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Michael Brownstein [21]Michael J. Brownstein [1]Michael C. Brownstein [1]
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Michael Brownstein
John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY)
  1.  8
    Implicit Bias.Michael Brownstein - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    “Implicit bias” is a term of art referring to relatively unconscious and relatively automatic features of prejudiced judgment and social behavior. While psychologists in the field of “implicit social cognition” study “implicit attitudes” toward consumer products, self-esteem, food, alcohol, political values, and more, the most striking and well-known research has focused on implicit attitudes toward members of socially stigmatized groups, such as African-Americans, women, and the LGBTQ community.[1] For example, imagine Frank, who explicitly believes that women and men are equally (...)
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  2. Rationalizing Flow: Agency in Skilled Unreflective Action.Michael Brownstein - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (2):545-568.
    In recent work, Peter Railton, Julia Annas, and David Velleman aim to reconcile the phenomenon of “flow”—broadly understood as describing the “unreflective” aspect of skilled action—with one or another familiar conception of agency. While there are important differences between their arguments, Railton, Annas, and Velleman all make, or are committed to, at least one similar pivotal claim. Each argues, directly or indirectly, that agents who perform skilled unreflective actions can, in principle, accurately answer “Anscombean” questions—”what” and “why” questions— about what (...)
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  3.  85
    Doing Without Believing: Intellectualism, Knowledge-How, and Belief-Attribution.Michael Brownstein & Eliot Michaelson - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9):2815–2836.
    We consider a range of cases—both hypothetical and actual—in which agents apparently know how to \ but fail to believe that the way in which they in fact \ is a way for them to \. These “no-belief” cases present a prima facie problem for Intellectualism about knowledge-how. The problem is this: if knowledge-that entails belief, and if knowing how to \ just is knowing that some w is a way for one to \, then an agent cannot both know (...)
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  4. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and the Taxonomy of the Implicit Social Mind.Alex Madva & Michael Brownstein - 2018 - Noûs 52 (3):611-644.
    How do cognition and affect interact to produce action? Research in intergroup psychology illuminates this question by investigating the relationship between stereotypes and prejudices about social groups. Yet it is now clear that many social attitudes are implicit. This raises the question: how does the distinction between cognition and affect apply to implicit mental states? An influential view—roughly analogous to a Humean theory of action—is that “implicit stereotypes” and “implicit prejudices” constitute two separate constructs, reflecting different mental processes and neural (...)
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  5. Attributionism and Moral Responsibility for Implicit Bias.Michael Brownstein - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):765-786.
    Implicit intergroup biases have been shown to impact social behavior in many unsettling ways, from disparities in decisions to “shoot” black and white men in a computer simulation to unequal gender-based evaluations of résumés and CVs. It is a difficult question whether, and in what way, agents are responsible for behaviors affected by implicit biases. I argue that in paradigmatic cases agents are responsible for these behaviors in the sense that the behavior is “attributable” to them. That is, behaviors affected (...)
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  6. The Normativity of Automaticity.Michael Brownstein & Alex Madva - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (4):410-434.
    While the causal contributions of so-called ‘automatic’ processes to behavior are now widely acknowledged, less attention has been given to their normative role in the guidance of action. We develop an account of the normativity of automaticity that responds to and builds upon Tamar Szabó Gendler's account of ‘alief’, an associative and arational mental state more primitive than belief. Alief represents a promising tool for integrating psychological research on automaticity with philosophical work on mind and action, but Gendler errs in (...)
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  7. Context and the Ethics of Implicit Bias.Michael Brownstein - 2016 - In Implicit Bias and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
  8.  29
    Self-Control and Overcontrol: Conceptual, Ethical, and Ideological Issues in Positive Psychology.Michael Brownstein - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (3):585-606.
    In what they call their “manual of the sanities”—a positive psychology handbook describing contemporary research on strengths of character—Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman argue that “there is no true disadvantage of having too much self-control.” This claim is widely endorsed in the research literature. I argue that it is false. My argument proceeds in three parts. First, I identify conceptual confusion in the definition of self-control, specifically as it pertains to the claim that you cannot be too self-controlled. Second, I (...)
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  9. Conceptuality and Practical Action: A Critique of Charles Taylor's Verstehen Social Theory.Michael Brownstein - 2010 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (1):59-83.
    In their recent debate, Hubert Dreyfus rejects John McDowell’s claim that perception is permeated with "mindedness" and argues instead that ordinary embodied coping is largely "nonconceptual." This argument has important, yet largely unacknowledged consequences for normative social theory, which this article demonstrates through a critique of Charles Taylor’s Verstehen thesis. If Dreyfus is right that "the enemy of expertise is thought," then Taylor is denied his defense against charges of relativism, which is that maximizing the interpretive clarity of social practices (...)
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  10. Merleau-Ponty Between Subjectivity and Power.Michael Brownstein - 2008 - Theory and Event 11 (3).
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  11.  40
    The Background, the Body and the Internet.Michael Brownstein - 2011 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1):36-48.
    In recent years, Hubert Dreyfus has put forward a critique of the social and cultural effects of the Internet on modern societies based on the value of what he calls “the background” of largely tacit and unarticulated social norms. While Dreyfus is right to turn to the “background” in order to understand the effects of the Internet on society and culture, his unequivocally negative conclusions are unwarranted. I argue that a modified account of the background – one more attuned to (...)
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  12.  34
    Rawls, Foucault, Michael Moore, and 50 Cent on the Terms of Democratic Discourse.Michael Brownstein - 2007 - International Studies in Philosophy 39 (2):1-16.
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  13.  4
    The Marginal World of Ōe Kenzaburo: A Study in Themes and TechniquesThe Marginal World of Oe Kenzaburo: A Study in Themes and Techniques.Michael C. Brownstein & Michiko N. Wilson - 1988 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 108 (1):147.
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  14.  3
    Changing and Unchanging Conceptions of Information.Michael Brownstein - 2007 - Glimpse 9:58-63.
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  15.  3
    Do Circulating Cells Transdifferentiate and Replenish Stem Cell Pools in the Brain and Periphery?Éva Mezey & Michael J. Brownstein - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (4):398-402.
  16.  1
    The Background, the Body and the Internet: Locating Practical Understanding in Digital Culture.Michael Brownstein - 2011 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1):36-48.
    In recent years, Hubert Dreyfus has put forward a critique of the social and cultural effects of the Internet on modern societies based on the value of what he calls “the background” of largely tacit and unarticulated social norms. While Dreyfus is right to turn to the “background” in order to understand the effects of the Internet on society and culture, his unequivocally negative conclusions are unwarranted. I argue that a modified account of the background – one more attuned to (...)
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  17. Book Review. [REVIEW]Michael Brownstein - 1988 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 108 (1):147-148.
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  18. Implicit Attitudes, Social Learning, and Moral Credibility.Michael Brownstein - 2016 - In Julian Kiverstein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind. London: Routledge. pp. 314-335.
  19. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics.Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    There is abundant evidence that most people, often in spite of their conscious beliefs, values and attitudes, have implicit biases. 'Implicit bias' is a term of art referring to evaluations of social groups that are largely outside conscious awareness or control. These evaluations are typically thought to involve associations between social groups and concepts or roles like 'violent,' 'lazy,' 'nurturing,' 'assertive,' 'scientist,' and so on. Such associations result at least in part from common stereotypes found in contemporary liberal societies about (...)
     
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  20. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volumes 1 and 2: Metaphysics and Epistemology.Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy brings the work of leading philosophers and psychologists together to explore core areas of psychological research on implicit bias, as well as the ramifications of implicit bias for core areas of philosophy. Volume I: Metaphysics and Epistemology addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions on implicit bias, including the effect of implicit bias on scientific research, gender stereotypes in philosophy, and the role of heuristics in biased reasoning. Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics explores the (...)
     
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  21. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volumes 1 and 2: Metaphysics and Epistemology; Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. [REVIEW]Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people show unconscious bias in their evaluations of social groups, in ways that may run counter to their conscious beliefs. Volume 1 addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions on this kind of implicit bias, while Volume 2 turns to the themes of moral responsibility and injustice.
     
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  22. The Implicit Mind: Cognitive Architecture, the Self, and Ethics.Michael Brownstein - 2018 - Oup Usa.
    The central contention of The Implicit Mind is that understanding the two faces of spontaneity-its virtues and vices-requires understanding the "implicit mind." In turn, Michael Brownstein maintains that understanding the implicit mind requires the consideration of three sets of questions. First, what are implicit mental states? What kind of cognitive structure do they have? Second, how should we relate to our implicit attitudes? Are we responsible for them? Third, how can we improve the ethics of our implicit minds?
     
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  23. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology.Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people show unconscious bias in their evaluations of social groups, in ways that may run counter to their conscious beliefs. This volume addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions about implicit bias, including its effect on scientific research, gender stereotypes in philosophy, and the role of heuristics in biased reasoning.
     
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