57 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Michael Bergmann [57]Michael Abram Bergmann [1]
  1. Justification Without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism.Michael Bergmann - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence. Or perhaps it must be reliably formed. Or perhaps there are some other "good-making" features it must have. But does a belief's justification also require some sort of awareness of its good-making features? The answer to this question has been hotly contested in contemporary epistemology, creating a deep divide among its practitioners. Internalists, who tend to focus (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   105 citations  
  2. Defeaters and Higher-Level Requirements.Michael Bergmann - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):419–436.
    Internalists tend to impose on justification higher-level requirements, according to which a belief is justified only if the subject has a higher-level belief (i.e., a belief about the epistemic credentials of a belief). I offer an error theory that explains the appeal of this requirement: analytically, a belief is not justified if we have a defeater for it, but contingently, it is often the case that to avoid having defeaters, our beliefs must satisfy a higher-level requirement. I respond to the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   36 citations  
  3. Epistemic Circularity: Malignant and Benign.Michael Bergmann - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):709–727.
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   33 citations  
  4. Skeptical Theism and Rowe's New Evidential Argument From Evil.Michael Bergmann - 2001 - Noûs 35 (2):278–296.
    Skeptical theists endorse the skeptical thesis (which is consistent with the rejection of theism) that we have no good reason for thinking the possible goods we know of are representative of the possible goods there are. In his newest formulation of the evidential arguments from evil, William Rowe tries to avoid assuming the falsity of this skeptical thesis, presumably because it seems so plausible. I argue that his new argument fails to avoid doing this. Then I defend that skeptical thesis (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   34 citations  
  5. Rational Disagreement After Full Disclosure.Michael Bergmann - 2009 - Episteme 6 (3):336-353.
    The question I consider is this: The Question: Can two people – who are, and realize they are, intellectually virtuous to about the same degree – both be rational in continuing knowingly to disagree after full disclosure (by each to the other of all the relevant evidence they can think of) while at the same time thinking that the other may well be rational too? I distinguish two kinds of rationality – internal and external – and argue in section 1 (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  6. In Defence of Sceptical Theism: A Reply to Almeida and Oppy.Michael Bergmann & Michael C. Rea - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):241 – 251.
    Some evidential arguments from evil rely on an inference of the following sort: 'If, after thinking hard, we can't think of any God-justifying reason for permitting some horrific evil then it is likely that there is no such reason'. Sceptical theists, us included, say that this inference is not a good one and that evidential arguments from evil that depend on it are, as a result, unsound. Michael Almeida and Graham Oppy have argued (in a previous issue of this journal) (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  7. Internalism, Externalism and the No-Defeater Condition.Michael Bergmann - 1997 - Synthese 110 (3):399-417.
    Despite various attempts to rectify matters, the internalism-externalism (I-E) debate in epistemology remains mired in serious confusion. I present a new account of this debate, one which fits well with entrenched views on the I-E distinction and illuminates the fundamental disagreements at the heart of the debate. Roughly speaking, the I-E debate is over whether or not certain of the necessary conditions of positive epistemic status are internal. But what is the sense of internal here? And of which conditions of (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   23 citations  
  8.  35
    Phenomenal Conservatism and the Dilemma for Internalism.Michael Bergmann - 2013 - In Chris Tucker (ed.), Seemings and Justification: New Essays on Dogmatism and Phenomenal Conservatism. Oup Usa. pp. 154.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  9. Externalist Justification and the Role of Seemings.Michael Bergmann - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 166 (1):163-184.
    It’s not implausible to think that whenever I have a justified noninferential belief that p, it is caused by a seeming that p. It’s also tempting to think that something contributes to the justification of my belief only if I hold my belief because of that thing. Thus, given that many of our noninferential beliefs are justified and that we hold them because of seemings, one might be inclined to hold a view like Phenomenal Conservatism, according to which seemings play (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  10. A Theistic Argument Against Platonism (and in Support of Truthmakers and Divine Simplicity).Michael Bergmann & Jeffrey E. Brower - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 2:357-386.
    Predication is an indisputable part of our linguistic behavior. By contrast, the metaphysics of predication has been a matter of dispute ever since antiquity. According to Plato—or at least Platonism, the view that goes by Plato’s name in contemporary philosophy—the truths expressed by predications such as “Socrates is wise” are true because there is a subject of predication (e.g., Socrates), there is an abstract property or universal (e.g., wisdom), and the subject exemplifies the property.1 This view is supposed to be (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  11. (Serious) Actualism and (Serious) Presentism.Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Noûs 33 (1):118-132.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  12. Is Klein an Infinitist About Doxastic Justification?Michael Bergmann - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 134 (1):19 - 24.
    This paper is a response to Peter Klein's "Human Knowledge and the Infinite Progress of Reasoning". After briefly discussing what Klein says about the requirement, for doxastic justification, that a belief be formed in the right way, I'll make the following three points: Klein's solution to the regress problem isn't an infinitist solution, Klein's position on doxastic justification faces a troubling dilemma, and Klein's objection to foundationalism fails.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  13. What's NOT Wrong with Foundationalism.Michael Bergmann - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (1):161–165.
    One thing all forms of foundationalism have in common is that they hold that a belief can be justified noninferentially--i.e., that its justification need not depend on its being inferred from some other justified (or unjustified) belief. In some recent publications, Peter Klein argues that in virtue of having this feature, all forms of foundationalism are infected with an unacceptable arbitrariness that makes it irrational to be a practicing foundationalist. In this paper, I will explain why his objections to foundationalism (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  14. Externalism and Skepticism.Michael Bergmann - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):159-194.
  15. Rational Religious Belief Without Arguments.Michael Bergmann - 2012 - In Louis Pojman & Michael Rea (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Wadsworth. pp. 534-549.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  16. A New Argument From Actualism to Serious Actualism.Michael Bergmann - 1996 - Noûs 30 (3):356-359.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  17.  90
    Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution.Michael Bergmann & Patrick Kain (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief contains fourteen original essays by philosophers, theologians, and social scientists on challenges to moral and religious belief from disagreement and evolution. Three main questions are addressed: Can one reasonably maintain one's moral and religious beliefs in the face of interpersonal disagreement with intellectual peers? Does disagreement about morality between a religious belief source, such as a sacred text, and a non-religious belief source, such as a society's moral intuitions, make it irrational to continue trusting (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  18.  57
    BonJour's Dilemma. [REVIEW]Michael Bergmann - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):679 - 693.
    No categories
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  19. Divine Responsibility Without Divine Freedom.Michael Bergmann & J. A. Cover - 2006 - Faith and Philosophy 23 (4):381-408.
    Adherents of traditional western Theism have espoused CONJUNCTION: God is essentially perfectly good and God is thankworthy for the good acts he performs . But suppose that (i) God’s essential perfect goodness prevents his good acts from being free, and that (ii) God is not thankworthy for an act that wasn’t freely performed.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  20. Reply to Rowe.Daniel Howard-Snyder & Michael Bergmann - 2003 - In Michael Peterson (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell.
    Preprinted in God and the Problem of Evil (Blackwell 2001), ed. William Rowe. In this article, we reply to Bill Rowe's "Evil is Evidence Against Theistic Belief" in Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion (Blackwell 2003).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  50
    Externalist Justification Without Reliability.Michael Bergmann - 2004 - Philosophical Issues 14 (1):35–60.
  22. Grounds for Belief in God Aside, Does Evil Make Atheism More Reasonable Than Theism?Daniel Howard-Snyder & Michael Bergmann - 2003 - In Michael Peterson & Raymond Van Arrogan (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell. pp. 140--55.
    Preprinted in God and the Problem of Evil(Blackwell 2001), ed. William Rowe. Many people deny that evil makes belief in atheism more reasonable for us than belief in theism. After all, they say, the grounds for belief in God are much better than the evidence for atheism, including the evidence provided by evil. We will not join their ranks on this occasion. Rather, we wish to consider the proposition that, setting aside grounds for belief in God and relying only on (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  77
    Deontology and Defeat.Michael Bergmann - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):87-102.
    It is currently fashionable to hold that deontology induces internalism. That is, those who think that epistemic justification is essentially a matter of duty fulfillment are thought to have a good reason for accepting internalism in epistemology. I shall argue that no deontological conception of epistemic justification provides a good reason for endorsing internalism. My main contention is that a requirement having to do with epistemic defeat---a requirement that many externalists impose on knowledge---guarantees the only sorts of deontological justification that (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  24.  77
    Reidian Externalism.Michael Bergmann - 2008 - In Vincent Hendricks (ed.), New Waves in Epistemology. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    What distinguishes Reidian externalism from other versions of epistemic externalism about justification is its proper functionalism and its commonsensism, both of which are inspired by the 18th century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid. Its proper functionalism is a particular analysis of justification; its commonsensism is a certain thesis about what we are noninferentially justified in believing.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  25.  71
    Epistemic Circularity and Common Sense: A Reply to Reed.Michael Bergmann - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (1):198-207.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  26.  49
    Skeptical Theism and the Problem of Evil.Michael Bergmann - 2008 - In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 374--99.
    The most interesting thing about sceptical theism is its sceptical component. When sceptical theists use that component in responding to arguments from evil, they think it is reasonable for their non-theistic interlocutors to accept it, even if they don't expect them to accept their theism. This article focuses on that sceptical component. The first section explains more precisely what the sceptical theist's scepticism amounts to and how it is used in response to various sorts of arguments from evil. The next (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  27.  78
    The God of Eth and the God of Earth.Michael Bergmann & Jeffrey E. Brower - 2007 - Think 5 (14):33-38.
    Stephen Law has recently argued (Think 9), using a dialogue set on the fictional planet Eth, that traditional belief in God is . Bergmann and Brower argue that theists on Earth should not be convinced.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  32
    Externalist Responses to Skepticism.Michael Bergmann - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford Handbook on Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 504--32.
  29.  47
    Molinist Frankfurt-Style Counterexamples and the Free Will Defense.Michael Bergmann - 2002 - Faith and Philosophy 19 (4):462-478.
  30.  37
    Might-Counterfactuals, Transworld Untrustworthiness and Plantinga's Free Will Defence.Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):336-351.
    Plantinga’s Free Will Defense (FWD) employs the following proposition as a premise:◊TD. Possibly, every essence is transworld depraved.I argue that he fails to establish his intended conclusion because the denial of ◊TD is epistemically possible. I then consider an improved version of the FWD which relies on◊TU. Possibly, every essence is transworld untrustworthy.(The notion of transworld untrustworthiness is the might-counterfactual counterpart to Plantinga’s would-counterfactual notion of transworld depravity.) I argue that the denial of ◊TU is also epistemically possible and, therefore, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  31.  38
    Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Overview and Future Directions.Michael Bergmann & Patrick Kain - 2014 - In Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution.
  32. An Exchange on the Problem of Evil.Daniel Howard-Snyder, Michael Bergmann & William Rowe - 2001 - In William L. Rowe (ed.), God and the Problem of Evil. Blackwell. pp. 124--158.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  60
    Agent Causation and Responsibility.Michael Bergmann - 2003 - Faith and Philosophy 20 (2):229-235.
  34.  23
    Evidentialism and the Great Pumpkin Objection.Michael Bergmann - 2011 - In Trent Dougherty (ed.), Evidentialism and its Discontents. Oxford University Press. pp. 123.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  45
    Faith with Reason. Paul Helm.Michael Bergmann - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):771-774.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36.  17
    God and Inscrutable Evil.Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (4):562-569.
  37. Deontology and Defeat.Michael Bergmann - 2000 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):87-102.
    It is currently fashionable to hold that deontology induces internalism. That is, those who think that epistemic justification is essentially a matter of duty fulfillment are thought to have a good reason for accepting internalism in epistemology. I shall argue that no deontological conception of epistemic justification provides a good reason for endorsing internalism. My main contention is that a requirement having to do with epistemic defeat-a requirement that many externalists impose on knowledge-guarantees the only sorts of deontological justification that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  38.  29
    Putting Skeptics in Their Place.Michael Bergmann - 2001 - International Philosophical Quarterly 41 (4):484-486.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  21
    Epistemic Justification.Michael Bergmann - 2004 - Philosophical Review 113 (3):435-437.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  17
    Evil and the Evidence for God.Michael Bergmann - 1996 - Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):436-441.
  41.  18
    Review: Bonjour's Dilemma. [REVIEW]Michael Bergmann - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):679 - 693.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  1
    Deontology and Defeat.Michael Bergmann - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):87-102.
    It is currently fashionable to hold that deontology induces internalism. That is, those who think that epistemic justification is essentially a matter of duty fulfillment are thought to have a good reason for accepting internalism in epistemology. I shall argue that no deontological conception of epistemic justification provides a good reason for endorsing internalism. My main contention is that a requirement having to do with epistemic defeat---a requirement that many externalists impose on knowledge---guarantees the only sorts of deontological justification that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Temporal Parts Unmotivated Michael С Rea.Darren Belousek Balashov, Michael Bergmann & J. B. Hud Hudson - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (2):225-260.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. Agent Causation and Responsibility: A Reply to Flint.Michael Bergmann - 2003 - Faith and Philosophy 20 (2):229-235.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Bonjour’s Dilemma.Michael Bergmann - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):679-693.
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Book Review. [REVIEW]Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Philosophia Christi 1 (2):140-141.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  9
    Divine Evil?: The Moral Character of the God of Abraham.Michael Bergmann, Michael J. Murray & Michael C. Rea (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Adherents of the Abrahamic religions have traditionally held that God is morally perfect and unconditionally deserving of devotion, obedience, love, and worship. The Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scriptures tell us that God is compassionate, merciful, and just. As is well-known, however, these same scriptures contain passages that portray God as wrathful, severely punitive, and jealous. Critics furthermore argue that the God of these scriptures commends bigotry, misogyny, and homophobia, condones slavery, and demands the adoption of unjust laws-for example, laws that (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Externalism and Skepticism.Michael Bergmann - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):159.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Evil and the Evidence for God: The Challenge of John Hick’s Theodicy. [REVIEW]Michael Bergmann - 1996 - Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):436-441.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Epistemic Circularity: Malignant and Benign.Michael Bergmann - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):709-727.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 57