between legalizing gay marriage and legalizing polygamy, polygamists' reliance on social welfare programs, and the ability of teens raised in polygamy to leave that lifestyle. Consistent with the contact hypothesis, multiple regression analyses showed that people who knew (...)
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  27.  32
    Philosophy Imprisoned: The Love of Wisdom in the Age of Mass Incarceration (Book Chapter).Eric Anthamatten, Anders Benander, Natalie Cisneros, Michael DeWilde, Vincent Greco, Timothy Greenlee, Spoon Jackson, Arlando Jones, Drew Leder, Chris Lenn, John Douglas Macready, Lisa McLeod, William Muth, Cynthia Nielsen, Aislinn O’Donnell & Andre Pierce - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Western philosophy’s relationship with prisons stretches from Plato’s own incarceration to the modern era of mass incarceration. Philosophy Imprisoned: The Love of Wisdom in the Age of Mass Incarceration draws together a broad range of philosophical thinkers, from both inside and outside prison walls, in the United States and beyond, who draw on a variety of critical perspectives (including phenomenology, deconstruction, and feminist theory) and historical and contemporary figures in philosophy (including Kant, Hegel, Foucault, and Angela Davis) to think about (...)
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  28.  48
    Opening the Doors of Perception: Priming Altered States of Consciousness Outside of Conscious Awareness.Brandon Randolph-Seng & Michael E. Nielsen - 2009 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (2):237-260.
    Two studies are reported in which participants’ reports of altered states of consciousness were manipulated using priming methods. Study 1 used both subtle and blunt supraliminal priming methods, while Study 2 used a subliminal priming method. Across the two studies, two different methods for inducing ASC were used. In both studies a direct and an indirect measure of ASC was employed in order to separate the more nonconscious and spontaneous from the more conscious and directive reports of ASC. As predicted, (...)
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  29.  23
    Experiences and Attitudes Towards End‐of‐Life Decisions Amongst Danish Physicians.Anna P. Folker, Nils Holtug, Annette B. Jensen, Klemens Kappel, Jesper K. Nielsen & Michael Norup - 1996 - Bioethics 10 (3):233-249.
    In this survey we have investigated the experiences and attitudes of Danish physicians regarding end-of-life decisions. Most respondents have made decisions that involve hastening the death of a patient, and almost all find it acceptable to do so. Such decisions are made more often, and considered ethically more acceptable, with the informed consent of the patient than without. But both non-resuscitation decisions, and decisions to provide pain relief in doses that will shorten the patient's life, have been made and found (...)
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  30.  2
    Educational Philosophy and Politics: The Selected Works of Michael A. Peters.Michael A. Peters - 2012 - Routlede.
    Introduction: education, philosophy and politics -- Writing the self: Wittgenstein, confession and pedagogy -- Nietzsche, nihilism and the critique of modernity: post-Nietzschean philosophy of education -- Heidegger, education and modernity -- Truth-telling as an educational practice of the self: Foucault and the ethics of subjectivity -- Neoliberal governmentality: Foucault on the birth of biopolitics -- Lyotard, nihilism and education -- Gilles Deleuze's 'societies of control': from disciplinary pedagogy to perpetual training -- Geophilosophy, education and the pedagogy of the concept - (...)
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  31. Dirtying Aristotle's Hands? Aristotle's Analysis of 'Mixed Acts' in the Nicomachean Ethics III, 1.Karen Nielsen - 2007 - Phronesis 52 (3):270-300.
    The analysis of 'mixed acts' in Nicomachean Ethics III, 1 has led scholars to attribute a theory of 'dirty hands' and 'impossible oughts' to Aristode. Michael Stocker argues that Aristode recognizes particular acts that are simultaneously 'right, even obligatory', but nevertheless 'wrong, shameful and the like'. And Martha Nussbaum commends Aristotle for not sympathizing 'with those who, in politics or in private affairs, would so shrink from blame and from unacceptable action that they would be unable to take a (...)
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  32.  31
    Should We Equalize Status in Order to Equalize Health?M. E. J. Nielsen, X. Landes & M. M. Andersen - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (1):104-113.
    If it is true, as suggested by Sir Michael Marmot and other researchers, that status impacts health and therefore accounts for some of the social gradient in health, then it seems to be the case that it would be possible to bring about more equality in health by equalizing status. The purpose of this article is to analyze this suggestion. First, we suggest a working definition of what status precisely is. Second, following a luck egalitarian approach to distributive justice, (...)
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  33.  13
    Underlabouring in Empire.Peter Nielsen - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (1):53-83.
    Is the work of Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri compatible with critical realism? In this article I argue that their book Empire is not, whereas Multitude is. Critical realists should be interested in this question because the passage from Empire to Multitude can be reconstructed as a case of critical realist underlabouring and, as such, exemplifies an openness to critique and changing political circumstances that critical realists prescribe for themselves but unfortunately tend in practice to ignore. Highlighting the concepts (...)
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  34.  53
    Dream Research: Integration of Physiological and Psychological Models.Michael Schredl - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1001-1003.
    All five target articles are of high quality and very stimulating for the field. Several factors such as dream report length and NREM/REM differences, may be affected by the waking process (transition from sleep to wakefulness) and the recall process. It is helpful to distinguish between a model for REM sleep regulation and a physiological model for dreaming. A third model accounting for cognitive activity (thought-like dreaming) can also be of value. The postulated adaptive function of dreaming in avoidance learning (...)
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  35.  44
    James D. Marshall: Philosopher of Education Interview with Michael A. Peters.Michael A. Peters - 2005 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (3):291–297.
  36.  5
    Review: Harry A. Nielsen, Language as Existent. [REVIEW]Alonzo Church - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):118-118.
  37.  32
    Music Performance As an Experimental Approach to Hyperscanning Studies.Michaël A. S. Acquadro, Marco Congedo & Dirk De Riddeer - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  38. Mind Unmasked: A Political Phenomenology of Consciousness.Michael A. Weinstein & Timothy M. Yetman - 2017 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    The human mind has proven uniquely capable of unraveling untold mysteries, and yet, the mind is fundamentally challenged when it turns back on itself to ask what it itself is. How do we conceive of mind in this postmodern world; how can we use philosophical anthropology to understand mind and its functions? While philosophers and social scientists have made important contributions to our understanding of mind, existing theories are insufficient for penetrating the complexities of mind in the twenty-first century. Mind (...)
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  39. What is a Theory of Meaning?Michael A. E. Dummett - 1975 - In Samuel Guttenplan (ed.), Mind and Language. Oxford University Press.
  40.  23
    Neural Expectations: A Possible Evolutionary Path From Manual Skills to Language.Michael A. Arbib & Giacomo Rizzolatti - forthcoming - Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal.
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  41.  95
    A Theory of Freedom and Responsibility.Michael A. Smith - 1997 - In Garrett Cullity & Berys Gaut (eds.), Ethics and Practical Reason. Oxford University Press. pp. 293-317.
  42.  62
    Michael A. Smith.Michael Ridge - unknown
    Back in the bad old days, it was easy enough to spot non-cognitivists. They pressed radical doctrines with considerable bravado. Intoxicated by the apparent implications of logical positivism, early noncognitivsts would say things like, "in saying that a certain type of action is right or wrong, I am not making any factual statement..." (Ayer 1936: 107) Like most rebellious youths, non-cognitivism eventually grew up. Later non-cognitivists developed the position into a more subtle doctrine, no longer committed to the revisionary doctrines (...)
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  43. H. A. NIELSEN, "Where the Passion Is:A Reading of Kierkegaard's" Philosophical Fragments. [REVIEW]Alastair Mckinnon - 1986 - Dialogue 25 (4):786.
     
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  44. Schemas Versus Symbols: A Vision From the 90s.Michael A. Arbib - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (1):68-74.
    Thirty years ago, I elaborated on a position that could be seen as a compromise between an "extreme," symbol-based AI, and a "neurochemical reductionism" in AI. The present article recalls aspects of the espoused framework of schema theory that, it suggested, could provide a better bridge from human psychology to brain theory than that offered by the symbol systems of A. Newell and H. A. Simon.
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  45.  69
    The Construction of Reality.Michael A. Arbib & Mary B. Hesse - 1986 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Michael Arbib, a researcher in artificial intelligence and brain theory, joins forces with Mary Hesse, a philosopher of science, to present an integrated account of how humans 'construct' reality through interaction with the social and physical world around them. The book is a major expansion of the Gifford Lectures delivered by the authors at the University of Edinburgh in the autumn of 1983. The authors reconcile a theory of the individual's construction of reality as a network (...)
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  46. Derrida as a Profound Humanist.Michael A. Peters - 2009 - In Derrida, Deconstruction, and the Politics of Pedagogy. Peter Lang.
     
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  47.  2
    Wittgenstein and Psychology a Practical Guide.Rom Harré & Michael A. Tissaw - 2005 - Ashgate Publishing.
    The philosophy of Wittgenstein is an unrivalled guide to the labyrinth of misleading pictures and intellectual illusions to which we are all prone, particularly when we try to think clearly about the topics that comprise the field of psychology. Wittgenstein and Psychology: A Practical Guide is a textbook exposition of Wittgenstein's insights to a scientific psychology. This book both introduces psychology students to the role and value of philosophical studies and enables philosophy students to see how Wittgenstein's insights reach out (...)
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  48.  47
    H. A. Nielsen. Linguistic Analysis. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Prepared by an Editorial Staff at the Catholic University of America, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York Etc. 1967, Vol. 8, Pp. 773–775. [REVIEW]Alonzo Church - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):596-596.
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  49. Early Social Interaction: A Case Comparison of Developmental Pragmatics and Psychoanalytic Theory.Michael A. Forrester - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    When a young child begins to engage in everyday interaction, she has to acquire competencies that allow her to be oriented to the conventions that inform talk-in-interaction and, at the same time, deal with emotional or affective dimensions of experience. The theoretical positions associated with these domains - social-action and emotion - provide very different accounts of human development and this book examines why this is the case. Through a longitudinal video-recorded study of one child learning how to talk, (...) A. Forrester develops proposals that rest upon a comparison of two perspectives on everyday parent-child interaction taken from the same data corpus - one informed by conversation analysis and ethnomethodology, the other by psychoanalytic developmental psychology. Ultimately, what is significant for attaining membership within any culture is gradually being able to display an orientation towards both domains - doing and feeling, or social-action and affect. (shrink)
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  50.  3
    Montesquieu's Science of Politics: Essays on the Spirit of Laws.Cecil Courtney, Paul A. Rahe Michael A. Mosher Sharon Krause, Rebecca E. Kingston, Catherine Larrere & Iris Cox (eds.) - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In what constitutes the only English-language collection of essays ever dedicated to the analysis of Montesquieu's contributions to political science, the contributors review some of the most vexing controversies that have arisen in the interpretation of Montesquieu's thought. By paying careful attention to the historical, political, and philosophical contexts of Montesquieu's ideas, the contributors provide fresh readings of The Spirit of Laws, clarify the goals and ambitions of its author, and point out the pertinence of his thinking to the problems (...)
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